Cocke County, Tennessee
Cocke County is a county on the eastern border of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 35,662, its county seat is Newport. Cocke County comprises the Newport, TN Micropolitan Statistical Area, part of the Knoxville-Morristown-Sevierville, Tennessee Combined Statistical Area. Before the arrival of European settlers, the area, now Cocke County was inhabited by the Cherokee, they were the most recent of a series of indigenous cultures who had occupied this country for thousands of years. The first recorded European settlement in the county was in 1783 when land near the fork of the French Broad and the Pigeon Rivers was cleared and cultivated; the earliest European settlers were Scots-Irish and Germans who came to the area over the mountains from the Carolinas or through Virginia from Pennsylvania and other northern states. The county was established by an Act of the Tennessee General Assembly on October 9, 1797, from a part of Jefferson County, Tennessee, it was named for one of the state's first United States Senators.
Located within the Appalachian and Great Smoky Mountains, it had difficult conditions for early settlers. Like many East Tennessee counties, settled by yeomen farmers who owned few if any slaves, Cocke County was pro-Union on the eve of the Civil War. In Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession referendum on June 8, 1861, the county's residents voted 1,185 to 518 against secession. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 443 square miles, of which 435 square miles is land and 8.6 square miles is water. The southern part of the county is located within the Great Smoky Mountains, the lands are protected by the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the northern part of the county is situated within the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians. The county's highest point is Old Black, which rises to 6,370 feet in the Smokies along the county's border with North Carolina. English Mountain, a large ridge that peaks at 3,629 feet, dominates the western part of the county. Cocke County is drained by the French Broad River, which traverses the northern part of the county and forms much of its boundary with Jefferson County.
A portion of this river is part of Douglas Lake, an artificial reservoir created by Douglas Dam further downstream. The Pigeon River flows northward across the county and empties into the French Broad north of Newport at Irish Bottoms. Hamblen County Greene County Madison County, North Carolina Haywood County, North Carolina Sevier County Jefferson County Appalachian Trail Cherokee National Forest Foothills Parkway Great Smoky Mountains National Park Rankin Wildlife Management Area Martha Sundquist State Forest I-40 US 25 US 25E US 25W US 321 US 411 SR 32 SR 73 As of the census of 2000, there were 33,565 people, 13,762 households, 9,715 families residing in the county; the population density was 77 people per square mile. There were 15,844 housing units at an average density of 36 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.16% White, 1.99% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, 0.96% from two or more races.
1.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 13,762 households out of which 29.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.10% were married couples living together, 13.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.40% were non-families. 25.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.87. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.80% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 26.40% from 45 to 64, 13.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 94.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $25,553, the median income for a family was $30,418. Males had a median income of $26,062 versus $18,826 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,881.
About 18.70% of families and 22.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.80% of those under age 18 and 18.70% of those age 65 or over. Newport Parrottsville Wasp Ben W. Hooper, governor of Tennessee from 1911 to 1915 Popcorn Sutton, moonshiner Freddie Combs, Gospel music singer and minister The novel Christy and the television series of the same name are based on historical events and localities of Cocke County; the fictional small town of El Pano, where the novel begins, is based on the existing village of Del Rio, Tennessee. The fictional Cutter Gap, where most of the plot unfolds, represents the locale now known as Chapel Hollow. Several area landmarks associated with the story are marked for visitors, including the site of the Ebenezer Mission in Chapel Hollow, located off the Old Fifteenth Rd. about 5 miles from Del Rio. Like all of Unionist East Tennessee, Cocke County has been overwhelmingly Republican since the Civil War. Since the first postwar election in 1868, Cocke County has voted for every Republican Presidential candidate supporting William Howard Taft during the divided 1912 election.
No Democratic Presidential candidate has managed to receive forty percent of the county's vote in this time, although Franklin D. Roosevelt in his 1932 landslide got within 0.23 percent of this figure. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cocke County, Tennessee Goodspeed Publish
A shock absorber is a mechanical or hydraulic device designed to absorb and damp shock impulses. It does this by converting the kinetic energy of the shock into another form of energy, dissipated. Most shock absorbers are a form of dashpot. Pneumatic and hydraulic shock absorbers are used in conjunction with springs. An automobile shock absorber contains spring-loaded check valves and orifices to control the flow of oil through an internal piston. One design consideration, when designing or choosing a shock absorber, is. In most shock absorbers, energy is converted to heat inside the viscous fluid. In hydraulic cylinders, the hydraulic fluid heats up, while in air cylinders, the hot air is exhausted to the atmosphere. In other types of shock absorbers, such as electromagnetic types, the dissipated energy can be stored and used later. In general terms, shock absorbers help cushion vehicles on uneven roads. In a vehicle, shock absorbers reduce the effect of traveling over rough ground, leading to improved ride quality and vehicle handling.
While shock absorbers serve the purpose of limiting excessive suspension movement, their intended sole purpose is to damp spring oscillations. Shock absorbers use gasses to absorb excess energy from the springs. Spring rates are chosen by the manufacturer based on the weight of the vehicle and unloaded; some people use shocks to modify spring rates but this is not the correct use. Along with hysteresis in the tire itself, they damp the energy stored in the motion of the unsprung weight up and down. Effective wheel bounce damping may require tuning shocks to an optimal resistance. Spring-based shock absorbers use coil springs or leaf springs, though torsion bars are used in torsional shocks as well. Ideal springs alone, are not shock absorbers, as springs only store and do not dissipate or absorb energy. Vehicles employ both hydraulic shock absorbers and springs or torsion bars. In this combination, "shock absorber" refers to the hydraulic piston that absorbs and dissipates vibration. Now, composite suspension system are used in 2 wheelers and leaf spring are made up of composite material in 4 wheelers.
In common with carriages and railway locomotives, most early motor vehicles used leaf springs. One of the features of these springs was that the friction between the leaves offered a degree of damping, in a 1912 review of vehicle suspension, the lack of this characteristic in helical springs was the reason it was "impossible" to use them as main springs; however the amount of damping provided by leaf spring friction was limited and variable according to the conditions of the springs, whether wet or dry. It operated in both directions. Motorcycle front suspension adopted coil sprung Druid forks from about 1906, similar designs added rotary friction dampers, which damped both ways - but they were adjustable; these friction disk shock absorbers were fitted to many cars. One of the problems with motor cars was the large variation in sprung weight between loaded and loaded for the rear springs; when loaded the springs could bottom out, apart from fitting rubber'bump stops', there were attempts to use heavy main springs with auxiliary springs to smooth the ride when loaded, which were called'shock absorbers'.
Realising that the spring and vehicle combination bounced with a characteristic frequency, these auxiliary springs were designed with a different period, but were not a solution to the problem that the spring rebound after striking a bump could throw you out of your seat. What was called for was damping that operated on the rebound. Although C. L. Horock came up with a design in 1901 that had hydraulic damping, it worked in one direction only, it does not seem to have gone into production right away, whereas mechanical dampers such as the Gabriel Snubber started being fitted in the late 1900s. These used a belt coiled inside a device such that it wound in under the action of a coiled spring, but met friction when drawn out. Gabriel Snubbers were fitted to an 11.9HP Arrol-Johnston car which broke the 6 hour Class B record at Brooklands in late 1912, the Automotor journal noted that this snubber might have a great future for racing due to its light weight and easy fitment. One of the earliest hydraulic dampers to go into production was the Telesco Shock Absorber, exhibited at the 1912 Olympia Motor Show and marketed by Polyrhoe Carburettors Ltd.
This contained a spring inside the telescopic unit like the pure spring type'shock absorbers' mentioned above, but oil and an internal valve so that the oil damped in the rebound direction. The Telesco unit was fitted at the rear end of the leaf spring, in place of the rear spring to chassis mount, so that it formed part of the springing system, albeit a hydraulically damped part; this layout was selected as it was easy to apply to existing vehicles, but it meant the hydraulic damping was not applied to the action of the main leaf spring, but only to the action of the auxiliary spring in the unit itself. The first production hydraulic dampers to act on the main leaf spring movement were those based on an original concept by Maurice Houdaille patented in 1908 and 1909; these used a lever arm. The main advantage over the friction disk dampers was that it would resist sudden movement but allow slow movement, whereas the rotary friction dampers tended to stick and offer the same resistance regardless of speed of movement.
There appears t
Desi Sharaab is a category of liquor made in the countryside of the Indian subcontinent, one of whose variants is tharra. It is traditionally prepared from a procedure, passed down for centuries, it is the primary and most popular alcoholic beverage in India's villages and for the below poverty line class in urban and city areas. It is fermented and distilled from molasses, a by product of sugarcane. Desi liquor is a broad term and it can include both and illegally made local alcohol; the term desi daru refers to legal alcohol while other types of desi liquor may be categorised as Moonshine alcohol. It is consumed in India from ancient times and is known by different names in different parts of the country; the term desi, from Hindi language term desh, an endonym for the compatriot or local is applied to food or drink, considered traditional or native. Daaru is an indigenous term used for any alcoholic beverage in India. Sharaab is used in some areas with less frequency. An article in the medical journal The Lancet estimated that nearly two-thirds of the alcohol consumed in India is desi daru.
Globus spirits mentioned that India's desi liquor market is about 242 million cases with a growth rate of about 7% per annum. No data regarding Pakistan is available as drinking alcohol is prohibited for Muslims in Pakistan, although locally made liquor is sold on the black market. Illicit illegal Desi liquor, being the cheapest alcohol in India, is the mainstay alcoholic beverage for the village population and urban poor. Illicit illegal Desi liquor is less consumed for "social" purposes, it is more consumed for the purpose of quick intoxication. In rural areas, illicit ` Desi Daru' has been blamed for domestic poverty in the family. There have been several protests against illegal desi liquor shops/bars in villages. There are separate bars for legal desi daru. There have been issues in many bars in India where Scotch/English whisky has been adulterated by mixing some quantity of Illicit desi liquor in it before serving it to customers. Though health risks are associated with all kinds of alcohol, desi daru can be more hazardous than other kinds as it does not undergo a multiple distillation process, is poorly regulated due to it being bootleg alcohol.
If care is not taken in the distillation process and the proper equipment is not used, harmful impurities such as fusel alcohols, lead from plumbing solder, methanol can be concentrated to toxic levels. Several deaths have been reported in India and Pakistan due to consumption of non-factory made toxic liquor. There are several references of songs. 2012 film Cocktail has song named Daru Desi sung by Shalmali Kholgade. 2011 film F. A. L. T. U has party song named. Scenes in 2011 film Rockstar shows lead actor Ranbir Kapoor and lead actress Nargis Fakhri drinking desi daru. 2014 film Main Aur Mr. Riight has song named Desi Daru sung by Jasbir Jassi. Photo of Desi daru by Firstpost
Marvin "Popcorn" Sutton was an American Appalachian moonshiner and bootlegger. Born in Maggie Valley, North Carolina, he grew up, died in the rural areas around Maggie Valley and nearby Cocke County, Tennessee, he wrote a self-published autobiographical guide to moonshining production, self-produced a home video depicting his moonshining activities, was the subject of several documentaries, including one that received a Regional Emmy Award. Sutton committed suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning in March 2009, aged 62, rather than report to federal prison after being convicted of offenses related to moonshining and illegal firearm possession. Since his death, a new company and associated whiskey brand have been named after him. Sutton had a long career making bootlegging. Sutton said he considered moonshine production a legitimate part of his heritage, as he was a Scots-Irish American and descended from a long line of moonshiners. In the 1960s or 1970s, Sutton was given the nickname of "Popcorn" after his frustrated attack on a bar's faulty popcorn vending machine with a pool cue.
Before his rise to fame at around 60 years of age, he had been in trouble with the law several times, but had avoided prison sentences. He was convicted in 1974 of selling untaxed liquor and in 1981 and 1985 on charges of possessing controlled substances and assault with a deadly weapon, but he received only probation sentences in those cases. Sutton wrote a self-published autobiography and guide to moonshine production called Me and My Likker, began selling copies of it in 1999 out of his junk shop in Maggie Valley; the New York Times called it "a rambling and hilarious account of his life in the trade". At around the same time, Sutton released it on VHS tape, he was a short, skinny fella, who always wore his hat –, kind of his claim to fame, his hat that he always wore. And his bib overalls – he always wore bib overalls; when he came to federal court, he was wearing bib overalls. He was a friendly fellow, of course every time you would talk to him, he would say, "Ray, I've run my last run of moonshine, I'm not gonna do it anymore, I'm just getting too old to be doing this stuff."
His first appearance in a feature film was in Neal Hutcheson's 2002 documentary, Mountain Talk, as one of various people of southern Appalachia featured in this film focused on the "mountain dialect" of the area. Sutton next appeared in another Hutcheson film that would become the cornerstone of his notoriety, called This is the Last Dam Run of Likker I'll Ever Make. Filmed and released in 2002, the film became a cult classic and over time drew the attention of television producers in Boston and New York. In 2007, a fire on Sutton's property in Parrottsville led to firefighters discovering 650 gallons of untaxed alcohol there, for which he was convicted and put on probation again by Cocke County authorities. Sutton was featured in the 2007 documentary Hillbilly: The Real Story on The History Channel; the source footage from the 2002 documentary was re-worked into another Hutcheson documentary, The Last One, released in 2008 and was broadcast on PBS. It received a 2009 Southeast Emmy Award. In March 2008, Sutton told an undercover federal officer that he had 500 gallons of moonshine in Tennessee and another 400 gallons in Maggie Valley that he was ready to sell.
This led to a raid of his property by the ATF, led by Jim Cavanaugh of Waco siege notoriety, In January 2009, who had used a public defender as his attorney in the case and had pleaded guilty, was sentenced to 18 months in a federal prison for illegally distilling spirits and possession of a firearm as a felon. Sutton, 62 and diagnosed with cancer, asked the U. S. District Judge Ronnie Greer to allow him to serve his sentence under house arrest, several petitions were made by others requesting that his sentence be reduced or commuted, but this time to no avail; the judge noted that Sutton was still under probation in Tennessee at the time of the federal raid, said that putting a man on probation again after being convicted five times of various crimes would not serve the community interest. He noted Sutton's appearances on film surrounded by firearms and demonstrating how to make illegal moonshine, he said he had considered a harsher sentence of 24 months, but had decided on 18 months after considering Sutton's age and medical condition.
Sutton committed suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning on March 16, 2009 to avoid a federal prison term due to begin a few days later. His wife Pam, whom he had married about two years before his death, returned home from running errands and discovered her husband in his green Ford Fairmont at the rear of their property in Parrottsville, Tennessee. Mrs. Sutton said, "He called it his three-jug car because he gave three jugs of liquor for it." His daughter said he had told her in advance that he would commit suicide rather than go to jail, adding that he had "the strength to die the way he lived: according to his own wishes and no one else's."Sutton's body was interred at a family graveyard in Mount Sterling, North Carolina. However, on October 24, 2009, it was relocated to his property in Parrottsville, a public memorial service was held, his body was carried to its new resting spot by carriage. Sutton's memorial grew in spectacle as country music singer Hank Williams Jr. flew in to pay his respects.
A small memorial was held for close friends and family. A conventional grave marker was used the head of
In brewing and distilling, mashing is the process of combining a mix of grains – malted barley with supplementary grains such as corn, rye, or wheat – known as the "grain bill" with water and heating the mixture. Mashing allows the enzymes in the malt to break down the starch in the grain into sugars maltose to create a malty liquid called wort; the two main methods of mashing are infusion mashing, in which the grains are heated in one vessel, decoction mashing, in which a proportion of the grains are boiled and returned to the mash, raising the temperature. Mashing involves pauses at certain temperatures and takes place in a "mash tun" – an insulated brewing vessel with a false bottom; the term "mashing" originates from the Old English noun masc, which means "soft mixture", the Old English verb mæscan, which means "to mix with hot water". Usage of the term to refer to "anything reduced to a soft, pulpy consistency" is recorded as early as the late 16th century; the end product is called a "mash".
Most breweries use infusion mashing, in which the mash is heated directly to go from rest temperature to rest temperature. Some infusion mashes achieve temperature changes by adding hot water, some breweries do single-step infusions, performing only one rest before lautering. Decoction mashing involves boiling a portion of the grains and returning them to the mash, raising the temperature; the boiling extracts more starches from the grains by breaking down the cell walls. It can be classified into one-, two-, three-step decoctions, depending on how many times part of the mash is drawn off to be boiled. Decoction is common in German and Central European breweries, it was used out of necessity before the invention of thermometers allowed for simpler step mashing, but the practice is still in use for many traditional beers because of the unique malty flavor it lends to the end product. Boiling part of the grain results in Maillard reactions, which create melanoidins that create rich, malty flavors.
In large breweries where optimal utilization of the brewery equipment is economically necessary, there is at least one dedicated vessel for mashing. For decoction processes, there must be at least two; the vessel needs a good stirring mechanism known as a mash rake to keep the temperature of the mash uniform, an efficient heating method that will not scorch the malt – steam – and proper insulation to maintain rest temperatures for up to one hour. A spray ball for clean-in-place operation helps with periodic deep cleaning. Sanitation is not a major concern before wort boiling, so a rinse-down is all, necessary between batches. Smaller breweries use a boil kettle or a lauter tun for mashing; the latter either limits the process to single-step infusion mashing or results in a mash tun, not appropriate for the lautering process. Mixing of the strike water used for mashing in and milled grist must be done in a way that minimizes clumping and oxygen uptake; this was traditionally done by first adding water to the mash vessel and introducing the grist from the top of the vessel in a thin stream, but this led to a lot of oxygen absorption and loss of flour dust to the surrounding air.
A premasher, which mixes the grist with mash-in temperature water while it's still in the delivery tube, reduces oxygen uptake and prevents dust from being lost. Mashing in – sometimes called "doughing-in" – is done between 35–45 °C, but for single-step infusion mashes, mashing in must be done between 62–67 °C for amylases to break down the grain's starch into sugars; the weight-to-weight ratio of strike water and grain varies from one-half for dark beers in single-step infusions to one-quarter or one-fifth ratios that are more suitable for light-colored beers and decoction mashing, where much of the mash water is boiled off. In step infusion and decoction mashing, the mash is heated to different temperatures to allow specific enzymes to work optimally; the table at right shows the optimal temperature ranges for key enzymes and what materials those enzymes break down. There is some contention in the brewing industry as to the optimal temperatures for these enzymes, as it is very dependent on the pH of the mash and its thickness.
A thicker mash acts as a buffer for the enzymes. Once a step is complete, the enzymes active in that step are denatured by the increasing heat and become permanently inactive; the time spent transitioning between rests is preferably as short as possible. Β-glucan is a general term for polysaccharides, such as cellulose, made up of chains of glucose molecules connected by beta glycosidic bonds, as opposed to the alpha glycosidic bonds in starch. They are a major constituent of the cell walls of plants and make up a large part of the bran in grains. A β-glucanase rest done at 40 °C is practiced in order to break down cell walls and make starches more available, thus raising the extraction efficiency. Should the brewer let this rest go on too long, it's possible that a large amount of β-glucan will dissolve into the mash, which could lead to a stuck mash on brew day and cause filtration problems in beer production. Protein degradation via a proteolytic rest plays many roles: production of free-amino nitrogen for yeast nutrition, freeing of small proteins from larger proteins for foam stability in the finished product, reduction of haze-causing proteins for easier filtration and increased beer clarity.
In all-malt beers, the malt provides enough protein for good head retention, the brewer
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama and Georgia. While the Appalachian Mountains stretch from Belle Isle in Canada to Cheaha Mountain in Alabama, the cultural region of Appalachia refers only to the central and southern portions of the range, from the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia, southwesterly to the Great Smoky Mountains; as of the 2010 United States Census, the region was home to 25 million people. Since its recognition as a distinctive region in the late 19th century, Appalachia has been a source of enduring myths and distortions regarding the isolation and behavior of its inhabitants. Early 20th century writers engaged in yellow journalism focused on sensationalistic aspects of the region's culture, such as moonshining and clan feuding, portrayed the region's inhabitants as uneducated and prone to impulsive acts of violence. Sociological studies in the 1960s and 1970s helped to dispel these stereotypes.
While endowed with abundant natural resources, Appalachia has long struggled and been associated with poverty. In the early 20th century, large-scale logging and coal mining firms brought wage-paying jobs and modern amenities to Appalachia, but by the 1960s the region had failed to capitalize on any long-term benefits from these two industries. Beginning in the 1930s, the federal government sought to alleviate poverty in the Appalachian region with a series of New Deal initiatives, such as the construction of dams to provide cheap electricity and the implementation of better farming practices. On March 9, 1965, the Appalachian Regional Commission was created to further alleviate poverty in the region by diversifying the region's economy and helping to provide better health care and educational opportunities to the region's inhabitants. By 1990, Appalachia had joined the economic mainstream, but still lagged behind the rest of the nation in most economic indicators. Since Appalachia lacks definite physiographical or topographical boundaries, there has been some disagreement over what the region encompasses.
The most used modern definition of Appalachia is the one defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission in 1965 and expanded over subsequent decades. The region defined by the Commission includes 420 counties and eight independent cities in 13 states, including all of West Virginia, 14 counties in New York, 52 in Pennsylvania, 32 in Ohio, 3 in Maryland, 54 in Kentucky, 25 counties and 8 cities in Virginia, 29 in North Carolina, 52 in Tennessee, 6 in South Carolina, 37 in Georgia, 37 in Alabama, 24 in Mississippi; when the Commission was established, counties were added based on economic need, rather than any cultural parameters. The first major attempt to map Appalachia as a distinctive cultural region came in the 1890s with the efforts of Berea College president William Goodell Frost, whose "Appalachian America" included 194 counties in 8 states. In 1921, John C. Campbell published The Southern Highlander and His Homeland in which he modified Frost's map to include 254 counties in 9 states.
A landmark survey of the region in the following decade by the United States Department of Agriculture defined the region as consisting of 206 counties in 6 states. In 1984, Karl Raitz and Richard Ulack expanded the ARC's definition to include 445 counties in 13 states, although they removed all counties in Mississippi and added two in New Jersey. Historian John Alexander Williams, in his 2002 book Appalachia: A History, distinguished between a "core" Appalachian region consisting of 164 counties in West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, a greater region defined by the ARC. In the Encyclopedia of Appalachia, Appalachian State University historian Howard Dorgan suggested the term "Old Appalachia" for the region's cultural boundaries, noting an academic tendency to ignore the southwestern and northeastern extremes of the ARC's pragmatic definition. While exploring inland along the northern coast of Florida in 1528, the members of the Narváez expedition, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, found a Native American village near present-day Tallahassee, whose name they transcribed as Apalchen or Apalachen.
The name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváez's expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15, 1528, applied the name. Now spelled "Appalachian", it is the fourth oldest surviving European place-name in the U. S. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves; the first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutiérrez' map of 1562. Le Moyne was the first European to apply "Apalachen" to a mountain range as opposed to a village, native tribe, or a southeastern region of North America; the name was not used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century. A competing and more popular name was the "Allegheny Mountains", "Alleghenies", "Alleghania." In the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either "Appalachia" or "Alleghania". In northern U. S. dialects, the mountains are pronounced or.
The cultural region of Appalachia is pronounced /æpəˈleɪʃə/ /æpəˈleɪtʃə/, all with a third syllable like "lay". In southern U. S. dialects, the mountains are called the, the cultural region of Appalachia is pronounced /ˈæpəˈlætʃə/, both with a third syllable like the "la" in "latch". This pronunciation is favored in th
United States Department of Justice
The United States Department of Justice known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U. S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration; the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters, running the federal prison system; the department is responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet.
The current Attorney General is William Barr. The office of the Attorney General was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 as a part-time job for one person, but grew with the bureaucracy. At one time, the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, but in 1819 the Attorney General began advising Congress alone to ensure a manageable workload; until March 3, 1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salaries by running private law practices arguing cases before the courts as attorneys for paying litigants. Following unsuccessful efforts to make Attorney General a full-time job, in 1869, the U. S. House Committee on the Judiciary, led by Congressman William Lawrence, conducted an inquiry into the creation of a "law department" headed by the Attorney General and composed of the various department solicitors and United States attorneys. On February 19, 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice.
President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill into law on June 22, 1870. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as America's first Solicitor General the same week that Congress created the Department of Justice; the Department's immediate function was to preserve civil rights. It set about fighting against domestic terrorist groups, using both violence and litigation to oppose the 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments to the Constitution. Both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grant's first term in office there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. By 1871, there were 3000 indictments and 600 convictions with most only serving brief sentences while the ringleaders were imprisoned for up to five years in the federal penitentiary in Albany, New York; the result was a dramatic decrease in violence in the South.
Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was "better" or "stronger" than Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. George H. Williams, who succeeded Akerman in December 1871, continued to prosecute the Klan throughout 1872 until the spring of 1873 during Grant's second term in office. Williams placed a moratorium on Klan prosecutions because the Justice Department, inundated by cases involving the Klan, did not have the manpower to continue prosecutions; the "Act to Establish the Department of Justice" drastically increased the Attorney General's responsibilities to include the supervision of all United States Attorneys under the Department of the Interior, the prosecution of all federal crimes, the representation of the United States in all court actions, barring the use of private attorneys by the federal government. The law created the office of Solicitor General to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. With the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, the federal government took on some law enforcement responsibilities, the Department of Justice tasked with performing these.
In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, from the Department of Interior. New facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order which gave the Department of Justice responsibility for the "functions of prosecuting in the courts of the United States claims and demands by, offsenses against, the Government of the United States, of defending claims and demands against the Government, of supervising the work of United States attorneys and clerks in connection therewith, now exercised by any agency or officer..." The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger and Medary took over the project. On a lot bordered by Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues and Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over 1,000,000 square feet of space.
The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served as overall design consultant for the entire building, contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside. Various efforts, none successful, have been made to determine the original intended meaning of the Latin motto appearing on the Department of Justice s