2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Tennessee whiskey is straight whiskey produced in the U. S. state of Tennessee. Although it has been defined as a bourbon whiskey in some international trade agreements, most current producers of Tennessee whiskey disclaim references to their products as "bourbon" and do not label them as such on any of their bottles or advertising materials. All current Tennessee whiskey producers are required by Tennessee law to produce their whiskeys in Tennessee and – with the sole exception of Benjamin Prichard's – to use a filtering step known as the Lincoln County Process prior to aging the whiskey. Beyond the perceived marketing value of the distinction, Tennessee whiskey and bourbon have identical requirements, most Tennessee whiskeys meet the criteria for bourbon. Tennessee whiskey is one of the top ten exports of Tennessee. According to the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, as of 2013, the U. S. market for bourbon and Tennessee whiskey reached $2.4 billion, exports of bourbon and Tennessee whiskey grew to exceed $1 billion.
There are two major producers of Tennessee whiskey, Jack Daniel's based in Lynchburg and George Dickel based in Cascade Hollow near Tullahoma, as well as numerous locally-based producers throughout the state, including Benjamin Prichard's of Kelso, Chattanooga Whiskey Company of Chattanooga, Nelson's Green Brier Distillery of Nashville, Tennsouth of Lynnville. In June 2017, the Tennessee Distillers Guild launched the Tennessee Whiskey Trail, a 25-stop distillery tour across the state, to further promote Tennessee whiskey and local whiskey culture. On a federal level, the definition of Tennessee whiskey is established under the North American Free Trade Agreement and at least one other international trade agreement that require it to be "a straight Bourbon whiskey authorized to be produced only in the State of Tennessee". Canadian food and drug laws state that Tennessee whiskey must be "a straight Bourbon whisky produced in the State of Tennessee". On a state level, the State of Tennessee has imposed stringent requirements for Tennessee whiskey.
It is not enough under state law. On May 13, 2013, Tennessee governor Bill Haslam signed House Bill 1084, requiring the Lincoln County process to be used for products produced in the state labeled as "Tennessee Whiskey", along with the existing requirements for bourbon; the law contains a specific exception for Benjamin Prichard's, which does not use the Lincoln County process. As federal law requires statements of origin on labels to be accurate, the Tennessee law gives a firm definition to Tennessee whiskey. Although Jack Daniel's supported the 2013 legislation – stating it was necessary to bring the quality of Tennessee whiskey to the level of bourbons and Scotches – some of the state's smaller distilleries opposed it, arguing the process required by the law was too close to the process used by Jack Daniel's. Phil Prichard, the owner and distiller of Benjamin Prichard's, stated, "If I wanted my whiskey to taste like Jack Daniel's, I would make it like Jack Daniel's." Jeff Arnett, the Master Distiller at Jack Daniel's, noted that stringent requirements were required by Scotch makers in Scotland and champagne makers in France, Tennessee whiskey should not be treated any differently.
In 2014, legislation was introduced in the Tennessee state legislature to amend the 2013 law to allow the reuse of barrels in the aging process. Diageo, which owns George Dickel, supported the proposed change. Arnett blasted the proposed amendment, going as far as to accuse Diageo of attempting to weaken the quality of Tennessee whiskey to protect its Scotch and bourbon brands. Diageo argued that the 2013 law was an attempt by Jack Daniel's to push smaller competitors out of the market. Few original brands of Tennessee whiskey exist today, due to statewide prohibition that lasted longer than national prohibition; as of 2013, many Tennessee counties still prohibit the sale of alcohol. In 2009, the Tennessee General Assembly amended the statute that had for many years limited the distillation of drinkable spirits to just three of Tennessee's 95 counties; the revised law allows distilleries to be established in 41 additional counties. This change is expected to lead to the establishment of more small distilleries, thus increasing the number of producers of Tennessee whiskey.
Benjamin Prichard's from Kelso Chattanooga Whiskey Company from Chattanooga Collier and McKeel from Nashville Fugitives Spirits from Nashville George Dickel from Tullahoma Jack Daniel's from Lynchburg Nelson's Green Brier Distillery from Nashville TennSouth Distillery from Lynnville Farrar Distillery from Noah All Tennessee Whiskey is from Tennessee, but that does not mean all whiskey from Tennessee qualifies as "Tennessee Whiskey". For example, the Ole Smoky Distillery is located in Tennessee and produces a whiskey product, but the product cannot be sold as Tennessee whiskey because it is not aged. Instead, it is classified as a corn whiskey rather than carrying the "Tennessee whiskey" label and is marketed as "Tennessee moonshine". George Dickel began production of a rye whiskey in 2012 that cannot be labeled a Tennessee whiskey because it is produced from a rye-based mash and is not distilled in Tennessee. Most of the stages of its production are conducted under contract in Indiana, the whiskey i
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Coffee County, Tennessee
Coffee County is a county located in the southern part of Tennessee, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the county's population was 52,796, its county seat is Manchester. Coffee County is part of TN Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is part of Middle Tennessee, one of the three Grand Divisions of the state. Coffee County was formed in 1836 from parts of Bedford and Franklin counties, it was named for John Coffee, a prominent planter, land speculator, militia officer. Similar to other counties in this area of the state, planters here cultivated tobacco and hemp, produced by the labor of enslaved African Americans. In the period after Reconstruction and into the early 20th century, whites in Coffee County committed eight lynchings of blacks; this was the fifth-highest total of any county in the state, but three other counties had eight lynchings each. Coffee County has twelve Century Farms, the classification for farms that have been operating for more than 100 years; the oldest Century Farm is Shamrock Acres, founded in 1818.
Other Century Farms include: Beckman Farm Brown Dairy Farm Carden Ranch Crouch-Ramsey Farm Freeze Farm The Homestead Farm Jacobs Farm Long Farm Shamrock Acres Sunrise View Farm Thomas Farm, site of the Farrar Distillery According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 435 square miles, of which 429 square miles is land and 5.6 square miles is water. Cannon County Warren County Grundy County Franklin County Moore County Bedford County Rutherford County Interstate 24 U. S. Route 41 U. S. Route 41A Arnold Engineering Development Complex Wildlife Management Area Bark Camp Barrens Wildlife Management Area Hickory Flats Wildlife Management Area Maple Hill Wildlife Management Area May Prairie State Natural Area Normandy Wildlife Management Area Old Stone Fort State Archaeological Park Short Springs State Natural Area As of the census of 2000, there were 48,014 people, 18,885 households, 13,597 families residing in the county; the population density was 112 people per square mile.
There were 20,746 housing units at an average density of 48 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.43% White, 3.59% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.91% from other races, 1.00% from two or more races. 2.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 18,885 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.90% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.00% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.10 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,898, the median income for a family was $40,228. Males had a median income of $32,732 versus $21,014 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,137. About 10.90% of families and 14.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.80% of those under age 18 and 15.20% of those age 65 or over. The Bonnaroo Music Festival has been held annually in the county since 2002. Arnold Engineering Development Center George Dickel Tennessee whiskey distillery Old Stone Fort — part of Old Stone Fort State Archaeological Park, just west of Manchester Short Springs State Natural Area Farrar Distillery – on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places Manchester Tullahoma Hillsboro Lakewood Park New Union Beechgrove Belmont Fudgearound Noah Ovoca Pocahontas Shady Grove Summitville National Register of Historic Places listings in Coffee County, Tennessee The Saturday Independent Official site Industrial Board of Coffee County Coffee County Schools Coffee County, TNGenWeb – genealogy resources Bonnaroo Music Festival site Coffee County at Curlie
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Lincoln County, Tennessee
Lincoln County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,361, its county seat and largest city is Fayetteville. The county is named for Major General Benjamin Lincoln, an officer in the American Revolutionary War. Lincoln County was created in 1809 from parts of Bedford County; the land occupied by the county was part of a land session obtained from the Cherokee and Chickasaw in 1806. The Lincoln County Process, used in the distillation of Tennessee whiskey, is named for this county, as the Jack Daniel Distillery was located there. However, a subsequent redrawing of county lines resulted in the establishment of adjacent Moore County, which includes the location of the distillery. Another distillery opened in Lincoln County in 1997 – the Benjamin Pritchard's Distillery. However, it does not use the Lincoln County Process for making its Tennessee whiskey; when a law was established in 2013 to require the Lincoln County Process to be used for making all Tennessee whiskey, the Benjamin Pritchard's Distillery was exempted by a grandfather clause.
As a result, no current Lincoln County business uses its namesake process. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 571 square miles, of which 570 square miles are land and 0.4 square miles are water. Bedford County Moore County Franklin County Madison County, Alabama Limestone County, Alabama Giles County Marshall County Flintville Hatchery Wildlife Management Area As of the 2010 census, there were 33,361 people, 15,241 households, 4,239 families residing in the county; the population density was 55 people per square mile. There were 13,999 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.45% White, 6.80% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.10% from other races, 1.78% from two or more races. 2.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,241 households out of which 28% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58% were married couples living together, 11% had a female head of household with no husband present, 27% were non-families.
25% of all households were made up of individuals and 12% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 24% under the age of 18, 8% from 18 to 24, 28% from 25 to 44, 25% from 45 to 64, 16% who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,434, the median income for a family was $41,454. Males had a median income of $30,917 versus $21,722 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,837. About 10% of families and 14% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17% of those under age 18 and 20% of those age 65 or over. Prior to 1968, Lincoln County was a Democratic Party stronghold in presidential elections similar to most other counties in the Solid South; the county backed segregationist George Wallace in 1968, & remained Democratic-leaning up through 1992.
Since it has become a Republican Party stronghold, with its candidates winning the county by increasing margins with each succeeding presidential election starting with 1996. Donald Trump won the county in 2016 by nearly 59 points over Hillary Clinton; the governing body of Lincoln County is the Lincoln County Commission, divided into eight districts and 24 commissioners, three from each district. The body is chaired by the County Mayor; the government center of Lincoln County is the Lincoln County Courthouse in Fayetteville. Ardmore Fayetteville Petersburg Flintville Park City National Register of Historic Places listings in Lincoln County, Tennessee Official site Lincoln County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county Lincoln County at Curlie