The Chūbu region, Central region, or Central Japan is a region in the middle of Honshū, Japan's main island. Chūbu has a population of 21,715,822 as of 2010, it encompasses nine prefectures: Aichi, Gifu, Nagano, Shizuoka and Yamanashi. It is located directly between the Kantō region and the Kansai region and includes the major city of Nagoya as well as Pacific Ocean and Sea of Japan coastlines, extensive mountain resorts, Mount Fuji; the region is the widest part of Honshū and the central part is characterized by high, rugged mountains. The Japanese Alps divide the country into the Pacific side, sunny in winter, the Sea of Japan side, snowy in winter; the Chūbu region covers a large and geographically diverse area of Honshū which leads to it being divided into three distinct subregions: Tōkai, Kōshin'etsu, Hokuriku. There is another subregion referred to in business circles called Chūkyō; the Tōkai region bordering the Pacific Ocean, is a narrow corridor interrupted in places by mountains that descend into the sea.
Since the Tokugawa period, this corridor has been critical in linking Tokyo and Osaka. One of old Japan's most important ancient roadways, the Tōkaidō, ran through it connecting Tokyo and Kyoto, the old imperial capital. In the twentieth century, it became the route for new super-express highways and high-speed railroad lines; the area consists of Aichi, Shizuoka,and southern Gifu prefectures. A number of small alluvial plains are found in the corridor section. A mild climate, favorable location close to the great metropolitan complexes, availability of fast transportation have made this area a center for truck-gardening and out-of-season vegetables. Upland areas of rolling hills are extensively given over to the growing of mandarin oranges and tea. Nagoya, which faces Ise Bay, is a center for heavy industry, including iron and steel and machinery manufacturing; the corridor has a number of small but important industrial centers. The western part of Tōkai includes the Nōbi Plain, where rice was being grown by the seventh century.
The three Tōkai prefectures centered on Nagoya have strong economic ties, the parts of these prefectures that are closest to the city comprise the Chūkyō Metropolitan Area. This area boasts the third strongest economy in Japan and this influence can sometimes extend into the more remote parts of these prefectures that are farther away from Nagoya. Thus, these three prefectures are sometimes called the "Chūkyō region" in a business sense; this name does not see widespread usage throughout Japan. Kōshin'etsu is an area of complex and high rugged mountains—often called the "roof of Japan"—that include the Japanese Alps; the population is chiefly concentrated in six elevated basins connected by narrow valleys. It was long a main silk-producing area, although output declined after World War II. Much of the labor required in silk production was absorbed by the district's diversified manufacturing industry, which included precision instruments, textiles, food processing, other light manufacturing. Kōshin'etsu means Yamanashi and Niigata prefectures.
Yamanashi and northern Gifu Prefecture are sometimes referred to as Chūō-kōchi or Tōsan region. The Hokuriku region lies on the Sea of Japan coastline, northwest of the massive mountains that comprise Kōshin'etsu. Hokuriku includes the four prefectures of Ishikawa, Fukui and Toyama,The district has heavy snowfall and strong winds in winter, its turbulent rivers are the source of abundant hydroelectric power. Niigata Prefecture is the site of domestic oil production as well. Industrial development is extensive in the cities in Niigata and Toyama. Hokuriku's development is owed to markets in the Kansai region, however the urban areas at the heart of the Kantō region and Tōkai region are having a heavy an influence as well. Hokuriku has port facilities which are to facilitate trade with Russia and China. Transportation between Niigata and Toyama used to be geographically limited and so Niigata has seen strong influence from the Kantō region, because of this Niigata Prefecture is classified as being part of the Kōshin'etsu region with Nagano and Yamanashi Prefectures.
Designated cityNagoya City: a designated city, the capital of Aichi Prefecture Niigata City: a designated city, the capital of Niigata Prefecture Hamamatsu City: a designated city Shizuoka City:a designated city, the capital of Shizuoka PrefectureCore cityKanazawa City: a core city, the capital of Ishikawa Prefecture Toyama City: a core city, the capital of Toyama Prefecture Gifu City: a core city, the capital of Gifu Prefecture Nagano City: a core city, the capital of Nagano PrefectureSpecial cityFukui City: a special city, the capital of Fukui Prefecture Kofu City: a special city, the capital of Yamanashi Prefecture Geography of Japan List of regions of Japan Tōkai–Tōsan dialect and Hokuriku dialect Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. Japan Encyclopedia. Trans. by Käthe Roth. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01753-6, ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. OCLC 58053128; this article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies document "Japan". Chubu travel guide from Wikivoyage
Government of Japan
The government of Japan is a constitutional monarchy in which the power of the Emperor is limited and is relegated to ceremonial duties. As in many other states, the Government is divided into three branches: the Legislative branch, the Executive branch, the Judicial branch; the Government runs under the framework established by the Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947. It is a unitary state, containing forty-seven administrative divisions, with the Emperor as its head of state, his role is ceremonial and he has no powers related to Government. Instead, it is the Cabinet, comprising the Ministers of State and the Prime Minister, that directs and controls the Government; the Cabinet is the source of power of the Executive branch, is formed by the Prime Minister, the head of government. He or she is appointed to office by the Emperor; the National Diet is the organ of the Legislative branch. It is bicameral, consisting of two houses with the House of Councillors being the upper house, the House of Representatives being the lower house.
Its members are directly elected from the people. The Supreme Court and other inferior courts make up the Judicial branch, they are independent from the executive and the legislative branches. Prior to the Meiji Restoration, Japan was ruled by successive military shōguns. During this period, effective power of the government resided in the Shōgun, who ruled the country in the name of the Emperor; the Shoguns were the hereditary military governors, with their modern rank equivalent to a generalissimo. Although the Emperor was the sovereign who appointed the Shōgun, his roles were ceremonial and he took no part in governing the country; this is compared to the present role of the Emperor, whose official role is to appoint the Prime Minister. The Meiji Restoration in 1868 led to the resignation of Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, agreeing to "be the instrument for carrying out" the Emperor's orders; this event restored the country to the proclamation of the Empire of Japan. In 1889, the Meiji Constitution was adopted in a move to strengthen Japan to the level of western nations, resulting in the first parliamentary system in Asia.
It provided a form of mixed constitutional-absolute monarchy, with an independent judiciary, based on the Prussian model of the time. A new aristocracy known as the kazoku was established, it merged the ancient court nobility of the Heian period, the kuge, the former daimyōs, feudal lords subordinate to the shōgun. It established the Imperial Diet, consisting of the House of Representatives and the House of Peers. Members of the House of Peers were made up of the Imperial Family, the Kazoku, those nominated by the Emperor, while members of the House of Representatives were elected by direct male suffrage. Despite clear distinctions between powers of the executive branch and the Emperor in the Meiji Constitution and contradictions in the Constitution led to a political crisis, it devalued the notion of civilian control over the military, which meant that the military could develop and exercise a great influence on politics. Following the end of World War II, the Constitution of Japan was adopted as an intention to replace the previous Imperial rule with a form of Western-style liberal democracy.
The Emperor of Japan is the ceremonial head of state. He is defined by the Constitution to be "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people". However, he is not the nominal Chief Executive and he possesses only certain ceremonially important powers, he has no real powers related to the Government as stated in article 4 of the Constitution. Article 6 of the Constitution of Japan delegates the Emperor the following ceremonial roles: Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet. While the Cabinet is the source of executive power and most of its power is exercised directly by the Prime Minister, several of its powers are exercised by the Emperor; the powers exercised via the Emperor, as stipulated by Article 7 of the Constitution, are: Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, cabinet orders and treaties. Convocation of the Diet. Dissolution of the House of Representatives. Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet.
Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment and restoration of rights. Awarding of honors. Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law. Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers. Performance of ceremonial functions; the Emperor is known to hold the nominal ceremonial authority. For example, the Emperor is the only person that has the authority to appoint the Prime Minister though the Diet has the power to designate the person fitted for the position. One such example can be prominently seen in the 2009 Dissolution of the House of Representatives; the House was expected to be dissolved on the advice of the Prime Minister, but was temporarily unable to do so for the next general election, as both the Emperor and Empress were visiting Canada. In this manner, the Emperor's modern role is compared to those of the Shogunate period and much of Japan's history, whereby the Emperor held great symbolic authority but had little political power.
Today, a legacy has somewhat continued for a retired Prime Minister who still wields considerabl
Kōraku-en is a Japanese garden located in Okayama, Okayama Prefecture. It is one of the Three Great Gardens of Japan, along with Kairaku-en. Korakuen was built in 1700 by Ikeda Tsunamasa, lord of Okayama; the garden reached its modern form in 1863. In 1687, the daimyō Ikeda Tsunamasa ordered Tsuda Nagatada to begin construction of the garden, it was completed in 1700 and has retained its original appearance to the present day, except for a few changes by various daimyōs. The garden was called Kōen because it was built after Okayama Castle. However, since the garden was built in the spirit of "sen-yu-koraku", the name was changed to Kōrakuen in 1871; the Korakuen is one of the few daimyō gardens in the provinces where historical change can be observed, thanks to the many Edo period paintings and Ikeda family records and documents left behind. The garden was used as a place for entertaining important guests and as a spa of sorts for daimyōs, although regular folk could visit on certain days. In 1884, ownership was transferred to Okayama Prefecture and the garden was opened to the public.
The garden suffered severe damage during the floods of 1934 and by bombing damage in 1945 during World War II. It has been restored based on Edo-period diagrams. In 1952, the Kōrakuen was designated as a "Special Scenic Location" under the Cultural Properties Protection Law and is managed as a historical cultural asset to be passed to future generations; the garden is located on the north bank of the Asahi River on an island between the river and a developed part of the city. The garden was designed in the Kaiyu style which presents the visitor with a new view at every turn of the path which connects the lawns, hills, tea houses, streams; the garden covers a total area of 133,000 square meters, with the grassed area covering 18,500 square meters. The length of the stream which runs through the garden is 640 meters, it features a central pond called Sawa-no-ike, which contains three islands purported to replicate the scenery around Lake Biwa near Kyoto. List of Special Places of Scenic Beauty, Special Historic Sites and Special Natural Monuments Tourism in Japan Mansfield, Stephen.
Japan's Master Gardens - Lessons in Space and Environment. Tokyo, Singapore: Tuttle. ISBN 978-4-8053-1128-8. Media related to Kōraku-en at Wikimedia Commons Okayama Korakuen Garden official site Otaue Matsuri Festival in KorakuenNHK QUT Digital Collections - Historical image
Japanese castles were fortresses constructed of wood and stone. They evolved from the wooden stockades of earlier centuries, came into their best-known form in the 16th century. Castles in Japan were built to guard important or strategic sites, such as ports, river crossings, or crossroads, always incorporated the landscape into their defenses. Though they were built to last and used more stone in their construction than most Japanese buildings, castles were still constructed of wood, many were destroyed over the years; this was true during the Sengoku period, when many of these castles were first built. However, many were rebuilt, either in the Sengoku period, in the Edo period that followed, or more as national heritage sites or museums. Today there are more than one hundred castles extant, or extant, in Japan; some castles, such as the ones at Matsue and Kōchi, both built in 1611, remain extant in their original forms, not having suffered any damage from sieges or other threats. Hiroshima Castle, on the opposite end of the spectrum, was destroyed in the atomic bombing, was rebuilt in 1958 as a museum.
The character for castle,'城', by itself read as shiro, is read as jō when attached to a word, such as in the name of a particular castle. Thus, for example, Osaka Castle is called Ōsaka-jō in Japanese. Conceived as fortresses for military defense, Japanese castles were placed in strategic locations, along trade routes and rivers. Though castles continued to be built with these considerations, for centuries, fortresses were built as centres of governance. By the Sengoku period, they had come to serve as the homes of daimyōs, to impress and to intimidate rivals not only with their defences but with their sizes and elegant interiors. In 1576, Oda Nobunaga was among the first to build one of these palace-like castles: Azuchi Castle was Japan's first castle to have a tower keep, it inspired both Toyotomi Hideyoshi's Osaka Castle and Tokugawa Ieyasu's Edo Castle. Azuchi served as the governing center of Oda's territories, as his lavish home, but it was very keenly and strategically placed. A short distance away from the capital of Kyoto, which had long been a target of violence, Azuchi's chosen location allowed it a great degree of control over the transportation and communication routes of Oda's enemies.
Before the Sengoku period, most castles were called yamajirō. Though most castles were built atop mountains or hills, these were built from the mountains. Trees and other foliage were cleared, the stone and dirt of the mountain itself was carved into rough fortifications. Ditches were dug, to present obstacles to attackers, as well as to allow boulders to be rolled down at attackers. Moats were created by diverting mountain streams. Buildings were made of wattle and daub, using thatched roofs, or wooden shingles. Small ports in the walls or planks could be used to deploy bows or fire guns from; the main weakness of this style was its general instability. Thatch caught fire more than wood, weather and soil erosion prevented structures from being large or heavy. Stone bases began to be used, encasing the hilltop in a layer of fine pebbles, a layer of larger rocks over that, with no mortar; this support allowed larger and more permanent buildings. The first fortifications in Japan were hardly what one associates with the term "castles".
Made of earthworks, or rammed earth, wood, the earliest fortifications made far greater use of natural defences and topography than anything man-made. These kōgoishi and chashi were never intended to be long-term defensive positions, let alone residences; the Yamato people began to build cities in earnest in the 7th century, complete with expansive palace complexes, surrounded on four sides with walls and impressive gates. Earthworks and wooden fortresses were built throughout the countryside to defend the territory from the native Emishi and other groups; these were built as extensions of natural features, consisted of little more than earthworks and wooden barricades. The Nara period fortress at Dazaifu, from which all of Kyūshū would be governed and defended for centuries afterwards, was constructed in this manner, remnants can still be seen today. A bulwark was constructed around the fortress to serve as a moat to aid in the defense of the structure; this was called a mizuki, or "water fort".
The character for castle or fortress, up until sometime in the 9th century or was read ki, as in this example, mizuki. Though basic in construction and appearance, these wooden and earthwork structures were designed to impress just as much as to function against attack. Chinese and Korean architecture influenced the design of Japanese buildings, including fortifications, in this period; the remains or ruins of some of these fortresses, decidedly different from what would come can still be seen in certain parts of Kyūshū and Tōhoku today. The Heian period saw a shift from the need to defend the entire state from
Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku and Tsukushi-no-shima; the historical regional name Saikaidō referred to its surrounding islands. In the 8th century Taihō Code reforms, Dazaifu was established as a special administrative term for the region; as of 2016, Kyushu covers 36,782 square kilometres. The island is mountainous, Japan's most active volcano, Mt Aso at 1,591 metres, is on Kyushu. There are many other signs including numerous areas of hot springs; the most famous of these are in Beppu, on the east shore, around Mt. Aso, in central Kyushu; the island is separated from Honshu by the Kanmon Straits. The name Kyūshū comes from the nine ancient provinces of Saikaidō situated on the island: Chikuzen, Hizen, Buzen, Bungo, Hyūga, Satsuma. Today's Kyushu Region is a politically defined region that consists of the seven prefectures on the island of Kyushu, plus Okinawa Prefecture to the south: Northern Kyushu Fukuoka Prefecture Kumamoto Prefecture Nagasaki Prefecture Ōita Prefecture Saga Prefecture Southern Kyushu Kagoshima Prefecture Miyazaki Prefecture Okinawa Prefecture Kyushu comprises 10.3 percent of the entire population of Japan.
Most of Kyushu's population is concentrated along the northwest, in the cities of Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, with population corridors stretching southwest into Sasebo and Nagasaki and south into Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Excepting Oita and Miyazaki cities, the eastern seaboard shows a general decline in population. Kyushu is described as a stronghold of the LDP political party. Designated citiesFukuoka Kitakyushu Kumamoto Core citiesKagoshima Ōita Nagasaki Miyazaki Naha Kurume Sasebo Saga Parts of Kyushu have a subtropical climate Miyazaki prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture. Major agricultural products are rice, tobacco, sweet potatoes, soy; the island is noted for various types of porcelain, including Arita, Imari and Karatsu. Heavy industry is concentrated in the north around Fukuoka, Kitakyushu and Oita and includes chemicals, automobiles and metal processing. In 2010, the graduate employment rate in the region was the lowest nationwide, at 88.9%. Besides the volcanic area of the south, there are significant mud hot springs in the northern part of the island, around Beppu.
These springs are the site of occurrence of certain extremophile micro-organisms, that are capable of surviving in hot environments. Major universities and colleges in Kyushu: National universities Kyushu University – One of seven former "Imperial Universities" Kyushu Institute of Technology Saga University Nagasaki University Kumamoto University Fukuoka University of Education Oita University Miyazaki University Kagoshima University National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya University of the Ryukyus Universities run by local governments University of Kitakyushu Kyushu Dental College Fukuoka Women's University Fukuoka Prefectural University Nagasaki Prefectural University Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences Prefectural University of Kumamoto Miyazaki Municipal University Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University Okinawa Prefectural University of Arts Major private universities Fukuoka University – University with the largest number of students in Kyushu Kumamoto Gakuen University Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University Seinan Gakuin University Kyushu Sangyo University – Baseball team won the Japanese National Championship in 2005 University of Occupational and Environmental Health Kurume University The island is linked to the larger island of Honshu by the Kanmon Tunnels, which carry both the San'yō Shinkansen and non-Shinkansen trains of the Kyushu Railway Company, as well as vehicular and bicycle traffic.
The Kanmon Bridge connects the island with Honshu. Railways on the island are operated by the Kyushu Railway Company, Nishitetsu Railway. Northern Kyushu Southern Kyushu Azumi people, an ancient group of people who inhabited parts of northern Kyūshū Geography of Japan Group Kyushu Western Army United States Fleet Activities Sasebo Hoenn, a fictional region in the Pokémon franchise, based on Kyushu Kanmonkyo Bridge, that connects Kyūshū with Honshū Kyushu National Museum List of regions in Japan Kyushu dialects Hichiku dialect, Hōnichi dialect and Kagoshima dialect Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
Cultural Property (Japan)
A Cultural Property is administered by the Japanese government's Agency for Cultural Affairs, includes tangible properties. Buried properties and conservation techniques are protected. Together these cultural properties are to be preserved and utilized as the heritage of the Japanese people. To protect Japan's cultural heritage, the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties contains a "designation system" under which selected important items are designated as Cultural Properties, which imposes restrictions on the alteration and export of such designated objects. Designation can occur at a prefectural or municipal level; as of 1 February 2012, there were 16,000 nationally designated, 21,000 prefecturally designated, 86,000 municipally designated properties. Besides the designation system there exists a "registration system", which guarantees a lower level of protection and support; the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties 1950 classifies items designated as Cultural Properties in the following categories: Tangible Cultural Properties are cultural products of high historical or artistic value whether structures, works of art, craft works, calligraphic works, ancient documents, archaeological materials, historic materials and other such items.
All objects which are not structures are termed "works of fine arts and crafts". Items designated Tangible Cultural Properties can if they satisfy certain criteria, be designated Important Cultural Properties of Japan or National Treasures for valuable items. Any alteration to Important Cultural Properties and National Treasures requires governmental permission and exportation is forbidden, except when authorized; the National Treasury supports the conservation and restoration of these items, the Commissioner for Cultural Affairs provides technical assistance for their administration, public display and other activities. Conservation work is performed by an item's owner, with financial support available for large expenses; because many items are made of wood and other flammable materials, they are extremely susceptible to fires. Owners are therefore given subsidies to install other disaster prevention systems; as of 1 February 2012, there were 12,816 Important Cultural Properties, of which one fifth were structures.
By class, there were 1,974 paintings. There were 49,793 at municipal level. Intangible Cultural Properties are cultural products of high historical or artistic value such as drama and craft techniques. Items of particular importance can be designated as Important Intangible Cultural Properties. Recognition is given to the'holders' of the necessary techniques, to encourage their transmission. There are three types of recognition: individual recognition, collective recognition, group recognition. Special grants of two million yen a year are given to individual holders to help protect these properties; the government contributes part of the expenses incurred either by the holder of the Intangible Cultural Property during training of his successor, or by a recognized group for public performances. To promote understanding, therefore the transmission across generations, of these Cultural Properties, exhibitions concerning them are organized; the government through the Japan Arts Council holds training workshops and other activities to educate future generations of noh and kabuki personnel.
As of 1 February 2012, there were 115 Important Intangible Cultural Properties and a further 167 designations at prefectural and 522 at municipal level. Folk Cultural Properties are items indispensable to understand the role and influence of tradition in the daily life of the Japanese, such as manners and customs related to food, work, religion. Folk Cultural Properties can be classified as Tangible. Intangible Folk Cultural Properties are items such as manners and customs related to food and housing, occupation and annual events. Clothes and implements, houses and other objects used together with Intangible Folk Cultural Properties are classified as Tangible Folk Cultural Properties. Folk Cultural Properties can if they satisfy certain criteria, be designated Important Tangible Folk Cultural Properties or Important Intangible Folk Cultural Properties; the government subsidizes projects for the restoration, preservation, disaster prevention, etc. of Important Tangible Folk Cultural Properties.
In the case of Important Intangible Folk Cultural Properties, public subsidies help local