Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
George Catlett Marshall Jr. was an American statesman and soldier. He rose through the United States Army to become Chief of Staff under presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman served as Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense under Truman. Winston Churchill lauded Marshall as the "organizer of victory" for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II, although Marshall declined a final field leadership position that went to his protege U. S. President, Dwight D. Eisenhower. After the war, as Secretary of State, Marshall advocated a significant U. S. economic and political commitment to post-war European recovery, including the Marshall Plan that bore his name. In recognition of this work, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953. Born in Uniontown, Marshall graduated from the Virginia Military Institute in 1901. After serving as commandant of students at the Danville Military Academy in Danville, Marshall received his commission as a second lieutenant of Infantry in February, 1902.
In the years after the Spanish–American War, he served in the United States and overseas in positions of increasing rank and responsibility, including platoon leader and company commander in the Philippines during the Philippine–American War. He was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, graduated first in his 1908 Army Staff College class. In 1916 Marshall was assigned as aide-de-camp to J. Franklin Bell, the commander of the Western Department. After the United States entered World War I, Marshall served with Bell while Bell commanded the Department of the East, he was assigned to the staff of the 1st Division, assisted with the organization's mobilization and training in the United States, as well as planning of its combat operations in France. Subsequently, assigned to the staff of the American Expeditionary Forces headquarters, he was a key planner of American operations including the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. After the war, Marshall became an aide-de-camp to John J. Pershing, the Army's Chief of Staff.
Marshall served on the Army staff, commanded the 15th Infantry Regiment in China, was an instructor at the Army War College. In 1927, he became assistant commandant of the Army's Infantry School, where he modernized command and staff processes, which proved to be of major benefit during World War II. In 1932 and 1933 he commanded Georgia. Marshall commanded 5th Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division and Vancouver Barracks from 1936 to 1938, received promotion to brigadier general. During this command, Marshall was responsible for 35 Civilian Conservation Corps camps in Oregon and southern Washington. In July 1938, Marshall was assigned to the War Plans Division on the War Department staff, became the Army's Deputy Chief of Staff; when Chief of Staff Malin Craig retired in 1939, Marshall became acting Chief of Staff, Chief of Staff, a position he held until the war's end in 1945. As Chief of Staff, Marshall organized the largest military expansion in U. S. history, received promotion to five-star rank as General of the Army.
Marshall coordinated Allied operations in the Pacific until the end of the war. In addition to accolades from Churchill and other Allied leaders, Time magazine named Marshall its Man of the Year for 1943. Marshall retired from active service in 1945, but remained on active duty, as required for holders of five-star rank. From December 15, 1945 to January 1947 Marshall served as a special envoy to China in an unsuccessful effort to negotiate a coalition government between the Nationalists of Chiang Kai-shek and Communists under Mao Zedong; as Secretary of State from 1947 to 1949, Marshall advocated rebuilding Europe, a program that became known as the Marshall Plan, which led to his being awarded the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize. After resigning as Secretary of State, Marshall served as chairman of American Battle Monuments Commission and president of the American National Red Cross; as Secretary of Defense at the start of the Korean War, Marshall worked to restore the military's confidence and morale at the end of its post-World War II demobilization and its initial buildup for combat in Korea and operations during the Cold War.
After resigning as Defense Secretary, Marshall retired to his home in Virginia. He was buried with honors at Arlington National Cemetery. George Catlett Marshall Jr. was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, the son of George Catlett Marshall Sr. and Laura Emily Marshall. Marshall was a scion of an old Virginia family, as well as a distant relative of former Chief Justice John Marshall; when asked about his political allegiances, Marshall joked that his father had been a Democrat and his mother a Republican, whereas he was an Episcopalian. Following his graduation from VMI, Marshall sat for a competitive examination for a commission in the United States Army. While awaiting the results, Marshall had accepted the position of Commandant of Students at the Danville Military Institute in Danville, Virginia. Marshall passed the exam and was commissioned a second lieutenant in February, 1902. Prior to World War I, Marshall received various postings in the United States and the Philippines, including serving as an infantry platoon leader and company commander during the Philippine–American War and other guerrilla uprisings.
He was schooled in modern warfare, including a tour at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas from 1906 to 1910 as both a student and an instructor. He was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, graduated first in his 1908 Army Staff College class. After another tour of duty in the Philippines, Marshall returned to
Pinehurst, North Carolina
Pinehurst is a village in Moore County, North Carolina, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 13,124, it is home of Pinehurst Resort. A large portion of the central village, including the resort complexes, is a National Historic Landmark District, designated in 1996 for its landscape design and its significance in the history of golf in the United States. In 1895, James Walker Tufts purchased 500 acres, purchased an additional 5,500 acres, of land for $1.25 per acre in the North Carolina Sandhills, with the vision of building a "health resort for people of modest means". Tufts retained Frederick Law Olmsted to design the village, which features curving lanes and a pictureseque central green. Dubbed Tuftstown during development, Tuftstown became the village of Pinehurst, home of the Pinehurst Resort. In 1980, the village became a municipality; the first golf course at Pinehurst Resort was laid out in 1897-1898. The first championship held at Pinehurst was the United North and South Amateur Championship of 1901.
The best known course, Pinehurst No. 2, was designed by Donald Ross and completed in 1907. Pinehurst Race Track was established in 1915; the resort now has nine golf courses, three hotels, a spa, extensive sports and leisure facilities. In 1999, National Public Radio reported that many local business owners in Pinehurst were upset because the Pinehurst Resort was using lawsuits to prevent local businesses from using the term "Pinehurst" in the names of their businesses; the village council sought a written guarantee from the Pinehurst Resort that it would not force any business in the village to remove the name "Pinehurst" from its name unless the business is a direct competitor. The request came a week in a local newspaper; the village sued the resort over control of the name shared between the resort and village. The Lloyd-Howe House, Pinehurst Historic District and Pinehurst Race Track are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, Pinehurst is located at 35°11′28″N 79°28′11.4″W. and the village has a total area of 17.2 square miles, of which, 16.6 square miles of it is land and 0.6 square miles of it is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 9,706 people, 4,510 households, 3,310 families residing in the village. The population density was 676.9 people per square mile. There were 5,668 housing units at an average density of 395.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 95.31% White, 3.27% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.62% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, 0.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.04% of the population. There were 4,510 households out of which 13.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.5% were married couples living together, 3.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.6% were non-families. 24.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.05 and the average family size was 2.38. In the village, the population was spread out with 11.7% under the age of 18, 2.1% from 18 to 24, 16.7% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 42.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 60 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males. The median income for a household in the village was $58,950, the median income for a family was $67,353. Males had a median income of $51,958 versus $32,181 for females; the per capita income for the village was $41,992. About 1.3% of families and 2.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.8% of those under age 18 and 3.7% of those age 65 or over. Pinehurst Resort The Country Club of North Carolina Sandhills Horticultural Gardens Mystic Cottage The O'Neal School Sandhills Community College Pinecrest High School Episcopal Day School Pinehurst Elementary School Sandhills Classical Christian School Moore County Airport Donna Andrews, professional LPGA golfer, 6-time tournament winner including the Nabisco Dinah Shore. Rick Azar, former television sports anchor and former radio play-by-play announcer of the Buffalo Bills Bill Beutel, news reporter and anchor for ABC News and WABC-TV in New York City, resided in Pinehurst following his retirement from broadcast journalism.
Brian Bass, MLB pitcher Del Cameron, Hall of Fame harness racing driver and trainer. Seth Maness, professional baseball player for the St. Louis Cardinals Vince McMahon, professional wrestling promoter and owner and chairman of World Wrestling Entertainment, was born and raised in Pinehurst. William H. McRaven- United States Navy admiral Carson Abel Roberts, U. S. Marine Corps lieutenant general. Tony Terry, R&B singer. National Register of Historic Places listings in Moore County, North Carolina List of National Historic Landmarks in North Carolina Village of Pinehurst Moore County Chamber of Commerce Pinehurst, Southern Pines, Aberdeen Area Visitors Bureau The Pilot, community newspaper Pinehurst Resort
Alfred Moore was a North Carolina judge who became a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Moore Square, a park located in the Moore Square Historic District in Raleigh, North Carolina was named in his honor, as was Moore County, established in 1784 in the state of North Carolina. Moore was born in North Carolina. Moore's father, preceded him in the practice of law and served as a colonial judge in North Carolina. Alfred was sent to Boston to complete his education, but he returned to North Carolina and read law as an apprentice to his father before being admitted to the bar at the age of twenty. In 1775 the American Revolutionary War broke out and Alfred served as a captain in the First Regiment, North Carolina Line, of which his uncle, James Moore, was colonel, took part in the defense of Charleston, S. C. in June 1776. He resigned in 1777, but served in the militia against Cornwallis after the battle of Guilford Court House; the war was costly to the Moore family. British troops captured the Moore plantation and burned the family home, Alfred’s father, an uncle were among those who served and died.
At the end of the war Moore was elected to the North Carolina General Assembly, which elected him to serve as Attorney General. As Attorney General in 1787 he argued the State's case in Bayard v. Singleton, which as decided became an important early instance of the application of judicial review. Moore was an ardent Federalist favoring a strong national government and he took a leading role in securing North Carolina’s ratification of the United States Constitution after the state had rejected it in 1788. After North Carolina’s admission to the Union as the 12th state, Moore worked as a lawyer, was active in political affairs, served as a judge of the superior court in 1798 and 1799, he served in the North Carolina State legislature, but lost by a single vote in his run for the United States Senate. Moore was nominated by President John Adams to a seat vacated by the death of James Iredell, he served until his resignation on January 26, 1804. In 1799, Associate Justice James Iredell died suddenly.
On December 4, 1799, President John Adams responded to the vacancy by nominating Moore, confirmed by the United States Senate on April 21, 1800, receiving his commission the same day. At 4 feet 5 inches tall he is the shortest justice to sit on the Supreme Court and, due to poor health, Moore’s contribution to the court was abbreviated. In his five years of service he wrote only one opinion, Bas v. Tingy, upholding a conclusion that France was an enemy in the undeclared Quasi-War of 1798–1799. Moore's scant contribution led one Court observer to place him atop a list of the worst justices in the history of the Court. After leaving the Supreme Court in 1804, he helped found the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In the early 1780s, he married Suzanne Eagles, he died in Bladen County, North Carolina, is buried at St. Philip's Church, near Wilmington, his summer home, built around 1785 in Orange County, North Carolina near Hillsborough, still stands, is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
Alfred Moore at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Hoke County, North Carolina
Hoke County is a county in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,952, its county seat is Raeford. Hoke County is part of NC Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is home to part of the Fort Bragg military reservation. The county was formed in 1911 from parts of Robeson County, it was named for a Confederate general in the American Civil War. Hoke County is a member of the regional Lumber River Council of Governments. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 392 square miles, of which 391 square miles is land and 1.6 square miles is water. Moore County - northwest Cumberland County - east Robeson County - south Scotland County - southwest US 15 US 401 US 501 NC 20 NC 211 As of the census of 2010, there were 46,952 people, 11,373 households, 8,745 families residing in the county; the population density was 86 people per square mile. There were 12,518 housing units at an average density of 32 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 44.53% White, 37.64% Black or African American, 11.45% Native American, 0.83% Asian, 0.15% Pacific Islander, 3.27% from other races, 2.13% from two or more races.
7.18% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. By 2005 42.1% of the population was non-Hispanic whites. 10.1% of the population was Native American. 36.3% of the population was African-Americans. 9.8% of the population was Latino. 1.8 % of the population reported 1.0 % of the population was Asian. In 2000 there were 11,373 households out of which 41.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.70% were married couples living together, 18.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.10% were non-families. 19.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.80% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 34.10% from 25 to 44, 17.60% from 45 to 64, 7.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 102.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.30 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $33,230, the median income for a family was $36,110. Males had a median income of $27,925 versus $21,184 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,635. About 14.40% of families and 17.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.40% of those under age 18 and 22.00% of those age 65 or over. Raeford Ashley Heights Bowmore Dundarrach Five Points Rockfish Silver City National Register of Historic Places listings in Hoke County, North Carolina SandHoke Early College Specific GeneralMonroe, Joyce C.. Hoke County. Arcadia Publishing SC. ISBN 978-0-7385-8679-3. Raeford/Hoke Chamber of Commerce Hoke County's newspaper Online News for Raeford and Hoke County Hoke County/Raeford website
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t