Monument Valley

Monument Valley is a region of the Colorado Plateau characterized by a cluster of vast sandstone buttes, the largest reaching 1,000 ft above the valley floor. It is located near the Four Corners area; the valley lies within the territory of the Navajo Nation Reservation and is accessible from U. S. Highway 163. Monument Valley has been featured in many forms of media since the 1930s. Director John Ford used the location for a number of his best-known films and thus, in the words of critic Keith Phipps, "its five square miles have defined what decades of moviegoers think of when they imagine the American West." The area is part of the Colorado Plateau. The elevation of the valley floor ranges from 5,000 to 6,000 feet above sea level; the floor is siltstone of the Cutler Group, or sand derived from it, deposited by the meandering rivers that carved the valley. The valley's vivid red color comes from iron oxide exposed in the weathered siltstone; the darker, blue-gray rocks in the valley get their color from manganese oxide.

The buttes are stratified, with three principal layers. The lowest layer is the Organ Rock Shale, the middle is de Chelly Sandstone, the top layer is the Moenkopi Formation capped by Shinarump Conglomerate; the valley includes large stone structures including the famed "Eye of the Sun". Between 1945 and 1967, the southern extent of the Monument Upwarp was mined for uranium, which occurs in scattered areas of the Shinarump Conglomerate. Monument Valley is a large area that includes much of the area surrounding Monument Valley Navajo Tribal Park, a Navajo Nation equivalent to a national park. Oljato, for example, is within the area designated as Monument Valley. Visitors may drive through the park on a 17-mile dirt road. Parts of Monument Valley, such as Mystery Valley and Hunts Mesa, are accessible only by guided tour. Monument Valley experiences a desert climate with hot summers. While the summers may be hot, the heat is tempered by the region's high altitude. Although the valley experiences an average of 54 days above 90 °F annually, summer highs exceed 100 °F.

Summer nights are comfortably cool, temperatures drop after sunset. Winters are cold, but daytime highs are above freezing. In the winter, temperatures below 0 °F are uncommon, though possible. Monument Valley receives an occasional light snowfall in the winter. Monument Valley has been featured in numerous computer games, in print, in motion pictures, including multiple Westerns directed by John Ford that influenced audiences' view of the American West, such as: Stagecoach, My Darling Clementine, Fort Apache, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon. Many more recent movies, with other directors, were filmed in Monument Valley, including Sergio Leone's Once Upon a Time in the West, the first spaghetti western to be filmed outside Europe, Gore Verbinski’s The Lone Ranger. Valley of the Gods Harvey, Thomas J.. Rainbow Bridge to Monument Valley: Making the Modern Old West. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 9780806141909. "Monument Valley Tours & Tickets". Travel Guide. "Complete Monument Valley Guide: Drive, Camping, Seasons".

When To Go. 2017-11-12. "List of movies and television shows with scenes in Monument Valley". IMDb. "Monument Valley". American Southwest Guide. "Monument Valley". Navajo Nation Parks. "Photographs and documents of pre-automobile access Monument Valley from the Monument Highway Digital Collection". Utah State University. "Uranium mining in Monument Valley and its decommissioning". Energy Information Administration

Central Market (Texas)

Central Market is an American gourmet grocery store chain owned by H-E-B Grocery Company based in San Antonio, Texas. Most locations have a full-service kitchen, offer cooking and wine classes in their culinary school, offer catering services; the chain has all in Texas. Central Market was named "Outstanding Specialty Food Retailer" by Specialty Food Magazine and the National Association for Specialty Food Trade; the original store opened in 1994 in the Central Park Shopping Center on North Lamar Boulevard in Austin, two years after its competitor Whole Foods went public. It was not long before H-E-B Grocery Company expanded the chain to Alamo Heights, Fort Worth and Houston; the chain's second store opened in 1997 in a converted H-E-B on Broadway in the San Antonio area. Two years a third store was opened on South Lamar in Austin. Fort Worth and Houston were introduced to the chain for the first time in 2001, with stores on West Freeway and Westheimer, respectively. Central Market's sixth and seventh stores opened in 2002 on East Lovers Lane in Dallas and Coit Road in Plano.

Continuing its Dallas/Fort Worth area expansion, an eighth store opened at The Shops of Southlake in Southlake on December 6, 2006, another store opened in the Preston Hollow neighborhood of Dallas on February 15, 2012. Their latest store opened on September 5, 2018, Dallas Texas' 3rd store, located at Midway and Northwest Highway. Central Market is known for its Café on the Run; the chain carries a line of exclusive organic products called Central Market Organics. The product line includes organic or all-natural items ranging from commodities such as milk and eggs to pasta sauce and cookie dough. Central Market deliberately limits floor space allocated to packaged products, allowing more space for fresh produce and seafood, bulk products, chef-prepared items; the produce section stocks items such as crab-apples, Meyer lemons, sweet limes, pink lemons that are hard to find at other stores. The limited space for packaged products is devoted to items that cannot be found at other supermarkets. Other aisles follow the same pattern with an emphasis on local, imported and gourmet brands rather than standard supermarket products.

Central Market offers a wide variety of sushi, made in house by sushi chefs. The company that provides the sushi is called Yummi Sushi based out of Farmers Branch, TX; as appropriate for a store that first began in Austin, the self-styled "Live Music Capital of the World", most Central Market locations feature a patio with live music on several nights each week. Official site

Second Battle of Rellano

The Second Battle of Rellano of 22 May 1912 was an engagement of the Mexican Revolution between rebel forces under Pascual Orozco and government troops under General Victoriano Huerta, at the railroad station of Rellano, Chihuahua. The battle was a setback for Orozco, who had defeated another government army at the First Battle of Rellano in March of the same year. After the overthrow of Porfirio Díaz's regime, which he took part in, Pascual Orozco became dissatisfied with the way that Francisco Madero was running Mexico, he was thwarted in his personal ambitions when Madero appointed Venustiano Carranza as minister of defense, Abraham González as governor of Chihuahua. As a result, in March 1912, Orozco formally declared himself to be in rebellion against Madero. On 24 March 1912, Orozco defeated a federal army under General José González Salas, sent to capture him, near the railroad station of Rellano; this marked the high point of his rebellion, as he controlled all of Chihuahua except the town of Parral, defended by Pancho Villa who had remained loyal to Madero.

Orozco proceeded to attack the town. While Villa had to retreat from Parral, his stubborn resistance gave crucial town for another federal army, under Victoriano Huerta, to make its way north to Chihuahua and confront Orozco again. Villa joined Huerta, the commander of the División del Norte, was placed under his command; the initial clash between Huerta's and Villa's force and Orozco's rebels took place at a railroad station of Conejos, just north of Torreón, Coahuila. There, the federal forces repulsed several attacks by the colorados and drove them back. In the retreat, Orozco's men abandoned three of their cannons, to prove crucial in the engagement that followed. After securing his rear and receiving additional reinforcements from Madero Huerta began moving north in pursuit of Orozco, along the railroad; as at the first battle of Rellano, Orozco's troops ripped apart rail tracks as they retreated in order to slow down the federal forces, entrenched themselves at the canyon around the railroad station of Rellano.

Orozco manned both sides of the canyon, but having lost several cannon at Conejos only had enough artillery to equip the western hill. Upon arriving at the Rellano station, Huerta had Villa make several probing attacks to test the enemies. Although these were repulsed by Orozco's men, they revealed their positions and the fact that the eastern hill lacked artillery support; as a result, on the night of the 22nd, Huerta ordered Villa to take the hill, while the federal artillery shelled both rebel positions to hide the troops' movements. As soon as Villa succeeded Huerta moved his artillery to this newly captured position. Since the eastern hill of the canyon was higher than the western, from this spot the federals were able to rain down artillery fire on the Orozcistas; the rebels attempted to retake the hill. Huerta continued to shell the rebels, at 9:45 the following morning, he ordered a cavalry charge which after a few hours' fighting, dislodged the rebels from their positions; the retreating colorados left the area.

Huerta's troops, which were running low on supplies were unable to engage in immediate pursuit. At this point, Orozco attempted a variation on a tactic that he had employed at the first battle of Rellano. There, Orozco had a locomotive filled with dynamite, which he sent against incoming federal troops; this time, he ordered his men to mine the rail tracks behind them, in the hope that Huerta would be too eager to pursue him to take proper precautions. For Orozco, one of the mines detonated prematurely, damaging only a railcar with coal and alerting Huerta to the possible danger; as a result, Huerta proceeded more and his engineers managed to find all the remaining mines placed by Orozco's men. Huerta caught up with the rebels at the Bachimba rail station. After fierce fighting, Orozco's troops and unwilling to face Huerta's artillery, fled to Chihuahua, scattered into small guerilla bands. Orozco's defeat at the Second Battle of Rellano ended his rebellion. Victorious Huerta retook Chihuahua City on July 8, recaptured Ciudad Juárez in July and reinstated Abraham González as governor.

Orozco himself fled into exile to the United States. A young general, Álvaro Obregón mopped up the remains of the colorados in Sonora. A longer term effect was that it made Huerta a hero to the federal army staff and forced Madero to double expenditure on the armed forces; this marked the beginning of Madero becoming beholden to the army, which in turn plotted against him. Huerta was further angered because had expected to be promoted by Madero as a reward for his rebellion, but instead was asked to retire; this culminated in Huerta's coup d'état against Madero in February, the assassination of Madero, the next stage of the revolution. After Madero's fall, Orozco supported his former adversary, Huerta. After Huerta was defeated both men fled to the United States. Orozco was killed while trying to sneak back into Mexico in August 1915. Frank McLynn, "Villa and Zapata. A History of the Mexican Revolution", Basic Books, 2000. Friedrich Katz, "The Life and Times of Pancho Villa", Stanford University Press, 1998.

René De La Pedraja Tomán, "Wars of Latin America, 1899-1941", McFarland, 2006. Robert L. Scheina, "Latin America's Wars: The