Moog synthesizer

The Moog synthesizer is a synthesizer developed by the American engineer Robert Moog. Moog debuted it in 1964, Moog's company R. A. Moog Co. produced numerous models from 1965 to 1980. It was the first commercial synthesizer, is credited with creating the analog synthesizer as it is known today. By 1963, Moog had been selling theremins of his own design for several years. Recognizing a demand for more practical and affordable electronic music equipment, he began developing the Moog synthesizer, guided by suggestions and requests from composers including Herb Deutsch, Richard Teitelbaum, Vladimir Ussachevsky, Wendy Carlos; the Moog synthesizer consists of separate modules — such as oscillators, envelope generators, noise generators, ring modulators and mixers — which create and shape sounds, can be connected via patch cords. It can be played using controllers including keyboards, joysticks and ribbon controllers, its oscillators can produce waveforms of different timbres, which can be modulated and filtered to produce more combinations of sounds.

Moog's principal innovation was to use voltage to control pitch via a voltage-controlled oscillator. The synthesizer introduced fundamental synthesizer concepts such as modularity and envelope generation, it was brought to the mainstream by Switched-On Bach, a bestselling album of Bach compositions arranged for Moog synthesizer by Wendy Carlos. In the late 1960s, the Moog was adopted by rock and pop acts including the Doors, the Grateful Dead, the Rolling Stones, the Beatles. At its height of popularity, it was a staple of 1970s progressive rock, used by acts including Yes, Tangerine Dream, Emerson, Lake & Palmer. In 1970, Moog Music released the Minimoog. In the early 1960s, electronic music technology was impractical and used by experimental composers to create music with little mainstream appeal. In 1963, American engineer Robert Moog, who designed and sold theremins, met composer Herb Deutsch at a New York State School Music Association trade fair. Deutsch had been making electronic music using a theremin, tape recorder, single-pitch oscillator, a time-consuming process that involved splicing tape.

Recognizing the need for more practical and sophisticated equipment and Deutsch discussed the notion of a "portable electronic music studio". Moog received a grant of $16,000 from the New York State Small Business Association and began work in Trumansburg, New York. At the time, synthesizer-like instruments were enormous. Learning from his experience building a prohibitively expensive guitar amplifier, he believed that practicality and affordability were the most important parameters. Previous synthesizers, such as the RCA Mark II, had created sound from hundreds of vacuum tubes. Instead, Moog used available silicon transistors — a transistor with an exponential relationship between input voltage and output current. Using this transistor, he created the voltage-controlled oscillator, which generated a waveform whose pitch could be adjusted by changing the voltage. Moog designed his synthesizer around a standard of one volt per octave, he used voltage to control loudness with voltage-controlled amplifiers.

When Deutsch visited, he found Moog working on a prototype with two VCOs and a VCA. Having two VCOs was significant. According to Moog, Deutsch "went through the roof" and began making music with the prototype, attracting the interest of passersby: "They would stand there, they’d listen and they’d shake their heads. You know they’d listen again—what is this weird shit coming out of the basement?"In mid-1964, Moog and Deutsch demonstrated the synthesizer at the electronic music studio at the University of Toronto. After the presentation impressed the composers, Moog was invited by the Audio Engineering Society to present at their annual convention in New York that October. Though he had not planned to sell synthesizers there, Moog took "three" orders at the show. Moog constructed synthesizers to order; the first order for a complete Moog synthesizer, for which Moog had to design a keyboard and cabinet, came from composer Eric Siday. Moog refined the synthesizer in response to requests from composers.

For example, after Deutsch suggested Moog find a way to fade notes in and out, Moog invented an envelope module, using a doorbell button as a prototype. At the suggestion of composer Gustav Ciamaga, Moog developed a filter module, a means of removing frequencies from waveforms, his first filter design created a sound similar to a wah-wah pedal. It was the only item in the synthesizer design that Moog patented, granted on October 28, 1969. Further developments were driven by suggestions from musicians including Richard Teitelbaum, Vladimir Ussachevsky, Wendy Carlos. Moog avoided the word synthesizer, as it was associated with the RCA synthesizer, instead described his invention as a "system" of "electronic music modules"; the classical meaning of "to synthesize" is to assemble a whole out of parts. After many debates, Moog told composer Reynold Weidenaar: "It’s a synthesizer and that's what it does and we're just going to ha

El Hierro Airport

El Hierro Airport is an airport located 9 km northeast of Valverde. It is the only existing airport on the Island of Spain, it was inaugurated in December 1972. However, in spite of its size and its limited timetable, it was the airport which had the greatest increase in number of passengers and merchandise in the Canary Islands in 2007; the air traffic is national, the flights are from/to Tenerife North and Gran Canaria. In 2011, the airport carried 170,225 passengers, with 135 tons of cargo; the first aeronautical event in the island was on December 12, 1955, it was the first rescue operation by the SAR in the Canary Islands too. It consisted of the evacuation of an ill person who had to be transported to Tenerife in a helicopter. There was a real need for an airport on the island, so in 1962 some studies to locate the best place for the future airport were started, but the orography of the island is complex, there were not too many suitable places available; the engineers decided to place the airport in a place called "Llano de los Cangrejos" located in the northeast of the Island, near its capital, Valverde.

Works to build the new installations began in 1967, building a runway, a small passenger terminal, an apron. Once the works were finished, on November 11, 1972, the airport was inaugurated and dedicated to national air traffic of passengers and cargo, it was classified as a 2-C airport of third category. The first airplane to land was a Do-27 of the Spanish Air Force, but the official inauguration was made by a DC-3 which carried the minister Julio Salvador y Días-Benjumena; the first regular connection was inaugurated by Iberia, starting operations on December 19, 1972, with a Fokker F-27 commanded by Vicente Ramos Hernández, which made the route from Tenerife North - El Hierro - Tenerife North. During 1989 and 1990, a new control tower was built on the west side of the runway, the old one was demolished, at the same time a new passenger terminal was built. In July, 1992, instead of Iberia, BinterCanarias started to operate the route from Tenerife North to El Hierro with an ATR-72. For that reason, the runway had to be extended to 1205 metres length.

This extension allowed an increase in the number of operations. It has a short 1250m runway, which limits the airport to handling regional turboprop aircraft, however if required it can handle a 737 or A320-family jet; the control tower is located in the western part of the island, opposite to the terminal - where an air traffic controller and the maintenance technicians work. In 2008, works to renovate the control tower began, with the aim of modernizing the installations. At present, it has the SACTA 3.5 system. El Hierro Airport Official Website -


NITZ, or Network Identity and Time Zone, is a mechanism for provisioning local time and date, time zone and DST offset, as well as network provider identity information, to mobile devices via a wireless network. NITZ has been an optional part of the official GSM standard since phase 2+ release 96. NITZ is used to automatically update the system clock of mobile phones. In terms of standards and other timing or network access protocols such as NTP or CDMA2000, the quality and enforcement of NITZ is weak; this standard allows the network to "transfer its current identity, universal time, DST and LTZ" but each is optional, support across RAN vendor and operator varies. This presents a problem for device manufacturers, who are required to maintain a complex timezone database, rather than rely on the network operator. Additionally, unlike 3GPP2, which transmits GPS-sourced, millisecond resolution time via the sync channel, for NITZ, the "accuracy of the time information is in the order of minutes".

The optional nature of the delivery mechanism results in issues for users in regions that don't practice daylight savings but which share a time zone with a region that does. Most modern handsets have their own internal time zone software and will automatically perform a daylight savings advance; because the NITZ delivery is not periodic but dependent on the handset crossing radio network boundaries, these handsets can be displaying incorrect time for many hours or days before a NITZ update arrives and corrects them. Initial list derived from ref