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Monza

Monza is a city and comune on the River Lambro, a tributary of the Po in the Lombardy region of Italy, about 15 kilometres north-northeast of Milan. It is the capital of the Province of Brianza. Monza is best known for its Grand Prix motor racing circuit, the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, which hosts the Formula One Italian Grand Prix with a massive Italian support tifosi for the Ferrari team. On 11 June 2004 Monza was designated the capital of the new province of Brianza; the new administrative arrangement came into effect in summer 2009. Monza is the third-largest city of Lombardy and is the most important economic and administrative centre of the Brianza area, supporting a textile industry and a publishing trade. Monza hosts a Department of the University of Milan Bicocca, a Court of Justice and several offices of regional administration. Monza Park is one of the largest urban parks in Europe. Monza is located in the high plains of Lombardy, between Brianza and Milan, at an altitude of 162 metres above sea level.

It is 15 kilometres from the centre of the region's capital, although when considering the cities borders, they are separated by less than 5 km. Monza is about 40 km from Como. Monza shares its position with Milan in the same metro area, is a big part of its new province. Monza is crossed from north to south by the River Lambro; the river enters Monza from the north, between Via Via Zanzi streets. This is an artificial fork of the river, created for defensive purposes in the early decades of the 14th century; the fork is known as Lambretto and it rejoins the main course of the Lambro as it exits to the south, leaving Monza through the now demolished ancient circle of medieval walls. Another artificial stream is the Canale Villoresi, constructed in the late 19th century. Monza has a typical submediterranean climate of the Po valley, with cool, short winters and warm summers. Precipitation is abundant, with most occurring in the least in winter and summer. Funerary urns found in the late 19th century show that humans were in the area dating at the least to the Bronze Age, when people would have lived in pile dwelling settlements raised above the rivers and marshes.

During the Roman Empire, Monza was known as Modicia. During the 3rd century BCE, the Romans subdued the Insubres, a Gaul tribe that had crossed the Alps and settled around Mediolanum. A Gallo-Celtic tribe the Insubres themselves, founded a village on the Lambro; the ruins of a Roman bridge named. Theodelinda, daughter of Garibald I of Bavaria and wife of the Lombard king Authari, chose Monza as her summer residence. Here in 595 she founded an oraculum dedicated to St. John the Baptist. According to the legend, asleep while her husband was hunting, saw a dove in a dream that told her: modo indicating that she should build the oraculum in that place, the queen answered etiam, meaning "yes". According to this legend, the medieval name of Monza, "Modoetia", is derived from these two words, she had a palace built here. Berengar I of Italy located his headquarters in Monza. A fortified castrum was constructed to resist the incursions of the Hungarians. Under Berengar's reign, Monza enjoyed a certain degree of independence: it had its own system of weights and measures, could seize property and mark the deeds with their signatures.

Berengar was generous evident by the donation of numerous works to the Monza Cathedral, including the famous cross, by giving large benefits to its 32 canons and other churches. In 980 Monza hosted Emperor Otto II inside the walled city; the Glossary of Monza, one of the earliest examples of the evolution of Italian language dates to the early 10th century. In 1000 Emperor Otto III became the protector of Monza and its possessions: Bulciago, Lurago and Garlate. In 1018, Lord of Monza, was consecrated bishop of Milan, resulting in the city losing its independence from its rival; these years saw a power struggle between the emperor Conrad II, Aribert. When the emperor died, he left important donations to the church of Monza. In the 12th century, it is estimated. Agriculture was the main occupation. In 1128 Conrad III of Hohenstaufen was crowned King of Italy in the Church of San Michele at Monza. In 1136 emperor Lothair III guaranteed the independence of the clergy of Monza from Milan. Monza subsequently regained its autonomy, not limited to the feudal government of lands and goods.

This autonomy was never absolute, as the church of Monza was not able to cut its ties from the bishop of Milan. Frederick I Barbarossa visited Monza twice. In this period the city again regained its independence from a city hostile to the emperor. Frederick declared that Monza was his property and gave the Curraria, a right granted only to royal seats. During the period of the struggle against Milan and other cities of the Lombard League, Monza was an

Tabakhane, Nicosia

Tabakhane is a historic neighborhood, Mahalla, or parish of central Nicosia, named after the tannery which existed just outside the city walls, near Paphos Gate. Its name is the Turkish word for tannery. At the last census, conducted in 2011, Tabakhane had a population of 299, a sizable increase from its population of 204 in 2001; the neighborhood covers nine streets in the south-centre of Nicosia, forming a compact area just west of Ledra Street. It stretches around Germanou Patron Street, from its junction with Rigenis Street to that with Alexander the Great Street; the junction at Arsinoe Street is its centre. According to the survey reported by George Jeffery Tabakhane extended as far west as Paphos Gate and was therefore close to the old site of the Tannery, now occupied by the Municipal Garden, but in 1912 the Quarter was reduced to its present bounds. Tabakhane Mesjid, the mosque for the neighbourhood, is located in Arsinoes Street just east of its intersection with Pericles Street; the tanners had two mosques.

Tabakhane is one of 24 historic neighborhoods within the walls of Nicosia. Many Turkish Cypriot tanners worked at the tannery and lived nearby in Tabakhane. During the Ottoman period it was counted as one of the Moslem quarters of Nicosia. Since the Moslem character of the neighbourhood has waned, in 1946, Tabakhane had a population of 757, consisting of 701 Greek Cypriots, twenty Turkish Cypriots, 36 others; the last Turkish Cypriot in Tabakhane died in 1960. The population of Tabakhane during British rule in Cyprus was as follows: In 1912 the boundary was redefined thus: From the point on the outside wall of the fortifications facing Mukhtar Street along Mukhtar Street, Kiatip Zade Street, Imam Eff. Street, Kofteros Street, Kalkanji Street, Kiatip Zade Street, Barouti Street, Hj. Christo Street, Kalkanji Street, Hj. Zannetto Street, Hissar Street, right up to the outside wali of the fortifications and thence along the outside wall of the fortifications to the point facing Mukhtar Street; these streets have subsequently been renamed: Mukhtar Street: Basil Boulgaroktonos St. Kiatip Zade Street: Arsinoes St. Imam Eff.

Street: Alexios Comnenos St. Kofteros Street: Alexander the Great St. Kalkanji Street: Pericles St. Barouti Street: Phokionos St. HajiChristo Street: Apollo St. HajiZannetto Street: Rigenis St. Hissar Street: Pal. Patron Germanos St; the tannery was located just outside the Paphos Gate, now the site of the Municipal Gardens. It was moved to the area of Köşklüçiftlik in 1886; the tannery workers were members of an ancient Moslem esnaf, or guild. Tanning, like butchery, requires the use of sharp knives, Under Ottoman rule, it was a Muslim monopoly; the tanners worked within the framework of a traditional guild and had their own quarter of the city, Tabakhane. Work at the tannery was controlled by a council, represented on the Medji Idare; the guild's monopoly was abolished in 1879 by order of the high commissioner

Omega Carinae

Omega Carinae, Latinized from ω Carinae, is a star in the constellation Carina. With a declination greater than 70 degrees south of the celestial equator, it is the most southerly of the bright stars of Carina, it is part of a southern asterism known as the Diamond Cross; this star has an apparent visual magnitude of 3.3 and is located at a distance of about 342 light-years from Earth. Omega Carinae has a stellar classification of B8 IIIe, which places it in the category of Be stars, that display emission lines of hydrogen their spectrum. Omega Carinae is a shell star; the luminosity class of III indicates it has evolved into a giant star, having exhausted the hydrogen at its core and left the main sequence. The effective temperature of 11,630 K in its outer envelope is what gives this star the blue-white hue, characteristic of B-type stars; this star is rotating with a projected rotational velocity of 240 km/s, which gives a lower limit to the star's azimuthal velocity along the equator. The critical equatorial velocity, at which the star would begin to break up, is 320 km s−1.

The star's axis of rotation is inclined by an estimated angle of 70.8° to the line of sight from the Earth. In the next 7500 years, the south Celestial pole will pass close to this star and I Carinae. In Chinese, 南船, meaning Southern Boat, refers to an asterism consisting of ω Carinae, V337 Carinae, PP Carinae, θ Carinae and β Carinae. Ω Carinae itself is known as 南船四 Southern Sky Photos