American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Dunbar Cave State Park
Dunbar Cave State Park is a 110 acre park in Clarksville, situated around Dunbar Cave. Dunbar Cave is the 280th largest cave complex in the world, stretching 8.067 miles inward. In front of the cave entrance is a large concrete poured structure with three distinct arches; the cave is located in an area of karst topography, including sinkholes and limestone bedrock. The manmade Swan Lake sits in front of the cave. In March 2010 the cave was closed to tours and visitors because a bat infected with White nose syndrome was found in the cave; however as of August 2015 cave tours are back open again. The entrance to Dunbar Cave was inhabited by local prehistoric peoples for thousands of years before settlers arrived. In the late 1970s a team of archaeologists found artifacts dating back to the Paleo Indian time, from 10000–8000 B. C; the bulk of artifacts found were dated to the Archaic time, from 8000–1000 B. C; the area, while still inhabited during the Woodland time, from 1000 B. C. – 800 A. D. was not as populated due to the fact that the Native Americans at this time had started to rely on growing crops, the land around the Red River and Cumberland River were more conducive to growing crops than the rocky terrain around the cave.
During the Mississippian era, from 800–1550 A. D. the cave was used by Native Americans for ceremonial purposes. There have been pictographs found in the cave depicting religious symbols indicating that the cave was believed to be an important spiritual location. By 1784 it had been claimed by Thomas Dunbar, who never got the deed. Sometime around 1790, a land surveyor named Robert Nelsen realized this and claimed the land for his own. A legal battle ensued, in 1792 the US Government awarded the land to Robert Nelsen, the Dunbar family was removed from the land, although the cave retained Dunbar's name. During the Mexican–American War, the cave was used to mine saltpeter for gunpowder. In 1858, developers saw the potential in the area, along with nearby Idaho Springs, the first cabins were built there. After the Civil War, the springs and the cave were acquired by J. A. Tate, who constructed a two-story hotel on the site. By 1931, the area had hosted numerous social events, including dances and fairs, was in need of repair and renovation.
At the time, the state had just completed a new road in front of the hotel and an opportunity arose. A couple of local businessmen cleaned up the site, adding additional recreational facilities, including a concrete swimming pool and tennis courts, restoring and expanding the size of the hotel; the existing lake was dammed up, increasing its size to 20 acres. Dunbar Cave was purchased by Roy Acuff on April 26, 1948 for $150,000; the cave was the site of musical festivities and entertainment shows, which would host big bands like Benny Goodman's and Tommy Dorsey's. Acuff added a golf course adjacent to the lake. Over time the popularity of the cave and surrounding area declined, the hotel burned in 1950 and was not rebuilt. Dunbar Cave was purchased by McKay King in 1963. King operated the Dunbar Cave property until his death in 1971; the swimming pool was closed in 1967. The cave was inherited by his widow. In 1973, the State of Tennessee, under Governor Winfield Dunn, purchased Dunbar Cave from Mrs. McKay King, to become a State Natural Area.
In 2002, the park shut down during the state's budget cutting crisis. On January 15, 2005 park specialist Amy Wallace and author Larry E. Matthews, local historian Billy Frank Morrison, history professor Joe Douglas discovered Native American petroglyphs in Dunbar Cave; the more than 30 drawings and etchings found in the cave were dated to the Mississippian era using torches and other artifacts found nearby. Some of the pictographs are religious symbols, with one depicting a Mississippian supernatural warrior, their existence was announced to the public by the State of Tennessee on July 29, 2006, during the Second Annual Dunbar Cave Day, held at the Park. Although Dunbar Cave only has a small bat population, it is still closed from September through April to allow the bats undisrupted hibernation. In March 2010, a bat with White nose syndrome was discovered by researchers from Austin Peay State University doing assessments of species diversity and roosting patterns. Based on finding the infected bat, the State of Tennessee announced on March 24, 2010 that Dunbar Cave was closed to all visitors and tours were discontinued.
Since 2006 when the disease was first discovered in New York, it has spread to Ontario, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Tennessee, causing the death of over a million bats. The US Fish & Wildlife Service has called for a moratorium on caving activities in the affected areas, recommends that any clothing or equipment used in such areas be decontaminated after each use. "Indian Glyphs Discovered In Tennessee" by Larry E. Matthews, NSS News, v. 64, no. 12, pp 10–12. "Ancient Cave Art at Dunbar Cave State Natural Area" by Jan F. Simek, Joseph C. Douglas, Amy Wallace, Tennessee Conservationist Magazine, v. 73, no. 5, pp 24–26. Dunbar Cave State Park Official Site Dunbar Cave Natural Area The Friends of Dunbar Cave
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing. Glyphs are considered to be unique marks that collectively add up to the spelling of a word or contribute to a specific meaning of what is written, with that meaning dependent on cultural and social usage. In most languages written in any variety of the Latin alphabet, the dot on a lower-case i is not a glyph because it does not convey any distinction, an i in which the dot has been accidentally omitted is still to be recognized correctly. However, in Turkish it is a glyph because that language has two distinct versions of the letter i, with and without a dot. In Japanese syllabaries, a number of the characters are made up of more than one separate mark, but in general these separate marks are not glyphs because they have no meaning by themselves. However, in some cases, additional marks fulfill the role of diacritics, to differentiate distinct characters.
Such additional marks constitute glyphs. In general, a diacritic is a glyph if it is contiguous with the rest of the character like a cedilla in French, the ogonek in several languages, or the stroke on a Polish "Ł"; some characters such as "æ" in Icelandic and the "ß" in German may be regarded as glyphs. They were ligatures, but over time have become characters in their own right. However, a ligature such as "ſi", treated in some typefaces as a single unit, is arguably not a glyph as this is just a quirk of the typeface an allographic feature, includes more than one grapheme. In normal handwriting long words are written "joined up", without the pen leaving the paper, the form of each written letter will vary depending on which letters precede and follow it, but that does not make the whole word into a single glyph. Two or more glyphs which have the same significance, whether used interchangeably or chosen depending on context, are called allographs of each other; the term has been used in English since 1727, borrowed from glyphe, from the Greek γλυφή, glyphē, "carving," and the verb γλύφειν, glýphein, "to hollow out, carve".
The word hieroglyph has a longer history in English, dating from an early use in an English to Italian dictionary published by John Florio in 1598, referencing the complex and mysterious characters of the Egyptian alphabet. The word glyph first came to widespread European attention with the engravings and lithographs from Frederick Catherwood's drawings of undeciphered glyphs of the Maya civilization in the early 1840s. In graphonomics, the term glyph is used for a noncharacter, i.e. either a subcharacter or multicharacter pattern. Most typographic glyphs originate from the characters of a typeface. In a typeface each character corresponds to a single glyph, but there are exceptions, such as a font used for a language with a large alphabet or complex writing system, where one character may correspond to several glyphs, or several characters to one glyph. In archaeology, a glyph is a inscribed symbol, it may be part of a writing system such as a syllable, or a logogram. A glyph is "the specific shape, design, or representation of a character".
It is a particular graphical representation, in a particular typeface, of an element of written language, which could be a grapheme, or part of a grapheme, or sometimes several graphemes in combination. If there is more than one allograph of a unit of writing, the choice between them depends on context or on the preference of the author, they now have to be treated as separate glyphs, because mechanical arrangements have to be available to differentiate between them and to print whichever of them is required; the same is true in computing. In computing as well as typography, the term "character" refers to a grapheme or grapheme-like unit of text, as found in natural language writing systems. In typography and computing, the range of graphemes is broader than in a written language in other ways too: a typographical font has to cope with a range of different languages each of which contribute their own graphemes, it may be required to print other symbols such as dingbats; the range of glyphs required increases correspondingly.
In summary, in typography and computing, a glyph is a graphical unit. Character encoding Complex text layout HTML decimal character rendering Letterform Palaeography, the study of ancient writing Punchcutting The dictionary definition of glyph at Wiktionary Media related to Glyphs at Wikimedia Commons
Clarksville metropolitan area
The Clarksville Metropolitan Statistical Area is defined by the United States Census Bureau as an area consisting of four counties – two in Tennessee and two in Kentucky – anchored by the city of Clarksville, Tennessee. A July 1, 2009 estimate placed the population at 268,546; as of 2009, the Clarksville Metropolitan Statistical Area is the 167th largest MSA in the United States. Prior to 2003, the area was known as the Clarksville-Hopkinsville Metropolitan Statistical Area and included only Montgomery and Christian counties. In 2003, Hopkinsville was removed from the official name as it was no longer considered a principal city; that year and Trigg counties were added to the MSA. Montgomery County, Tennessee Stewart County, Tennessee Christian County, Kentucky Trigg County, Kentucky Clarksville, Tennessee Hopkinsville, Kentucky Fort Campbell North, Kentucky Oak Grove, Kentucky Cadiz, Kentucky Dover, Tennessee Tennessee Ridge, Tennessee Crofton, Kentucky Cumberland City, Tennessee LaFayette, Kentucky Pembroke, Kentucky Bumpus Mills, Tennessee Canton, Kentucky Cerulean, Kentucky Cunningham, Tennessee Dotsonville, Tennessee Excell, Tennessee Fairview, Christian County, Kentucky Fearsville, Kentucky Fredonia, Tennessee Gracey, Kentucky Herndon, Kentucky Kelly, Kentucky Needmore, Tennessee Oakridge, Tennessee Oakwood, Tennessee Orgains Crossroads, Tennessee Palmyra, Tennessee Port Royal, Tennessee Rockcastle, Kentucky Rossview, Tennessee Sango, Tennessee Southside, Tennessee Shiloh, Montgomery County, Tennessee Sailors Rest, Tennessee Tarsus, Tennessee Wallonia, Kentucky Woodlawn, Tennessee As of the census of 2000, there were 232,000 people, 83,332 households, 61,719 families residing within the MSA.
The racial makeup of the MSA was 74.16% White, 19.13% African American, 0.51% Native American, 1.43% Asian, 0.23% Pacific Islander, 1.98% from other races, 2.55% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.61% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $33,869, the median income for a family was $39,451. Males had a median income of $29,506 versus $21,849 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $16,341. Tennessee census statistical areas Kentucky census statistical areas City of Clarksville, Tennessee – Official site. Census.gov 1990–2000 Comparison Chart PDF
During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States of America as a working, viable republic; the Union Army was made up of the permanent regular army of the United States, but further fortified and strengthened by the many temporary units of dedicated volunteers as well as including those who were drafted in to service as conscripts. To this end, the Union Army fought and triumphed over the efforts of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. Over the course of the war, 2,128,948 men enlisted in the Union Army, including 178,895 colored troops. Of these soldiers, 596,670 were wounded or went missing; the initial call-up was for just three months, after which many of these men chose to reenlist for an additional three years. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,367 men in the U.
S. Army, including 1,108 commissioned officers. 20% of these officers, most of them Southerners, choosing to tie their lives and fortunes to the Army of the Confederacy. In addition 200 West Point graduates who had left the Army, including Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, Braxton Bragg, would return to service at the outbreak of the war; this group's loyalties were far more divided, with 92 donning Confederate gray and 102 putting on the blue of the Union Army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, three of mounted infantry; the regiments were scattered widely. Of the 197 companies in the army, 179 occupied 79 isolated posts in the West, the remaining 18 manned garrisons east of the Mississippi River along the Canada–United States border and on the Atlantic coast. With the Southern slave states declaring secession from the Union, with this drastic shortage of men in the army, President Abraham Lincoln called on the states to raise a force of 75,000 men for three months to put down this subversive insurrection.
Lincoln's call forced the border states to choose sides, four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. It turned out that the war itself proved to be much longer and far more extensive in scope and scale than anyone on either side, Union North or Confederate South, expected or imagined at the outset on the date of July 22, 1861; that was the day that Congress approved and authorized subsidy to allow and support a volunteer army of up to 500,000 men to the cause. The call for volunteers was met by patriotic Northerners and immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals. Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania responded to Lincoln's call, the French were quick to volunteer; as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Between April 1861 and April 1865, at least 2,128,948 men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers, it is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the large percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army.
At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S. Military Academy on the active list. Of the 900 West Point graduates who were civilians, 400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283; the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers. Though officers were able to resign, enlisted soldiers did not have this right. While the total number of those is unknown, only 26 enlisted men and non-commissioned officers of the regular army are known to have left the army to join the Confederate army when the war began; the Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were organized geographically. Military division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the more modern term Theater. Department An organization that covered a defined region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein and for the field armies within their borders.
Those named for states referred to Southern states, occupied. It was more common to name departments for regions. District A subdivision of a Department
Dickson County, Tennessee
Dickson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 49,666, its county seat is Charlotte. Dickson County is part of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Dickson County is home to Tennessee's oldest courthouse in continuous use, built in 1835; this is the second courthouse in Charlotte as the first one, a log building, was destroyed in the Tornado of 1833, which destroyed all but one building on the courthouse square. October 25, 1803 the Tennessee General Assembly passed a bill creating Dickson County, the 25th of Tennessee's 95 counties, it was formed from parts of Montgomery and Robertson counties, was named for William Dickson, a Nashville physician serving in the United States Congress. Dickson never lived in the county. Dickson was a close friend of President Andrew Jackson. General James Robertson built. Robertson sold his furnace in 1804 to Montgomery Bell, who became one of the state's wealthiest capitalists and industrialists.
The Ruskin Colony was a 250-member, utopian socialist cooperative established in Dickson County in 1894. Located near Tennessee City, it relocated to what is now Ruskin. Internal conflict had brought about the dissolution of the colony by 1899; the Coming Nation, a socialist communalist paper established by Julius Augustus Wayland in Greensburg, was relocated to the Ruskin Colony. It was the forerunner of the Appeal to Reason, which became a weekly political newspaper published in the American Midwest from 1895 until 1922; the Appeal to Reason was known for its politics, giving support to the Farmers' Alliance and People's Party, before becoming a mainstay of the Socialist Party of America following its establishment in 1901. Using a network of motivated volunteers known as the "Appeal Army" to increase its subscription sales, the Appeal's paid circulation climbed to over a quarter million by 1906, half a million by 1910, making it the largest-circulation socialist newspaper in American history.
In July 1917, a mass meeting was held in the Alamo Theatre in Dickson to raise $760 to pay for the surveying of the Bristol to Memphis Highway through Dickson County. The money was raised in less than 15 minutes by donations from those present at the meeting. State highway surveyors began surveying the route on August 14, 1917; the building of this highway put the county along the route known as the “Broadway of America,” Highway 70. On November 4, 1952, Frank G. Clement of Dickson was elected Governor of Tennessee, he served as governor from 1953 to 1959, again from 1963 to 1967. Known for his energetic speaking ability, he delivered the keynote address at the 1956 Democratic National Convention; the Hotel Halbrook, where Clement was born, still stands in Dickson, has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 491 square miles, of which 490 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles is water. Dickson County is bordered on the northeast by the Cumberland River.
The Harpeth River passes along the county's eastern border. Ruskin Cave, site of the former socialist colony, is located 8 miles northwest of Dickson. Montgomery County Cheatham County Williamson County Hickman County Humphreys County Houston County Cheatham Lake Wildlife Management Area Hotel Halbrook Railroad and Local History Museum Montgomery Bell State Natural Area Montgomery Bell State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 43,156 people, 16,473 households, 12,173 families residing in the county; the population density was 88 people per square mile. There were 17,614 housing units at an average density of 36 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.25% European American, 4.58% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from other races, 1.01% from two or more races. 1.12% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 16,473 households out of which 35.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.30% were married couples living together, 11.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.10% were non-families.
22.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 30.70% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,056, the median income for a family was $45,575. Males had a median income of $32,252 versus $23,686 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,043. About 8.10% of families and 10.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.90% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over. By 2005 the county had a population, 92.0% non-Hispanic white, 4.4% African-American and 1.7% Latino. The 12-member county commission is the legislative body of Dickson County.
One commissioner is elected from each of the county’s 12 commission districts. The county mayor chairs the commission. Commissioners are charged with appropriating funds for the county departments, setting the prope
Clarksville is the county seat of Montgomery County, United States. It is the fifth-largest city in the state behind Nashville, Memphis and Chattanooga; the city had a population of 132,929 at the 2010 census, an estimated population of 153,205 in 2017. It is the principal central city of the Clarksville, TN–KY metropolitan statistical area, which consists of Montgomery and Stewart Counties in Tennessee, Christian and Trigg Counties in Kentucky; the city was founded in 1785 and incorporated in 1807, named for General George Rogers Clark, frontier fighter and Revolutionary War hero, brother of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Clarksville is the home of Austin Peay State University. Site of the 101st Airborne Division, Fort Campbell is located about 10 miles from downtown Clarksville, straddling the Tennessee-Kentucky state line. While the post office for the base is located on the Kentucky side, the majority of the base's acreage is on the Tennessee side; the area now known as Tennessee was first settled by Paleo-Indians nearly 11,000 years ago.
The names of the cultural groups that inhabited the area between first settlement and the time of European contact are unknown, but several distinct cultural phases have been named by archaeologists, including Archaic and Mississippian, whose chiefdoms were the cultural predecessors of the Muscogee people who inhabited the Tennessee River Valley prior to Cherokee migration into the river's headwaters. When Spanish explorers first visited Tennessee, led by Hernando de Soto in 1539−43, it was inhabited by tribes of Muscogee and Yuchi people; because of European diseases devastating the native tribes, which would have left a population vacuum, from expanding European settlement in the north, the Cherokee moved south from the area now called Virginia. As European colonists spread into the area, the native populations were forcibly displaced to the south and west, including all Muscogee and Yuchi peoples, the Chickasaw, Choctaw. From 1838 to 1839, nearly 17,000 Cherokees were forced to march from "emigration depots" in Eastern Tennessee, such as Fort Cass, to Indian Territory west of Arkansas.
This came to be known as the Trail of Tears. The area around Clarksville was first surveyed by Thomas Hutchins in 1768, he identified Red Paint Hill, a rock bluff at the confluence of the Cumberland and Red Rivers, as a navigational landmark. In the years between 1771 and 1775, John Montgomery, the namesake of the county, along with Kasper Mansker, visited the area while on a hunting expedition. In 1771, James Robertson led a group of 12 or 13 families involved with the Regulator movement from near where present-day Raleigh, North Carolina now stands. In 1772, Robertson and the pioneers who had settled in northeast Tennessee met at Sycamore Shoals to establish an independent regional government known as the Watauga Association. However, in 1772, surveyors placed the land within the domain of the Cherokee tribe, who required negotiation of a lease with the settlers. Tragedy struck as the lease was being celebrated, when a Cherokee warrior was murdered by a white man. Through diplomacy, Robertson made peace with the Cherokee, who threatened to expel the settlers by force if necessary.
In March 1775, land speculator and North Carolina judge Richard Henderson met with more than 1,200 Cherokees at Sycamore Shoals, including Cherokee leaders such as Attacullaculla and Dragging Canoe. In the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals, Henderson purchased all the land lying between the Cumberland River, the Cumberland Mountains, the Kentucky River, situated south of the Ohio River in what is known as the Transylvania Purchase from the Cherokee Indians; the land thus delineated, 20 million acres, encompassed an area half as large as the present state of Kentucky. Henderson's purchase was in violation of North Carolina and Virginia law, as well as the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited private purchase of American Indian land. Henderson may have mistakenly believed that a newer British legal opinion had made such land purchases legal. All of present-day Tennessee was once recognized as North Carolina. Created in 1777 from the western areas of Burke and Wilkes Counties, Washington County had as a precursor a Washington District of 1775–76, the first political entity named for the Commander-in-Chief of American forces in the Revolution.
In 1779, James Robertson brought a group of settlers from upper East Tennessee via Daniel Boone's Wilderness Road. Robertson built an iron plantation in Cumberland Furnace. A year John Donelson led a group of flat boats up the Cumberland River bound for the French trading settlement, French Lick, that would be Nashville; when the boats reached Red Paint Hill, Moses Renfroe, Joseph Renfroe, Solomon Turpin, along with their families, branched off onto the Red River. They traveled to the mouth of Parson's Creek, near Port Royal, went ashore to settle down. However, an attack by Indians in the summer drove them back. Clarksville was designated as a town to be settled in part by soldiers from the disbanded Continental Army that served under General George Washington during the American Revolutionary War. At the end of the war, the federal government lacked sufficient funds to repay the soldiers, so the Legislature of North Carolina, in 1790, designated the lands to the west of the state line as federal lands that could be used