The Algarve is the southernmost region of continental Portugal. It has an area of 4,997 km2 with 451,006 permanent inhabitants, incorporates 16 municipalities; the region has as its administrative centre in the city of Faro, where both the region's international airport and public university, the University of Algarve, are located. Tourism and related activities make up the bulk of the Algarve's summer economy. Production of food, which includes fish and other seafood, different types of fruit such as oranges, plums, carob beans, almonds, is economically important in the region. Although Lisbon surpasses the Algarve in terms of tourism revenue, the Algarve is still, considered to be the biggest and most important Portuguese tourist region, having received an estimated total of 7.1 million tourists in 2017. Its population triples in the peak holiday season due to seasonal residents; the Algarve is increasingly sought after by central and northern Europeans, as a permanent place to settle. A 2016 American-based study concluded.
The Algarve is one of the most developed regions of Portugal and, with a GDP per capita at 86% of the European Union average, the third-richest. Human presence in southern Portugal dates back to the Neolithic periods; the presence of megalithic stones in the area of Vila do. The Cynetes, influenced by Tartessos, were established by the sixth century BC in the region of the Algarve, they were influenced by the Celtici. Those Indo-European tribes, Celtic or pre-Celtic, founded the city of Lagos; the Phoenicians had established trading ports along the coast c. 1000 BC. Some sources claim that the Carthaginians founded Portus Hanibalis – known today as Portimão – c. 550 BC. Much of the Iberian Peninsula was absorbed into the Roman Republic in the second century BC, the Algarve region came under Roman control. Many Roman ruins can still be seen, notably in Lagos, but at Milreu. Roman bath complexes and fish-salting tanks have been found near the shore in several locations, for example the ones near Vilamoura and Praia da Luz.
In the fifth century, the Visigoths took control of the Algarve until the beginning of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711. When the Moors conquered Lagos in 716, it was named Zawaia. Faro, which the Christian residents had called Santa Maria, was renamed Faraon, which means "settlement of the knights". Due to the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the region was called Gharb Al-Andalus: Gharb means "the west", while al-Andalus is the Arabic name for the Iberian Peninsula. For several years, the town of Silves was the capital of the region. In the mid-13th century, during the Reconquista, the Kingdom of Portugal conquered the region in a series of successful military campaigns against the Moors. Al-Gharb became the Kingdom of the Algarve, the moors were expelled, but battles with Muslim forces persisted; the Portuguese secured the region against the subsequent Muslim attempts to recapture the area in the early 14th century. King Afonso III of Portugal started calling himself King of the Algarve.
After 1471, with the conquest of several territories in the Maghreb – the area considered an extension of the Algarve – Afonso V of Portugal began fashioning himself "King of Portugal and the Algarves", referring to the European and African possessions. Prior to the independence of Brazil, "United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves" was an official designation for Portugal which alluded to the Algarve. Portuguese monarchs continued to use this title until the proclamation of the First Portuguese Republic in 1910. Between 1595 and 1808, the Algarve was a semiautonomous area of Portugal with its own governor, as well as a separate taxation system. In the 15th century, Prince Henry the Navigator based himself near Lagos and conducted various maritime expeditions which established the colonies that comprised the Portuguese Empire. From Lagos, Gil Eanes set sail in 1434 to become the first seafarer to round Cape Bojador in West Africa; the voyages of discovery brought Lagos fortune. Trade flourished and Lagos became the capital of the historical province of Algarve in 1577 and remained so until the fabled 1755 Lisbon earthquake.
The earthquake damaged many areas in the Algarve and an accompanying tsunami destroyed or damaged coastal fortresses, while coastal towns and villages were damaged except Faro, protected by the sandy banks of Ria Formosa lagoon. In Lagos, the waves reached the top of the city walls. For many Portuguese coastal regions, including the Algarve, the destructive effects of the tsunami were more disastrous than those of the earthquake itself. In 1807, while Jean-Andoche Junot led the first Napoleonic invasion in the north of Portugal, the Algarve was occupied by Spanish troops under Manuel Godoy. Beginning in 1808, after subsequent battles in various towns and villages, the region was the first to drive out the Spanish occupiers. During the Portuguese Civil War, several battles took place in the region the battle of Cape St. Vicente and the battle of Sant’Ana, between liberals and Miguelites. Remexido was the guerrilla Algarvian leader who stood with the Miguelite absolutists for years, until he was executed in Faro in 1838.
The establishment of the First Portuguese Republic in 1910 marked the end of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarve. The Algarve covers 4997 km2, extending just south of the Tagus valley to the southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula, its highest point i
Castle of Paderne
The Castle of Paderne is an ancient fortification located in the civil parish of Paderne, municipality of Albufeira, in the Portuguese Algarve. It was constructed in the 12th century by Berbers, in an area around 7.5 kilometres inland. The edifice is located just 8.2 kilometres from the resort town of Albufeira, along a bend in the Quarteira River. It is believed to be one of the original castles that occupy the shield of the Portuguese national flag. Around the middle of the 2nd century, the Roman conquered the Lusitanian castro, which had developed between Neolithic and Cacholithic; the settlement was transformed into a military outpost and politico-administrative centre named Paderne or Paderna. Its location on a rocky peninsular bend was of strategic importance, as it controlled the ancient Roman road Via Lusitanorum crossing the Quarteira River on the south; the Roman villa was conquered by the Moors by 713. On this site, the Almohads constructed a fortification. Concerned with advancing Christian armies from the north, the Almohads began an intensive period of military construction and fortification in the Algarve.
The depopulation of the Muslim countryside, caused by Christian raids, while avoiding outright conflict, resulted in the construction of these type of fortifications, which were used secure relative safety for their citizens in the interior of the Algarvean Barrocal. In 1189 the castle was conquered by the armies of King Sancho I with the help of English-Christian mercenaries during a continuous night raid. In 1191 Muslim forces of the Almohad dynasty under the command of Caliph Abu Yusuf Ya’qub al-Mansur recaptured the castle and surrounding lands. In 1248, D. Paio Peres Correia took the castle for the Crown of Portugal, during the reign of Afonso III; the forces of Peres Correia massacred all its inhabitants within Paderne castle. It was shortly after these events that a chapel was built: it is believed that the structure was built on the ruins of the mosque. Following a series of restorations, King Denis of Portugal donated the castle to the Master of the Order of Avis, D. Lourenço Anes, as an attempt to make it a viable military and economic centre.
But these attempts were tentative and, futile. Owing to its isolation and state of ruin, in 1858, the castle was abandoned and its hermitage was deactivated. On 10 March 1998, the fort and dependencies were transferred to Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico, the Portuguese Institute of Architectural Patrimony; the IPPAR contracted the company Terracarta in order to create a three-dimensional design of the property. Further, the monument and terrains were purchased by the institute for 29.000.000$00 escudos. A public tender was issued on 29 January 2002, under PROAlgarve, for the Recuperation of the Castle of Paderne, under the auspices of the IPPAR; the candidate entity was responsible for the recuperation of the walls, in taipa, the archaeological study and museological assessment of the site, including the old dependencies within the courtyard, the drainage of the monument, lastly, the consolidation of the ruins of the Hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Assunção. Archaeological excavations completed at the time unearthed remnants of dwellings and roadways within the castle compound, as well as the remains of a sophisticated sewage system and vestiges of a water supply network.
The rural, isolated castle is located on a high hilltop over a profound valley, covered in Mediterranean vegetation, olive groves and carob trees. Its lies in a zone classified under the Natura 2000 designation, with a pedestrian trail under the Instituto de Conservação da Natureza; the castle is a regular trapezoidal plan a hectare in size, surrounded by walls, with a road that links to a tower across a Roman arch bridge. Within the interior are vestiges of a longitudinal chapel, with only the walls remaining; the eastern side, which has the least natural defence is built of Taipa. This tower, the only one standing within the enclosure, protrudes from the wall and is connected to the main fortification by an upper passageway. From the outside of this tower is still possible to make out the whitewash strips which were applied to the taipa joints in order to give the impression that the tower was built from masonry; these mud walls are 1.8 metres thick and are constructed on a substantial stone plinth which can be seen at the base of the perimeter walls.
There are at intervals, vertical openings to allow for drainage of any accumulative water inside the castle walls. Below the tower are the remains of ramparts, which ran across the eastern perimeter: most of it has collapsed; this battlement, lower than the main walls defended the main access to the castle. The accessway is at a right angle to the main wall, creating an "L"-shaped entrance designed to make any frontal attack difficult. Not all the stonework in the entrance is original. Within the castle precinct are the remnants of a cistern. Along the south wall are the ruins of the former Chapel of Nossa Senhora do Castelo, the parochial church for the nearby village, dating from the 14th century, but abandoned in 1506. Notes SourcesAlmeida, João de, Roteiro dos Monumentos Militares Portugueses, III, Portugal Oliveira, Xavier de Ataíde, Monografia de Paderna ou Pader
Great Mosque of Kairouan
The Great Mosque of Kairouan known as the Mosque of Uqba, is a mosque situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan, Tunisia. Established by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670 AD at the founding of the city of Kairouan, the mosque is spread over a surface area of 9,000 square metres and it is one of the oldest places of worship in the Islamic world, as well as a model for all mosques in the Maghreb; the Great Mosque of Kairouan is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa. This space contains a marble-paved courtyard and a square minaret. In addition to its spiritual prestige, the Mosque of Uqba is one of the masterpieces of Islamic architecture, notable among other things for the first Islamic use of the horseshoe arch. Under the Aghlabids, huge works gave the mosque its present aspect; the fame of the Mosque of Uqba and of the other holy sites at Kairouan helped the city to develop and repopulate increasingly. The university, consisting of scholars who taught in the mosque, was a centre of education both in Islamic thought and in the secular sciences.
Its role can be compared to that of the University of Paris in the Middle Ages. With the decline of the city of Kairouan from the mid-11th century, the centre of intellectual thought moved to the University of Ez-Zitouna in Tunis. Located in the north-east of the medina of Kairouan, the mosque is in the intramural district of Houmat al-Jami; this location corresponded to the heart of the urban fabric of the city founded by Uqba ibn Nafi. However given the natural lay of the land crossed by several tributaries of the wadis, the urban development of the city spread southwards. Human factors including Hilalian's invasions in 449 AH led to the decline of the city and halted development. For all these reasons, the mosque which once occupies the center of the medina when first built in 670 is now on the easternmost quarter abutting the city walls; the building is a vast irregular quadrilateral covering some 9,000 m2. It is longer on the east side than the west, shorter on the north side the south; the main minaret is centered on the north.
From the outside, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is a fortress-like building with its 1.90 metres thick massive ocher walls, a composite of well-worked stones with intervening courses of rubble stone and baked bricks. The corner towers measuring 4.25 metres on each side are buttressed with solid projecting supports. Structurally given the soft grounds subject to compaction, the buttressed towers added stability to the entire mosque. Despite the austere façades, the rhythmic patterns of buttresses and towering porches, some surmounted by cupolas, give the sanctuary a sense of striking sober grandeur. At the foundation of Kairouan in 670, the Arab general and conqueror Uqba Ibn Nafi chose the site of his mosque in the centre of the city, near the headquarters of the governor. Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers conducted by Kusaila, it was rebuilt by the Ghassanid general Hasan ibn al-Nu'man in 703. With the gradual increase of the population of Kairouan and the consequent increase in the number of faithful, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Umayyad Caliph in Damascus, charged his governor Bishr ibn Safwan to carry out development work in the city which include the renovation and expansion of the mosque around the years 724–728.
In view of its expansion, he rebuilt it with the exception of the mihrab. It was under his auspices. In 774, a new reconstruction accompanied by modifications and embellishments took place under the direction of the Abbasid governor Yazid Ibn Hatim. Under the rule of Aghlabid sovereigns, Kairouan was at its apogee, the mosque profited from this period of stability and prosperity. In 836, Ziadet-Allah I reconstructed the mosque once more: this is when the building acquired, at least in its entirety, the appearance we see today. At the same time, the mihrab's ribbed dome on squinches was raised. Around 862–863, Abul Ibrahim enlarged the oratory, with three bays to the north, added the cupola over the arched portico which precedes the prayer hall. In 875 Ibrahim II built another three bays, thereby reducing the size of the courtyard, further limited on the three other sides by the addition of double galleries; the current state of the mosque can be traced back to the reign of Aghlabids—no element is earlier than the ninth century besides the mihrab—except for some partial restorations and a few additions made in 1025 during the reign of Zirids, 1248 and 1293–1294 under the reign of Hafsids, 1618 at the time of mouradites beys, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
In 1967, major restoration works, executed during five years and conducted under the direction of the National Institute of Archeology and Art, were achieved throughout the monument, were ended with an official reopening of the mosque during the celebration of Mawlid of 1972. Several centuries after its founding, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the subject of numerous descriptions by Arab historians and geographers in the Middle Ages; the stories concern the different phases of construction and expansion of the sanctuary, the successive contributions of many princes to the interior decoration. Among the authors who have written on the subject and whose stories have survived are Al
Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina, its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, one of the most active in the world 3,329 m high. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate; the earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. By around 750 BC, Sicily had three Phoenician and a dozen Greek colonies and, for the next 600 years, it was the site of the Sicilian Wars and the Punic Wars. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Sicily was ruled during the Early Middle Ages by the Vandals, the Ostrogoths, the Byzantine Empire, the Emirate of Sicily; the Norman conquest of southern Italy led to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, subsequently ruled by the Hohenstaufen, the Capetian House of Anjou and the House of Habsburg.
It was unified under the House of Bourbon with the Kingdom of Naples as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region on 15th May 1946, 18 days before the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Albeit, much of the autonomy still remains unapplied financial autonomy, because the autonomy-activating laws have been deferred to be approved by the parithetic committee, since 1946. Sicily has a rich and unique culture with regard to the arts, literature and architecture, it is home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples and Selinunte. Sicily has a triangular shape, earning it the name Trinacria. To the east, it is separated from the Italian mainland by the Strait of Messina, about 3 km wide in the north, about 16 km wide in the southern part.
The northern and southern coasts are each about 280 km long measured as a straight line, while the eastern coast measures around 180 km. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, while the Autonomous Region of Sicily has an area of 27,708 km2; the terrain of inland Sicily is hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the mountain ranges of Madonie, 2,000 m, Nebrodi, 1,800 m, Peloritani, 1,300 m, are an extension of the mainland Apennines; the cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast. In the southeast lie the lower Hyblaean Mountains, 1,000 m; the mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta districts were part of a leading sulphur-producing area throughout the 19th century, but have declined since the 1950s. Sicily and its surrounding small islands have some active volcanoes. Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions, it stands 3,329 metres high, though this varies with summit eruptions.
It is the highest mountain in Italy south of the Alps. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km; this makes it by far the largest of the three active volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. In Greek mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under the mountain by Zeus, the god of the sky. Mount Etna is regarded as a cultural symbol and icon of Sicily; the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the northeast of mainland Sicily form a volcanic complex, include Stromboli. The three volcanoes of Vulcano and Lipari are currently active, although the latter is dormant. Off the southern coast of Sicily, the underwater volcano of Ferdinandea, part of the larger Empedocles volcano, last erupted in 1831, it is located between the island of Pantelleria. The autonomous region includes several neighbouring islands: the Aegadian Islands, the Aeolian Islands and Lampedusa; the island is drained by several rivers, most of which flow through the central area and enter the sea at the south of the island.
The Salso flows through parts of Enna and Caltanissetta before entering the Mediterranean Sea at the port of Licata. To the east, the Alcantara flows through the province of Messina and enters the sea at Giardini Naxos, the Simeto, which flows into the Ionian Sea south of Catania. Other important rivers on the island are the Platani in the southwest. Sicily has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters and hot, dry summers with changeable intermediate seasons. On the coasts the south-western, the climate is affected by the African currents and summers can be scorching. Sicily is seen as an island of warm winters but above all along the Tyrrhenian coast and in the inland areas, winters can be cold, with typical continental climate. Snow falls in abundance above 900–1000 metres, but stronger cold waves can carry it in the hills and in coastal cities on the northern coast of the island; the interi
Great Mosque of Tlemcen
The Great Mosque of Tlemcen was first built in Tlemcen, Algeria in 1082. It is one of the best preserved examples of the Almoravid dynasty's architecture, it was built under sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin, but reconstructed and enlarged by his son Ali ibn Yusuf. An inscription dates this reconstruction to 1136. Sultan Yaghmoracen, the founder of the Abdalwadid dynasty of Tlemcen added a section with a minaret and a dome in the 13th century. Next to the mosque there used to be an Islamic university of considerable fame. History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes Jairazbhoy, R. A. ‘An Outline of Islamic Architecture', p. 92 Michell, M. et al. ‘Architecture of the Islamic World', Thames and Hudson, London, p. 219 M. Hattstein and P. Delius,'Islam Art and Architecture', Cologne Muslimheritage.com http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm? ArticleID=461 Islamic Architecture.org http://www.islamicarchitecture.org/architecture/greatmosqueoftlemcen.html MWNF, Discover Islamic Art
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia