2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Hugh L. White
Hugh Lawson White was an American politician from Mississippi and a member of the Democratic Party. He served two non-consecutive terms as Governor of Mississippi. White was born near McComb and attended the University of Mississippi where he was a member of St. Anthony Hall. White was a wealthy industrialist and had been mayor of Columbia when he was first elected to the governorship, serving from 1926 until 1936. In 1936 he established the Balance Agriculture With Industry program that sought to develop an industrial base that matched the state's agricultural base. Under BAWI, advertising and incentives were deployed in hopes of enticing industries to locate to the state. Local governments could issue bonds to construct factories. After leaving office due to term limits, White was a delegate representing Mississippi at the 1948 Democratic National Convention; when Mayor of Minneapolis Hubert Humphrey urged the Democratic Party to "get out of the shadow of states' rights and walk forthrightly into the bright sunshine of human rights", White and the other delegates from Mississippi and Alabama walked out of the convention.
White and these delegates formed the Dixiecrat Party. In 1951, White won a second term. During the 1940s and early 1950s, federal courts made a series of decisions that indicated that the notion of "separate but equal" schools would soon be declared unconstitutional. Governor White and the state legislature prepared for that possibility by creating plans that sought to improve black schools. Among the proposals were increasing black teacher salaries to match white teachers' and building black schools on par with white schools. White called one hundred of the state's black leaders to a meeting at the capital to ask for their support of the plan. Much to his surprise, they overwhelmingly rejected his "voluntary" segregation plan and instead stated that they wanted only an integrated school system. In 1954, the U. S. Supreme Court made the famous Brown v. Board of Education decision that declared the practice of "separate but equal" to be unconstitutional. On August 28, 1955, towards the end of White's term as governor, the infamous murder of Emmett Till took place.
Three months earlier, an African American minister, George W. Lee, had been shot and killed by a group of white racists who drove by in an automobile; the vice president of the Regional Council of Negro Leadership and an NAACP worker, Lee had been urging African-Americans in the Mississippi Delta to register and vote. The killer was never identified because White refused to order an official investigation. Hugh White State Park, a Mississippi state park, is named for him; the Keys Hill Historic District, Broad Street, was added to the National Register of Historic Places, including White's former home, the Hugh Lawson White Mansion, for its association with him. Hugh L. White at Find a Grave Mississippi Governor Hugh Lawson White from the National Governors Association website at the Wayback Machine
Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most 34th most populous of the 50 United States, it is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of 167,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city; the state is forested outside the Mississippi Delta area, the area between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, as the waterways were critical for transportation. Large gangs of slaves were used to work on cotton plantations. After the war, freedmen began to clear the bottomlands to the interior, in the process selling off timber and buying property. By the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Delta's property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after the financial crisis, which occurred when blacks were facing increasing racial discrimination and disfranchisement in the state.
Clearing of the land for plantations altered the Delta's ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi by taking out trees and bushes that had absorbed excess waters. Much land is now held by agribusinesses. A rural state with agricultural areas dominated by industrial farms, Mississippi is ranked low or last among the states in such measures as health, educational attainment, median household income; the state's catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States. Since the 1930s and the Great Migration of African Americans to the North and West, the majority of Mississippi's population has been white, although the state still has the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were majority black, before the American Civil War that population was composed of African-American slaves. Democratic Party whites retained political power through disfranchisement and Jim Crow laws.
In the first half of the 20th century, nearly 400,000 rural blacks left the state for work and opportunities in northern and midwestern cities, with another wave of migration around World War II to West Coast cities. In the early 1960s, Mississippi was the poorest state in the nation, with 86% of its non-whites living below the poverty level. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state. Since regaining enforcement of their voting rights in the late 1960s, most African Americans have supported Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party. African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic slave settlement during the plantation era; the state's name is derived from the Mississippi River. Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of Mexico.
In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Grenada Lake with the largest lake being Sardis Lake. Mississippi is composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, 807 feet above sea level; the lowest point is sea level at the Gulf Coast. The state's mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain; the coastal plain is composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state; the northeast is a region of fertile black earth. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis and Pascagoula, it is separated from the Gulf of Mexico proper by the shallow Mississippi Sound, sheltered by Petit Bois Island, Horn Island and West Ship Islands, Deer Island, Round Island, Cat Island.
The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The plain widens north of Vicksburg; the region has rich soil made up of silt, deposited by the flood waters of the Mississippi River. Areas under the management of the National Park Service include: Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site near Baldwyn Gulf Islands National Seashore Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail in Tupelo Natchez Trace Parkway Tupelo National Battlefield in Tupelo Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery in Vicksburg Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer than 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer than 20,000: Mississippi has a humid
Mississippi's 2nd congressional district
Mississippi's 2nd congressional district is the only majority-black district in the U. S. state. The district includes most of Jackson, the riverfront cities of Greenville and Vicksburg and the interior market cities of Clarksdale and Clinton; the district is 275 miles long, 180 miles wide and borders the Mississippi River. The district is home to four of Mississippi's eight public four-year colleges and universities: Alcorn State University in Lorman. All are members of the Southwestern Athletic Conference. From statehood to the election of 1846, Mississippi elected representatives at-large statewide on a general ticket; this favored candidates who could command a majority of the voters consisting of white men of property. Following Reconstruction, the Democratic Party regained control of the state legislature and worked to reduce Republican voting strength in the state, it redefined congressional districts, creating a'shoestring' congressional district running the length of the Mississippi River and taking in the black-majority areas of the Mississippi Delta.
By this gerrymandering, they created five other districts with white majorities. Election campaigns were accompanied by fraud and violence as Democrats tried to reduce black Republican voting; the Democratic-dominated legislature passed a new constitution in 1890, with barriers to voter registration and other measures that disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites for decades, subduing the Republican and Populist movements of the late 19th century. The legislature has redefined congressional districts over the years to reflect population changes in the state. Districts 5 through 8 were reallocated to the 3rd and 4th; the 2nd, bounded by the Mississippi River on the west, continues to have a black-majority population. Since the 20th-century realignment of political parties in the South following passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided federal oversight and enforcement to protect voting, African-American residents here have supported Democratic party candidates.
On the other hand, most white conservatives have shifted into the Republican Party, which dominates the legislature. The district is one of the poorest in the state, with 26.2% of people in poverty as of 2017. The district's current Representative is Democrat Bennie Thompson. Mississippi's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
U.S. Route 51
U. S. Route 51 is a major south-north United States highway that extends 1,277 miles from the western suburbs of New Orleans, Louisiana, to within 150 feet of the Wisconsin–Michigan state line. Much of the highway in Illinois and southern Wisconsin runs parallel to or is cosigned with Interstate 39 and much of the route in several states parallels the Illinois Central Railroad; the highway's northern terminus is between Hurley and Ironwood, where it ends with a T interchange at US 2. Its southern terminus is Laplace, ending at US 61. In addition to singing about US 61 on his album Highway 61 Revisited, musician Bob Dylan commemorated US 51, covering the folk song "Highway 51 Blues", earlier recorded by both Curtis Jones and Tommy McClennan, on his eponymous album Bob Dylan; the North Mississippi Allstars paid tribute to the highway in the title track of their album 51 Phantom. In Memphis, all of US 51 south of South Parkway East was renamed from Bellevue Boulevard to Elvis Presley Boulevard. Graceland sits in the subdivision of Whitehaven.
In 2004, the six states that US 51 traverses banded together as the Explore Hwy 51 Coalition to help promote this "All-American Road". The group now offers visitor information for traveling the length of the road. US 51 crosses the Mississippi–Louisiana border a few miles north of Kentwood and continues to parallel I-55 until just below its interchanges with Louisiana Highway 3234 and US 190 it joins I-55 just south of Hammond at exit 28. From Hammond, the two highways, running concurrently, cross the swamps between Ponchatoula and Laplace on viaducts to I-10, where I-55 ends; the old highway is still used for local traffic. US 51 continues southwestward into Laplace where it meets its end at US 61. In the 1930s, this highway was called Jefferson Davis Highway. Before the construction of I-55, US 51 was routed along what is now US 51 Business between Hammond and Ponchatoula. US 51 Business ends at the joined I-55/US 51 south of Ponchatoula. From this point southward, while US 51 is joined with I-55, the former routing of US 51 lies at ground level just to the east of I-55/US 51 and carries no designation.
While the southern terminus of US 51 is in Laplace at U. S. 61, it was once co-signed with U. S. 61 into downtown New Orleans. However, it was slated to head toward New Orleans along the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain via the New Orleans–Hammond Highway, never completed. US 51 enters Mississippi from Tennessee at Southaven and parallels Interstate 55 to the east for much of its length, except for the section between the Tennessee line and Grenada, where it parallels the highway to the west. From Memphis, US 51 passes through Senatobia, Grenada and Canton before reaching Jackson. At the Jackson-Ridgeland line, US 51 overlaps I-55 from Exit 103 to Exit 96A downtown; the split is only temporary as the highway traverses Pearl and State streets and meets I-55 again at Exit 93. The Natchez Trace Parkway is crossed near Clinton; the two highways run together until Exit 72. The highway parallels the interstate through Hazlehurst, Brookhaven and McComb until it reaches the Louisiana border; the Mississippi section of US 51 is defined at Mississippi Code Annotated § 65-3-3.
US 51 up to the Kentucky border in the Mississippi valley. It is planned to be bypassed by Interstate 69 through Tennessee. U. S 51 enters Kentucky at Fulton, continues north through the towns of Clinton and Wickliffe to the Ohio River, where it is multiplexed with U. S highways 60 and 62 over the Ohio. US 51 enters Illinois from Kentucky at the town of Cairo; the route heads northbound to a village near Cairo called Mounds, begins to overlap I-57, following it for 24 miles to Dongola, before splitting and heading north. The route remains two lanes from Dongola to just before Assumption with the exception of a 10-mile section between Centralia and I-64. Past Assumption, US 51 becomes an expressway to Decatur. In Decatur, US 51 follows I-72 to bypass town. US 51 leaves I-72 after eight miles, heads north to Bloomington–Normal as an expressway. At Bloomington–Normal, US 51 follows I-74 for a mile I-55 for seven miles, before following I-39 for 140 miles. US 51 follows I-39, intersecting I-88 along the way.
The highway follows US 20 south of Rockford. I-39/US 51 joins I-90, making US 51 of the only toll roads in Illinois, a U. S. Highway. US 51 exits I-39/I-90 just a mile south of the Wisconsin state line. US 51 follows Illinois Route 75 west to the intersection of IL 251 turns north through South Beloit to enter Wisconsin. In the state of Wisconsin, US 51 enters from Illinois at Beloit. US 51 splits off from I-39/I-90 in South Beloit and continues north through Janesville and Edgerton. In Edgerton, US 51 rejoins I-39/I-90 for 3.5 miles before splitting off towards Stoughton and McFarland. US 51 runs parallel to I-39/I-90 through the eastern portion of Madison, crosses the Interstate in DeForest, rejoins I-39 again at Portage. US 51 runs concurrently with I-39 until I-39's terminus in Wausau and continues on as a mixture of freeway and expressway until just north of the interchange with US 8. From there through Hazelhurst, US 51 is a two-lane road with sporadic three-lane sections. US 51 expands with a central fifth turn lane from Hazelhurst to Arbor Vitae.
Lynching in the United States
Lynching is the practice of murder by a group of people by extrajudicial action. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 1800s, following the emancipation of slaves. Most lynchings were of African-American men in the South, but women were lynched, white lynchings of blacks occurred in Midwestern and border states during the 20th-century Great Migration of blacks out of the South; the purpose was to intimidate blacks through racial terrorism. On a per capita basis lynchings were common in California and the Old West of Latinos, although they represented less than 10% of the national total. Native Americans and Asian Americans were lynched. Other ethnicities, including Finnish-Americans, Jewish-Americans, German-Americans and Italian-Americans were lynched occasionally; the stereotype of a lynching is a hanging, because hangings are what crowds of people saw, are easy to photograph. Some hangings were professionally photographed and sold as postcards, which were popular souvenirs in some parts of the U.
S. Victims were killed by mobs in a variety of other ways: shot burned alive, forced to jump off a bridge, dragged behind cars, the like. Sometimes they were tortured as well, with body parts sometimes sold as souvenirs. Lynchings were not fatal. A "mock" lynching, putting the rope around the neck of someone suspected of concealing information, might be used to compel "confessions". According to the Tuskegee Institute, 4,743 people were lynched between 1882 and 1968 in the United States, including 3,446 African Americans and 1,297 whites. More than 73 percent of lynchings in the post-Civil War period occurred in the Southern states. According to the Equal Justice Initiative, 4,084 African-Americans were lynched between 1877 and 1950 in the South. Lynchings were most frequent from 1890 to the 1920s, with a peak in 1892. Lynchings were large mob actions, attended by hundreds or thousands of watchers; as in the case of Ell Parsons, they were sometimes announced in advance in newspapers and in one instance with a special train.
However, in the 20th century lynchings became more secretive, were conducted by smaller groups of people. According to Michael Pfeifer, the prevalence of lynching in postbellum America reflects lack of confidence in the "due process" judicial system, he links the decline in lynching in the early twentieth century with "the advent of the modern death penalty": "legislators renovated the death penalty...out of direct concern for the alternative of mob violence". He cites "the modern, racialized excesses of urban police forces in the twentieth century and after" as having characteristics of lynching. "More black people killed by cops in 2015 than were lynched in the worst year of Jim Crow."On April 26, 2018, in Montgomery, The National Memorial for Peace and Justice opened. Founded by the Equal Justice Initiative of that city, it is the first large memorial to document lynchings of African Americans in the United States. After the Reconstruction era, most of the South was politically dominated by white Democrats.
Lynchings were used to intimidate blacks by racial terrorism. The rate of lynchings in the South has been associated with economic strains, although the causal nature of this link is unclear. Low cotton prices and economic stress are associated with higher frequencies of lynching; the granting of U. S. Constitutional rights to freedmen after the American Civil War the vote, was resisted by many white Southerners; some blamed the freedmen for their own wartime hardships, post-war economic losses, loss of social and political privilege. During Reconstruction and white people working for civil rights were attacked and sometimes lynched. Black voting was suppressed by violence as well as by poll taxes and literacy tests. White Democrats regained control of state legislatures in 1876, a national compromise resulted in the removal of federal troops from the South in 1877. In decades, violence continued around elections until blacks were disfranchised by the states from 1885 to 1908 through constitutional changes and laws that created barriers to voter registration across the South.
White Democrats enacted Jim Crow laws to enforce blacks' second-class status. During this period that spanned the late 19th and early 20th centuries, lynchings reached a peak in the South. Florida led the nation in lynchings per capita from 1900 to 1930. Georgia led the nation in lynchings from 1900 to 1931 with 302 incidents, according to The Tuskegee Institute. Lynchings peaked in many areas when it was time for landowners to settle accounts with sharecroppers. There is no count of recorded lynchings which claims to be precise, the numbers vary depending on the sources, the years considered, the definition used to define an incident; the Tuskegee Institute has recorded 3,446 blacks and 1,297 whites being lynched between 1882 and 1968, with the annual peak occurring in the 1890s, at a time of economic stress in the South and increasing political suppression of blacks. A five-year study published in 2015 by the Equal Justice Initiative found that nearly 3,959 black men and children were lynched in the twelve Southern states between 1877 and 1950.
Over this period Georgia's 586 lynchings led all states. African Americans mounted resistance to lynchings in numerous ways. Intellectuals and journalists encouraged public education protesting and lobbying against lynch mob violence and gover
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com