Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Maroochydore is a town and suburb of the Sunshine Coast Region, Australia. At the 2016 census the suburb recorded a population of 16,800. Maroochydore is a major commercial area of the Sunshine Coast with most shopping precincts located in the central business district, it is home to the Sunshine Plaza shopping centre and the Sunshine Coast's major bus interchange for TransLink services operated by Sunbus. Maroochydore is a venue of major surf sport carnivals, is a popular holiday point from which to travel the rest of Queensland; the name Maroochydore comes from the Aboriginal indigenous Yuggera language word'Muru-kutchi', meaning red-bill: the name of the black swan seen in the area. Maroochydore is the sixth town mentioned in the original version of the song "I've Been Everywhere"; the town of Maroochydore was subdivided from the Cotton Tree reserve by Surveyor Thomas O'Connor in 1903. The land was acquired from William Pettigrew. Andrew Petrie during his 1842 exploration of the coast gave the name Maroochydore to the area.
It was derived from the word "murukutchi-dha" in the language of the Brisbane River Aboriginal Gubbi Gubbi people, who accompanied Petrie on his exploration. It means "the place of the red bills", the black swans. Governor Gipps, stimulated by Petrie's exploration, proposed the Bunya Proclamation of 1842; this prevented settlement or the granting of cattle or timber licences in the Bunya Country which covered much of the Maroochy district. The Proclamation lapsed, attracting Tom Petrie to explore the coastal area for timber resources in 1862. Due to the perilous nature of the Maroochy River bar it proved too hazardous for shipping. In 1864, Brisbane sawmill owner, William Pettigrew, established a wharf at Mooloolaba. Twenty years on, in 1884, Pettigrew transferred his activities to Maroochydore; the area appears to have been used for grazing cattle and has a landing place for timber rafted down the River. That same year, Pettigrew built the first house at Maroochydore; the house was occupied by Hamilton Muirhead.
Pettigrew opened a sawmill on the riverbank in 1891, it was at this time a post office was opened too. Pettigrew continued to run his steamers "Tadorna Radja" and "Tarshaw" in the Maroochy River; the "Gneering" which had serviced the river had been wrecked on the Maroochy River bar. The steamer was left there as a wreck. In 1898, Pettigrew went into voluntary liquidation; the mill was reopened and operated by James Campbell & Sons until 1903. The town of Maroochydore still did not exist throughout this time, for several years hinterland residents had visited the area for holidays and fishing trips. Thomas O'Connor, a surveyor, purchased all of Pettigrew's land in the Marrochydore area in 1903; the land was portioned into allotments. The first land sale was held in July 1908; this marked the beginning of the development of Maroochydore as a seaside resort. Maroochydore as we know today began to emerge in 1912; this emergence began with opening of the first Coastal hotel and a regular mail boat service to Yandina.
Following this, in 1917, a boat and tram service operated to Nambour. In 1916, one of Queensland's first surf life saving clubs was formed at Maroochydore. By 1920, the permanent population reached seventy and during the following decade it had grown enough to necessitate schools, business houses, a post office and a bitumen main road. Maroochydore Post Office opened on 4 October 1922; the Maroochydore Library opened in 1975. Horton Park Golf Club is in Maroochydore; the club will be changing names to Maroochy River Golf Club. The relocation of the Golf Course has allowed the Sunshine Regional Council to develop the old golf course into a new city centre for the region known as Sunshine Central; the redevelopment is next to Sunshine Cove a new sustainable residential and commercial development that has revitalized the general town centre and the development won the award from the Urban Development Institute of Australia for the best residential property Development at its annual Australian awards night in 2016.
Cotton Tree has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Cotton Tree Parade: Cotton Tree Caravan Park Maroochydore is not defined, but the boundary used by Sunshine Coast Regional Council includes a region from the southern boundary of Sunshine Coast Airport to the Mooloolah River at Mooloolaba and Kawana Way. This corresponds to the historic Australian Bureau of Statistics urban centres of Maroochydore–Mooloolaba and Mudjimba; the central business district for the area is located on Maroochydore. The Maroochydore urban centre consists of Alexandra Headland, part of Bli Bli, Cotton Tree, Maroochydore, Maroochy Waters, Maroochy River, Mountain Creek, Pacific Paradise and Twin Waters The current ASGC, applicable to the 2001 and 2006 censuses, has placed all of Buderim and Mountain Creek under the Buderim SLA. Maroochy Waters is a waterfront, residential estate located in Maroochydore adjacent to the Maroochy River in Queensland, Australia, it is one of the last canal projects to be built in Queensland with direct access to river system and Coral Sea.
Sunshine Coast Region Council has an annual dredging program to replenish the sand beaches. The canals plus all infrastructure were built in three stages; these were mid 1980s and early 1990s. The deep water canal plays a role in flood relief an
The Mooloolah River is a river in South East Queensland, Australia. The river rises from the eastern slopes of the Blackall Range and flows east-northeast, similar to the Maroochy River to the north; the mouth of the river is at southern Mooloolaba. The catchment area covers 221 km2. Addlington Creek, a tributary of the Mooloolah River was dammed by the Ewen Maddock Dam in 1973. Mountain Creek is another tributary that rises on the Buderim mountain that divides the Mooloolah and Maroochy watersheds; the gastric-brooding frog is a extinct frog, discovered in only three catchments, the Mary River, Mooloolah River and Stanley Rivers. Although the Mooloolah River doesn't experience major flooding a flood warning system was established in 2004 to inform the Sunshine Coast Regional Council with river height predictions from network of rainfall and river height field stations. List of rivers of Australia Mooloolah River National Park
The Coral Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, classified as an interim Australian bioregion. The Coral Sea extends 2,000 kilometres down the Australian northeast coast, it is bounded in the west by the east coast of Queensland, thereby including the Great Barrier Reef, in the east by Vanuatu and by New Caledonia, in the northeast by the southern extremity of the Solomon Islands. In the northwest, it reaches to the south coast of eastern New Guinea, thereby including the Gulf of Papua, it merges with the Tasman Sea in the south, with the Solomon Sea in the north and with the Pacific Ocean in the east. On the west, it is bounded by the mainland coast of Queensland, in the northwest, it connects with the Arafura Sea through the Torres Strait; the sea is characterised with frequent rains and tropical cyclones. It contains numerous islands and reefs, as well as the world's largest reef system, the Great Barrier Reef, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981.
All previous oil exploration projects were terminated at the GBR in 1975, fishing is restricted in many areas. The reefs and islands of the Coral Sea are rich in birds and aquatic life and are a popular tourist destination, both nationally and internationally. While the Great Barrier Reef with its islands and cays belong to Queensland, most reefs and islets east of it are part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory. In addition, some islands west of and belonging to New Caledonia are part of the Coral Sea Islands in a geographical sense, such as the Chesterfield Islands and Bellona Reefs; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Coral Sea as follows: On the North. The South coast of New Guinea from the entrance to the Bensbach River to Gadogadoa Island near its Southeastern extreme, down this meridian to the 100 fathom line and thence along the Southern edges of Uluma Reef and those extending to the Eastward as far as the Southeast point of Lawik Reef off Tagula Island, thence a line to the Southern extreme of Rennell Island and from its Eastern point to Cape Surville, the Eastern extreme of San Cristobal Island, Solomons.
On the Northeast. From the Northernmost island of the Duff Islands, through these islands to their Southeastern extreme, thence a line to Méré Lava, Vanuatu Islands and down the Eastern coasts of the islands of this Group to Anatom Island in such a way that all the islands of these Groups, the straits separating them, are included in the Coral Sea. On the Southeast. A line from the Southeastern extreme of Anatom Island to Nokanhoui off the Southeast extreme of New Caledonia, thence through the East point of Middleton Reef to the Eastern extreme of Elizabeth Reef and down this meridian to Latitude 30° South. On the South; the parallel of 30° South to the Australian coast. On the West; the Eastern limit of the Arafura Sea and the East Coast of Australia as far south as Latitude 30° South. The Coral Sea basin was formed between 58 million and 48 million years ago when the Queensland continental shelf was uplifted, forming the Great Dividing Range, continental blocks subsided at the same time; the sea has been an important source of coral for the Great Barrier Reef, both during its formation and after sea level lowering.
The geological formation processes are still proceeding, as evidenced by the seismic activity. Several hundred earthquakes with the magnitude between 2 and 6 were recorded in the period 1866–2000 along the Queensland coast and in the Coral Sea. On 2 April 2007, the Solomon Islands were struck by a major earthquake followed by a several metres tall tsunami; the epicentre of this magnitude 8.1 earthquake was 349 km northwest of Honiara, at a depth of 10 kilometres. It was followed by more than 44 aftershocks of a magnitude greater; the resulting tsunami destroyed more than 900 homes. The sea received its name because of its numerous coral formations, they include the GBR, which extends about 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia and includes 2,900 individual reefs and 1000 islands. The Chesterfield Islands and Lihou Reef are the largest atolls of the Coral Sea. Major Coral Sea currents form a counter-clockwise gyro, it brings warm nutrient-poor waters from the Coral Sea down the east coast of Australia to the cool waters of the Tasman Sea.
This current is the strongest along the Australian coasts and transforms 30 million m3/s of water within a flow band of about 100 kilometres wide and 500 metres deep. The current is weakest around August; the major river flowing into the sea is the Burdekin River, which has its delta southeast of Townsville. Owing to the seasonal and annual variations in occurrence of cyclones and in precipitation, its annual discharge can vary more than 10 times between the two succeeding years. In particular, in the period 1920–1999, the average flow rate near the delta was below 1000 m3/s in 1923, 1931, 1939, 1969, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1993 and 1995; this irregul
Division of Fisher
The Division of Fisher is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland. The division was created in 1949 and is named after Andrew Fisher, three times Prime Minister of Australia, it is located in the Sunshine Coast area north of Brisbane and includes the towns of Caloundra, Beerwah, Maleny and Kilcoy. As created, it extended as far inland as Kingaroy, but moved eastward from the 1960s onward to become an Sunshine Coast-based seat, it was a safe seat for the National Party until the 1980s. However, some of its more conservative territory was shifted to the new seat of Fairfax in 1984, replaced by some more marginal territory in the outer northern suburbs of Brisbane. On these boundaries, Labor took the seat in 1987; the Brisbane portion was removed in 1993, erasing Labor's majority and making Fisher notionally Liberal. The Liberals took the seat in 1993, have held it for all but two years since without much difficulty. To date, it is the last time, its most prominent members have been Sir Charles Adermann, Deputy Leader of the Country Party 1964–66, Peter Slipper, who served as Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives from 2011 to 2012.
Following the resignation of Harry Jenkins as Speaker in the 43rd Parliament, Peter Slipper was nominated unopposed and installed as Speaker on 24 November 2011. Slipper resigned from the Liberal National Party on taking the Speaker's seat and continued in parliament as an independent member and resigned as speaker and went to the cross bench on 9 October 2012. On 11 May 2013, he joined businessman Clive Palmer's formed Palmer United Party, becoming its first member in federal parliament. However, a matter of hours his membership of the party was revoked and Slipper returned to being an independent. Division of Fisher — Australian Electoral Commission
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
A bookmobile or mobile library is a vehicle designed for use as a library. Bookmobiles expand the reach of traditional libraries by transporting books to potential readers, providing library services to people in otherwise-underserved locations and/or circumstances. Bookmobile services and materials, may be customized for the populations served. In addition to motor vehicles, bookmobiles have been based on various means of conveyance, including bicycles and trains, as well as elephants, horses and donkeys. In the United States of America, The American School Library was a traveling frontier library published by Harper & Brothers; the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History has the only complete original set of this series complete with its wooden carrying case. The British Workman reported in 1857 about a perambulating library operating in a circle of eight villages, in Cumbria. A Victorian merchant and philanthropist, George Moore, had created the project to "diffuse good literature among the rural population".
The Warrington Perambulating Library, set up in 1858, was another early British mobile library. This horse-drawn van was operated by the Warrington Mechanics' Institute, which aimed to increase the lending of its books to enthusiastic local patrons. One of the earliest mobile libraries in the United States was a mule-drawn wagon carrying wooden boxes of books, it was created in 1904 by the People's Free Library of Chester County, South Carolina, served the rural areas there. Another early mobile library service was developed by Mary Lemist Titcomb; as a librarian in Washington County, Titcomb was concerned that the library was not reaching all the people it could. The annual report for 1902 listed 23 "branches", each being a collection of 50 books in a case, placed in a store or post office throughout the county. Realizing that this did not reach the most rural residents, the Washington County Free Library began a "book wagon" in 1905, taking the library materials directly to people's homes in remote parts of the county.
With the rise of motorized transport in America, a pioneering librarian in 1920 named Sarah Byrd Askew began driving her specially outfitted Model T to provide library books to rural areas in New Jersey. The automobile remained rare, in Minneapolis, the Hennepin County Public Library operated a horse-drawn book wagon starting in 1922. Following the Great Depression in the United States, a WPA effort from 1935 to 1943 called the Pack Horse Library Project covered the remote coves and mountainsides of Kentucky and nearby Appalachia, bringing books and similar supplies on foot and on hoof to those who could not make the trip to a library on their own. Sometimes these "packhorse librarians" relied on a centralized contact to help them distribute the materials. At Fairfax County, county-wide bookmobile service was begun in 1940, in a truck loaned by the Works Progress Administration; the WPA support of the bookmobile ended in 1942. The "Library in Action" was a late-1960s bookmobile program in the Bronx, NY, run by interracial staff that brought books to teenagers of color in under-served neighborhoods.
Bookmobiles reached their height of popularity in the mid-twentieth century. Bookmobiles are still in use, operated by libraries, schools and other organizations. Although some feel the bookmobile is an outmoded service, giving reasons like high costs, advanced technology and ineffectiveness, others cite the ability of the bookmobile to be more cost-efficient than building more branch libraries would be and its high use among its patrons as support for its continuation. To meet the growing demand for "greener" bookmobiles that deliver outreach services to their patrons, some bookmobile manufacturers have introduced significant advances to reduce their carbon footprint, such as solar/battery solutions in lieu of traditional generators, all-electric and hybrid-electric chassis. Bookmobiles have taken on an updated form in the form of m libraries known as mobile libraries in which patrons are delivered content electronically The Internet Archive runs its own bookmobile to print out-of-copyright books on demand.
The project has spun off similar efforts elsewhere in the developing world. The Free Black Women's Library is a mobile library in Brooklyn. Founded by Ola Ronke Akinmowo in 2015, this bookmobile features books written by black women. Titles are available in exchange for other titles written by black female authors. National Bookmobile Day, sponsored by the American Library Association, is celebrated in April each year, on the Wednesday of National Library Week. In Kenya, the Camel Mobile Library Service is funded by the National Library Service of Kenya and by Book Aid International and it operates in Garissa and Wajir, near the border with Somalia; the service started with three camels in October 1996 and had 12 in 2006, delivering more than 7,000 books —in English and Swahili. Masha Hamilton used this service as a background for her 2007 novel The Camel Bookmobile. "Donkey Drawn Electro-Communication Library Carts" were being employed in Zimbabwe in 2002 as "a centre for electric and electronic communication: radio, fax, e-mail, Internet".
In Indonesia in 2015, Ridwan Sururi and his horse "Luna" started a mobile library called Kudapustaka. The goal is to improve access to books for villagers in a region that has more than 977,000 illiterate adults; the duo travel between villages in central Java with books balanced on Luna's back. Sururi visits schools three times a week. I