Montreal Alouettes

The Montreal Alouettes are a professional Canadian football team based in Montreal, Quebec. Founded in 1946, the team has been revived twice; the Alouettes compete in the East Division of the Canadian Football League and last won the Grey Cup championship in 2010. Their home field is Percival Molson Memorial Stadium for the regular season and as of 2014 home of their playoff games; the original Alouettes team won four Grey Cups and were dominant in the 1970s. After their collapse in 1982, they were reconstituted under new ownership as the Montreal Concordes. After playing for four years as the Concordes, they revived the Alouettes name for the 1986 season. A second folding in 1987 led to a nine-year hiatus of CFL football in the city; the current Alouettes franchise was established in 1996 by the owners of the Baltimore Stallions. The Stallions were disbanded at the same time as the Alouettes' re-establishment after having been the most successful of the CFL's American expansion franchises, culminating in a Grey Cup championship in 1995.

Many players from the Stallions' 1995 roster signed with the Alouettes and formed the core of the team's 1996 roster. For record-keeping purposes, the CFL considers all clubs that have played in Montreal as one franchise dating to 1946, considers the Alouettes to have suspended operations in 1987 before returning in 1996. Although the Alouettes' re-establishment in 1996 is considered a relocation of the Stallions, neither the league nor the Alouettes recognize the Baltimore franchise, or its records, as part of the Alouettes' official team history; the latest incarnation of the Alouettes were arguably the best CFL team of the 2000s. The Alouettes had from 1996 to 2014 the CFL's longest active playoff streak, only having missed the playoffs three times since returning to the league; the streak came to an end in 2015. They have hosted a playoff game every year except 2001, 2007, 2013, from 2015 to 2018, their five losing seasons came in 2007, 2013 and from 2015 to 2018. The 2015 through 2018 Alouettes' seasons marked the first time the team missed the playoffs in consecutive years since their re-activation.

Major stars of the recent era include Mike Pringle, the CFL career leader in rushing yards, quarterback Anthony Calvillo, who leads all of pro football in career passing yards. The Alouettes are owned by Crawford Steel executives Sid Spiegel and Gary Stern, who took over the team on January 6, 2020. Prior to selling the team to the league, Wetenhall was the league's only remaining non-Canadian owner. Canadian football has a long history in Montreal, dating to the 1850s; the Alouettes were first formed in 1946 by Canadian Football Hall of Famer Lew Hayman along with businessmen Eric Cradock and Léo Dandurand. They named themselves after "Alouette", a work song about plucking the feathers from a skylark, which had become a symbol of the Québécois; the origin of the team’s name comes from the 425 Tactical Fighter Squadron – the Royal Canadian Air Force’s first French Canadian squadron. They won their first Grey Cup championship in 1949, beating Calgary 28–15 led by quarterback Frank Filchock and running back Virgil Wagner.

The 1950s were a productive decade for the Als, with quarterback Sam Etcheverry throwing passes to John "Red" O'Quinn, "Prince" Hal Patterson, with Pat Abbruzzi carrying the ball, Montreal fielded the most dangerous offence in all Canadian football. From 1954 to 1956, they reached the Grey Cup in three straight years, but questionable defensive units led the Alouettes to defeat against the Edmonton Eskimos all three times; the team was purchased in 1954 by Ted Workman – and while the team continued to enjoy success, that all changed at the end of the 1960 season. To be more specific, the team was shaken by an announcement on November 10 – namely the trade of Hal Patterson and Sam Etcheverry to the Hamilton Tiger-Cats for Bernie Faloney and Don Paquette. Workman had concluded the deal without consulting with general manager Perry Moss; the deal fell apart because Etcheverry had just signed a new contract with a no-trade clause. The deal was reworked and Patterson was traded for Paquette. Sam Etcheverry went on to play in the NFL with the St. Louis Cardinals for 2 years followed by the San Francisco 49ers in 1963.

Faloney remained in Hamilton, teamed with Patterson to form one of the most deadly quarterback-receiver combinations in CFL history. This episode remains one of the most lopsided trades made in the Alouettes history, it ushered in a dark decade for the team. During that time, they failed to register a single winning season. From 1968 to 1976 the team played in the Autostade stadium—which had been built as a temporary stadium for Expo 67; the stadium's less-than-desirable location on Montreal's waterfront near the Victoria Bridge led to dismal attendance, putting more strain on the team's finances. The Als bottomed out in 1969, finishing 2–12. After that season, Workman sold the team to the capable Sam Berger, a former part-owner of the Ottawa Rough Riders. Berger made immediate changes to the team. On December 9, the team announced that Sam Etcheverry was returning to the organization—this time as the team's new head coach; the team unveiled new uniforms—their home jerseys were now predominantly green, with red and white trim.

The white helmets with the red "wings" used during the 1960s disappeared, replaced by a white helmet with a

For the Record (Torae album)

For the Record is the debut studio album by American rapper Torae, released on November 1, 2011 via his own imprint Internal Affairs Entertainment, in conjunction with Fat Beats Distribution. It was preceded by the collaborative project Double Barrel in 2009 with producer Marco Polo; the album was executive produced by Torae, along with Amber Ravenel. The music production was handled by renowned beatsmiths DJ Premier, Large Professor, Diamond D, Pete Rock, as well as 9th Wonder and Marco Polo among others; the sole guest appearances are provided by Pav Bundy and MeLa Machinko. The album was mastered by Ricardo Gutierrez at Stadium Red in New York City; the album was supported by two singles – "That Raw" produced by Pete Rock, "Do the Math" produced by Large Professor. Upon its release, For the Record received genenerally favorable reviews from music critics. In his review for HipHopSite. Com, Nene Wallace Reed observed; the combination of the three make the album a winner. For the Record is not only a strong introduction to Torae as an individual, it's out and out one of the best albums of 2011."

Jeff Leon of KevinNottingham wrote, "Torae delivers a solid ode to Hip Hop and a declaration of who he is and where he wants to go. Not all the beats on the record work and the emcee still has room to grow, but with this one, Torae leaves an indelible mark and shows that he's well on his way to becoming a Hip Hop heavyweight."RapReviews founder Steve "Flash" Juon wrote, "There is nothing bad or whack about For the Record, so it may just be that at only 48 minutes long I'm disappointed there wasn't more content. Again it may be that Torae suffers from Brooklynite soundalike syndrome, because to some degree he comes across like a less charismatic Jay-Z or Saigon, as dope as his lines are they are lacking in forceful intent." Will Georgi wasn't hesitant to dub the album a classic. Writing for Okayplayer, he believed that "For the Record is the sound of a sharp MC rhyming over some dope beats from some of the best producers in the scene. If that doesn't make it a classic record, I don't know what is."

DJBooth reviewer Nathan S. wrote, "It'd be a mistake to stick the ol"underground' label on For the Record – you don't have to have a backpack full of Krylon to enjoy it – but it's safe to say Torae's not aiming for crossover radio success. This is a hip-hop album for people who love hip-hop and who want to hear the music they love, not the music a radio programmer thinks they should love." Sample credits "Shakedown" contains a sample of "Legend of the Ninja" as performed by Alfredo Chen Singers. Credits for For the Record adapted from AllMusic

Swami Shraddhanand

Swami Shraddhanand known as Mahatma Munshi Ram Vij, was an Indian educationist and an Arya Samaj missionary who propagated the teachings of Dayananda Saraswati. This included the establishment of educational institutions, like the Gurukul Kangri University, played a key role on the Sangathan and the Shuddhi, a Hindu reform movement in the 1920s, he was born on 22 February 1856 in the village of Talwan in the Jalandhar District of the Punjab Province of India. He was the youngest child in the family of Lala Nanak Chand, a Police Inspector in the United Provinces administered by the East India Company, his given name was Brihaspati Vij, but he was called Munshi Ram Vij by his father, a name that stayed with him till he took sanyas in 1917, variously as Lala Munshi Ram Vij and Mahatma Munshi Ram. He adopted atheism after a few incidents, such as when he was prevented from entering the temple while a noble woman was praying, he was witness to a "compromising" situation involving a church's father with a nun, the attempted rape of a young devotee by pontiffs of the Krishna cult, the suspicious death of a little girl at the home of a Muslim lawyer.

All of these events cemented his atheism. He passed mukhtari exams and began studying to become a lawyer, he first met. His father was handling arrangements and security at the events, due to the attendance of some prominent personalities and British officers. Munshiram attend the lectures at his father's request, he went with the intent of spoiling the arrangements claimed to be influenced by Dayanand's courage and strong personality. After completing his studies Munshiram started his practice as lawyer. In 1892 Arya Samaj was split into two factions after a controversy over whether to make Vedic education the core curriculum at the DAV College Lahore, he formed the Punjab Arya Samaj. The Arya Samaj was divided between the DAV Section. Shraddhanand headed for Gurukuls. In 1897, when Lala Lekh Ram was assassinated, Shraddhanand succeeded him, he headed the'Punjab Arya Pratinidhi Sabha', started its monthly journal, Arya Musafir. In 1902 he established a Gurukul in India near Haridwar; this school is now recognized as Gurukul Kangri University.

In 1917, Mahatma Munshi Ram took sanyas as "Swami Shradhanand Saraswati". Shraddhanand established gurukul Indraprashtha in Aravali near Haryana. In 1917, Shraddhanand left Gurukul to become an active member of the Hindu reform movements and the Indian Independence movement, he began working with the Congress, which he invited to hold its session at Amritsar in 1919. This was because of the Jalianwala massacre, no one in the Congress Committee agreed to have a session at Amritsar. Shraddhanand presided over the session, he joined the nationwide protest against the Rowlatt Act. The same year he protested in front of a posse of Gurkha soldiers at the Clock Tower in Chandni Chowk was allowed to proceed. In the early 1920s he emerged as an important force in the Hindu Sangathan movement, a by product of the now revitalised Hindu Maha Sabha. Swami Shradhanand was the only Hindu Sanyasi who addressed a huge gathering from the minarets of the main Jama Masjid New Delhi, for national solidarity and vedic dharma starting his speech with the recitation of ved mantras.

He wrote on religious issues in both Urdu. He published newspapers in the two languages as well, he helped the poor and promoted the education of women. By 1923, he left the social arena and plunged whole-heartedly into his earlier work of the shuddhi movement, which he turned into an important force within Hinduism. In late 1923, he became the president of Bhartiya Hindu Shuddhi Sabha, created with an aim of reconverting Muslims, specifically'Malkana Rajputs' in the western United Province; this brought him into direct confrontation with Muslim leaders of the time. On 23 December 1926 he was assassinated by one named Abdul Rashid. Upon his death, Gandhi moved a condolence motion at the Guwahati session of the Congress on 25 December 1926. An excerpt from the speech in relevant part reads "If you hold dear the memory of Swami Shraddhanandji, you would help in purging the atmosphere of mutual hatred and calumny. You would help in boycotting papers which foment spread misrepresentation. I am sure that India would lose nothing if 90 per cent of the papers were to cease today...

Now you will understand why I have called Abdul Rashid a brother and I repeat it. I do not regard him as guilty of Swamiji's murder. Guilty indeed are all those. For us Hindus the Gita enjoins on us the lesson of equi-mindedness. A statue of him was placed in front of Delhi Town Hall after independence, replacing a statue of Queen Victoria; this location in Old Delhi is termed ghantaghar because the old clock tower stood here until the 1950s. Shraddhanad and his wife Shiwa Devi had two daughters, his wife died. His granddaughter Satyavati was a prominent opponent of the British rule in India; the Arya Samaj and Its Detractors: A Vindication, Rama Deva. Published by s.n, 1910. Hindu Sangathan: Saviour of the Dying Race, Published by s.n