A moped is a type of small motorcycle with bicycle pedals having a less stringent licensing requirement than full motorcycles or automobiles. Mopeds travel only a bit faster than bicycles on public roads, possess both a motorcycle engine and pedals for propulsion. Mopeds are distinguished from scooters in that the latter tend to be more powerful and subject to more regulation; some mopeds have a step-through frame design, while others have motorcycle frame designs, including a backbone and a raised fuel tank, mounted directly between the saddle and the head tube. Some resemble motorized bicycles. Most are similar to a regular motorcycle but with pedals and a crankset that may be used with or instead of motor drive. Although mopeds have two wheels, some jurisdictions classify low-powered three- or four-wheeled vehicles as a moped. In some countries a moped can be any motorcycle with an engine capacity below 50cc; the word moped was coined by the Swedish journalist Harald Nielsen in 1952, as a portmanteau of the Swedish words "motor" and "pedaler".
The claimed derivation from the term motor-velocipede is incorrect. According to Douglas Harper, the Swedish terms originated from " mo ped", which means "pedal cycle with engine and pedals". Like some of the earliest two wheeled motorcycles, all mopeds were once equipped with bicycle pedals; the term moped has now been applied by some regional governments to vehicles without pedals such as motor scooters, based on criteria of restricted engine displacement, and/or power output. This is a misnomer, as they are no longer "mopeds" at all, might instead be called a "noped" if they appear to look like a typical moped, but no longer include pedals. Other terms used for low-powered cycles include motorbike, motorized bicycle, motor-driven cycle, goped; the term "moped" now only applies to low-power vehicles, but pedals were fitted to some early motorcycles, such as the pictured 1912 Douglas. Pedaling away from stationary was a great improvement over "run and jump" and light pedal assistance was valuable for climbing hills.
Better transmissions with wider ranges, better clutches and much better engine performance made pedals obsolete on most motorcycles by 1918 but the pedals on mopeds remained valuable for their original purposes as late as the 1990s. The earliest mopeds were bicycles with a helper motor in various locations, for example on top of the front wheel. An example of that type is the VéloSoleX brand, which has a roller driving the front tire. A more innovative design was known in the UK as the Cyclemaster; this had a complete powered rear wheel, substituted for the bicycle rear wheel, which originated from a design by two DKW engineers in Germany. Larger machines with a 98 cc engine were known as autocycles. On the other hand, some mopeds, such as the Czech-made Jawa, were derived from motorcycles. A further category of low-powered two-wheelers exists today in some jurisdictions for bicycles with helper motors – these are defined as power-assisted bicycles or motorized bicycles. Other jurisdictions may categorize the same machines as mopeds, creating a certain amount of confusion.
In many countries three-wheelers and microcars are classified as variations thereof. This practice is not restricted to the third world; the Ariel 3, a motorised three-wheeler is classed as a moped. In 1977, the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic considers the moped any two-wheeled or three-wheeled vehicle, fitted with an internal combustion engine having a cylinder capacity not exceeding 50 cc. Mopeds can achieve fuel economy of over 100 mpg‑US; the emissions of mopeds have been the subject of multiple studies. Studies have found that two-stroke 50 cc mopeds and without catalytic converters, emit ten to thirty times the hydrocarbons and particulate emissions of the outdated Euro 3 automobile standards. In the same study, four-stroke mopeds and without catalytic converters, emitted three to eight times the hydrocarbons and particulate emissions of the Euro 3 automobile standards. Approximate parity with automobiles was achieved with NOx emissions in these studies. Emissions performance was unaffected by fuel economy.
In the United States, the EPA allows motorcycles and mopeds with engine displacements less than 280cc to emit ten times the NOx and six times the CO as the median Tier II bin 5 automobile regulations. An additional air quality problem can arise from the use of moped and scooter transportation over automobiles, as a higher density of motorized vehicles can be supported by existing transportation infrastructure. Safely riding a moped requires the same considerations as safely riding a motorcycle; however the lower speeds reduce some dangers and increase others. The biggest danger is that other traffic may not notice the presence of a moped - bright clothes and reflective fittings help. Drivers may see the moped, recognize it as harmless to them and forget it is there, pulling out of side-turnings into its path. A car approaching a moped from behind will approach it more than the driver expects, the driver's attention may be more attuned to other automobile traffic rather than the moped, increasing the likelihood of an accident.
This is a particular problem for mopeds used on high-speed roads where they may not be intended to travel. Mopeds are illegally tuned for higher speeds, p
Manubhai Pancholi known by his pen name Darshak, was a Gujarati language novelist, author and politician from Gujarat, India. He held several offices after independence. Manubhai Pancholi was born on 15 October 1914 at Panchashiya village in Rajkot district, India, he completed his primary education from Tithwa Lunsar. He left study to participate in Salt Satyagraha in 1930, he was jailed in Sabarmati and Visapur. He started his career as a rector in educational institute, Dakshinamurti at Bhavnagar in 1932 and joined as a professor in Gramdakshinamurt, Ambala in 1938, he was arrested during Quit India Movement in 1942 was jailed at Bhavnagar. He served as education minister of Bhavnagar State in 1948, he co-founded Lokbharti Gramvidyapith institute with Nanabhai Bhatt in 1953 at Sanosara. He married a daughter of Patidar family from Varad village of Bardoli. Vijayaben died on 25 April 1995, he was a member of Gujarat Legislative Assembly from 1967 to 1971 and served as an education minister in 1970.
He was arrested during the emergency in 1975. He served as the president of Gujarati Sahitya Parishad from 1981 to 1983, he served as the chairman of the Gujarat Sahitya Akademi from 1991 to 1998. He died on 29 August 2001 at Sanosara, Gujarat following kidney ailment. Pancholi is regarded as one of the greatest novelists in Gujarati literature, he influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, followed Gandhian thinking and ways in his writings and life as well. The novels Pancholi has written include: Jher To Pidha Chhe Jani Jani, Bandhan ane Mukti, Bandeeghar and Prem ane Pooja, among which, Jher To Pidha Chhe Jani Jani and Socrates are regarded as classic. Dipnirvan is a historical novel about the revolt against Magadh in ancient India, his plays have been collected and published in: Paritran, Adharaso Sattavan and Antim Adhyaya. Mari Vachankatha and Vagishwari Na Karnaphoolo are collection of his critical articles, his Apano Varso ane Vaibhav, Triveni Tirth, Dharmachakra Parivartan, Ramayan No Marma, Mahabharat No Marma and Sarvodaya Ane Shikshan deal with different aspects of Indian culture.
His classic adapted in Zer To Pidhan Jani Jani directed by Upendra Trivedi. His novel Socrates was translated into Hindi by Sushila Joshi as Sukrat in 1987, he received Ranjitram Suvarna Chandrak in 1964, Sahitya Akademi Award for Socrates in 1975 and Bharatiya Jnanpith Moortidevi Award for Jher To Pidha Chhe Jani Jani in 1987. He was awarded Padma Bhushan in 1991 for his work in public affairs, he received Saraswati Samman in 1997 for his book Kurukshetra and Jamnalal Bajaj Award in 1996. List of Gujarati-language writers Dave, Ramesh R.. Navalkathakar Darshak. Ahmedabad: Balgovinda Prakashan. OCLC 21760503. Bhave, Sanjay S.. "Manubhai Pancholi'Darshak'". Indian Literature. 45: 139–142. JSTOR 23345762. Works by Manubhai Pancholi at Google Books
The Wells and Walsingham Light Railway is a 10 1⁄4 in gauge heritage railway in Norfolk, England running between the coastal town of Wells-next-the-Sea and the inland village of Walsingham. The railway occupies a four-mile section of the trackbed of the former Wymondham to Wells branch, closed to passengers in stages from 1964 to 1969 as part of the Beeching cuts. Other parts of this line, further south, have been preserved by the Mid-Norfolk Railway. Despite its miniature dimensions, the Wells and Walsingham Light Railway is a "public railway", indicating that its operation is established by Act of Parliament; the original establishment of the preserved line was authorised by the Wells and Walsingham Light Railway Order 1982, the terms of which were altered under the subsequent Wells and Walsingham Light Railway Order 1994. Prior to 1982 the 15 in gauge Romney and Dymchurch Railway had traded as "The World's smallest public railway", a phrase sometimes quoted by the Wells and Walsingham Light Railway since the 1982 Light Railway Order.
The line, 4 miles long, is now the longest 10 1⁄4 in gauge railway in the world. It runs from the coastal town of Wells-next-the-Sea to the village of Walsingham, famous as a centre of pilgrimage to the Shrine of Our Lady of Walsingham. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining authority to operate across main roads via level crossings, the railway operates between a new-build station located on the A149 1⁄2 mile south of the original terminus at Wells, a similar new terminus at Walsingham situated a short distance north of the original GER station, within sight of it. Trains run daily between March and November, with the timetable intensifying during the high season period. Trains are steam-operated, although diesel motive power is utilised; the Norfolk Railway established a line from Wymondham to Dereham in 1847, which the nominally independent Wells and Fakenham Railway extended to Walsingham and Wells-next-the-Sea ten years in 1857. During the consolidation of minor railway companies in England, the line became part of the Great Eastern Railway, during the 1923 Big Four grouping became in turn part of the London and North Eastern Railway.
The Transport Act 1947 nationalised the British railways, the branch line became part of the Eastern Region of British Railways on 1 January 1948. The line's final steam passenger service ran on 17 September 1955. Services continued using Diesel units until the Beeching Report of 1963. Although the report recommended the retention of parts of the line for freight and express passenger services, it recommended closure of all passenger facilities for local services; the local passenger service between Dereham and Wells ended on 5 October 1964. Local railway enthusiast Lt Cdr Roy Francis had built and opened the 10 1⁄4 in gauge Wells Harbour Railway in 1976, in 1979 he set about restoration of the railway service south from Wells, towards Walsingham. Ground works and track laying took three years to complete, the railway opened on 6 April 1982. A section of the route, known locally as'Barnard's Cutting', had been filled with refuse and had to be excavated before the track could be restored; the excavation of 3,000 tons of waste did not return the trackbed to its original level, resulting in a severe 1 in 29 gradient that had not existed when the line was in use.
Significant developments during the history of the line have included the abandoning of locomotive turning facilities in favour of the operationally simpler system of locomotives operating forwards on their outward journey, backwards on their return journey, after running round the train by means of a headshunt and run-round loop. At the same time, Walsingham station was remodelled, with the platform on the opposite side. In 1987 a redundant signal box was moved from Swainsthorpe to Wells, converted; the ground floor now provides a shop and waiting room, whilst the upper floor provides office and staff rooms. In 2005 an intermediate station named. At the same time the nearby intermediate station named Seton's Halt was renamed Wighton, its original name in LNER operating days. In 2013 construction began on a large new shed at Wells, which opened in 2014; this serves as a locomotive running shed during the summer, as a coach storage shed during the winter. It has engineering facilities, including access to heavy lifting gear outside the shed.
Two other engine sheds are available at Wells. On 6 April 1982, purpose built steam locomotive No 1 Pilgrim, an 0-6-0T engine built for use on the line by David King Engineering at North Walsham, launched the public service. Pilgrim was the sole locomotive, although the nearby Wells Harbour Railway was an available source of alternative motive power in an emergency. In 1985 the diesel locomotive No 2 Weasel entered service as reserve engine, for out-of-season operations, engineering trains. Growing passenger figures necessitated more powerful engines. In 1986 two larger locomotives were built; these two engines provided the main service, with Weasel in reserve and out-of-season use, whilst Pilgrim was sold. The need for a second high-powered steam engine was established and locomotive No 5 arrived on loan in 1995; this engine, never owned by the railway, had marginally different gauge standards (the range of measurements of elements of the wheelsets of a vehicle, in additi
Brave Frontier is a Japanese mobile role-playing game developed and published by A-Lim for Apple's iOS and for Android and Kindle Fire. It was first released in Japan by A-Lim on July 3, 2013, released worldwide by Gumi Asia on December 13, 2013. A sequel series titled Brave Frontier 2 was released only in Japan on February 22, 2018 while a Global-exclusive sequel, titled Brave Frontier: The Last Summoner is slated for release in Q3 2018. Brave Frontier's gameplay is similar to Square Enix's Valkyrie Profile; the storyline focuses on the unnamed summoner and players have to complete every stage to access a new area. Players are allowed to bring up to 5 units in each stage with a "friend" unit in quest mode. Players make friends through friend request. Attacking units in a battle rewards the player with Brave Burst Crystals, Heart Crystals. After an enemy is defeated, the player proceeds the next stage until the boss, required to go complete a level. After completing, players are rewarded with Zel and items, as well as acquiring units from each mission.
When players complete the entire area, they'll be rewarded with one gem. However, if players fail a quest, they use one gem to continue. Units have the ability to execute special attacks, known as Brave Bursts; when activated the unit uses a powerful attack. Brave Bursts can provide a boost in health points or increase the overall stats to gain an advantage against enemies. Super Brave Bursts can be executed but only if a unit has a 6 Star Rank and maxed out their Brave Burst gauge. Another version, called Ultimate Brave Bursts can be used by 7-Star and Omni Evolution Units after filling the Overdrive gauge; the Omni Evolution units are able to customize their abilities, as well as additions to the effects given from their Brave Burst, Super Brave Burst, Ultimate Brave Bursts through Enhancements from fusing other units to the Omni Evolution Units. Omni Evolution Units can do Resonances which requires two of the same element of Omni Evolution units to spark with each other. Aside from quests, the player can fuse units with the ones obtained in each mission in order to level them up.
Once a unit is now in its max level, is it now capable of evolving. The requirements to evolve eligible units are different; each unit has their own ranking with the Omni Evolution being the highest. Players can obtain more units through Honor Summons and Rare Summons, they require players to use gems and Honor Points in order to summon units. Players can equip them Spheres and by Gems through micro transactions. Items can be synthesized into useful items, such as potions and revives. Spheres are made in the same fashion, to increase a unit's overall stats; the town provides a lot of items used for these, some items must be obtained through dungeons cleared by the player. Another thing is the town can provide more important items if the player upgrade each establishments using karma. Brave Frontier has event quests available inside the Vortex Gate, allowing players to obtain evolutionary units, Zel or promotional rare units not found in Rare Summons. Certain dungeons, such as Metal Parades, Jewel Parades, Imp Parades require keys to unlock for a limited time.
In-Game Events are in the Vortex Gate, players will be rewarded with a free unit if completed. Players can win prizes for attaining a certain rank; the game features Frontier Hunter trials, allowing players to raise their Hunter Ranks, Raid Battles, a Slot Machine Feature, Mini games, Daily Missions and Grand Quest. The land of Grand Gaia is a world ravaged by a war between humans and the Gods that took place many years ago, it is a land surrounded by a veil of mystery but engulfed in havoc as certain places have been conquered by four fallen gods, who have betrayed their fellow gods. Amidst the chaos, The Imperial Army of Randall, capital of Elgaia and the Akras Summoners Hall are doing their best to handle the chaos the fallen gods and the demonic legions its causing, but have not been able to push them back. But, amidst the chaos, a god by the name of Lucius summons a hero to liberate Grand Gaia from The Four Fallen Gods; the game was first announced after the Gaming Company A-Lim was registered in March 2013.
The company, formed from the combined efforts of Gumi Ventures, B-Dash Ventures, Fuji Startup Ventures, a company owned by Fuji TV. Hironao Kunimitsu stated that the company would have "key advantage over other game-makers in the market." Hisatoshi Hayakashi, the game's executive producer stated that the game was inspired from various RPG games such as Final Fantasy, Valkyrie Profile, Romancing SaGa, Star Ocean and the Tales series. But I am convinced that if we can somehow represent the fact that players are walking around cities and dungeons, talking to people and fighting monsters, all on a mobile device, they will get into the RPG world." Following the game's release, several promotional in-game units were released in both Japanese and global versions of the game, including crossover units from magazines such as Famitsu and other smartphone games such as Emperors SaGa, Puzzle Trooper, Rise of Mana, Secret of Mana, Tales of Link, Rune Story, The King of Fighters, Phantom of the Kill, Shin Megami Tensei IV: Apocalypse, Final Fantasy Brave Exvius, Blazing Odyessey and Crystal of Reunion.
The developers collaborated with other media franchises such as Crypton Future
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. 1687 - Portuguese trading post established in region of Papel people. 1692 - Portuguese colonial Captaincy of Bissau founded. 1707 - Portuguese fort dismantled and abandoned. 1753 - Portuguese overcome Papel resistance, rebuild fort. 1775 - Fortaleza de São José da Amura built. 1859 - Municipal Council founded. 1863 - Bissau attains town status. 1869 Bissau becomes capital of the colonial district of Guinea. Population: 573. 1917 - Bissau attains city status. 1935 - Bissau Cathedral built. 1936 - Sporting Clube de Bissau formed. 1937 - Estrela Negra de Bissau football club formed. 1941 - Capital of colonial Portuguese Guinea moves to Bissau from Bolama. 1944 - Sport Bissau e Benfica formed. 1948 - City Market construction begins. 1950s - Craveiro Lopes built. 1950 - Population: 18,309. 1959 - 3 August: Dockworkers strike at Porto Pidjiguiti. 1960 - Canal do Impernal dries up. 1968 - City besieged during the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence.
1971 - City besieged during the War of Independence. 1973 - Africa Bottling Company Lda in business. 1974 - City becomes capital of newly independent Guinea-Bissau. 1977 - Roman Catholic Diocese of Bissau established. 1979 - Population: 109,214. 1984 - National Library of Guinea-Bissau headquartered in city. 1985 - City joins the newly formed União das Cidades Capitais Luso-Afro-Américo-Asiáticas. 1989 - Estádio 24 de Setembro opens. 1990 - 27 January: Catholic pope visits city. 1991 Instituto Nacional de Estatística headquartered in city. Population: 197,600. 1992 - Correio-Bissau newspaper begins publication. 1996 - Rádio Bombolom begins broadcasting. 1998 7 June: Guinea-Bissau Civil War begins. Hotel Hotti Bissau in business. 1999 - 10 May: Guinea-Bissau Civil War ends. 2002 - Population: 292,000. 2005 - National People's Assembly Palácio Colinas de Boé built. 2008 - TV Guiné-Bissau begins broadcasting. 2009 2 March: Assassination of president Vieira. Population: 387,909. 2010 - Hospital Amizade China-Guine-Bissau opens.
2012 - 12 April: 2012 Guinea-Bissau coup d'état. Bissau history List of governors of Portuguese Guinea, seated at Bissau 1941-1974 History of Guinea-Bissau This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia, Portuguese Wikipedia, Spanish Wikipedia. "Bissau, Guinea-Bissau". BlackPast.org. US
Opinions On Strengthening The Programme Management of Satellite Television Channels is a government directive ordered by the State Administration of Press, Radio and Television of China in 2011, aiming at stopping the over-emphasis on purely entertainment programmes in the satellite television channels in China. Since the late 2000s, there was a trend of producing purely entertainment programmes in various satellite television channels in China. Examples included Fei Cheng Wu Rao, Day Day Up, Happy Camp, China's Got Talent, etc.. SAPPRFT, being responsible for the supervision of state-owned enterprises engaged in the television and film industries, is of the opinions that the satellite TV channels in China focus too much on purely entertainment programmes and are hence creating drawbacks on public opinions, thus would like to impose a stricter control on the content of the programmes broadcast in the satellites TV channels; the policy was announced in 2011 and imposed in 2012. The targets of the policy are only those satellite TV channels, not including CCTV and non-satellite provincial TV channels.
SAPPRFT focused on the following seven genres of programmes: Dating game show Talent show Variety show about love stories Game show General variety show Talk show Reality televisionSAPPRFT required that there should not be more than nine programmes of the above genres from 19:30 to 22:00 every day in all satellite TV channels as a whole, each channel should not broadcast more than 2 programmes of the above genres every week and not more than 90 minutes every day. SAPPRFT demanded the satellite TV channels increase the proportion of documentary programmes, news programmes, educational programmes, programmes for children and youth, programmes about economic issues and science. SAPPRFT impose a policy requiring the TV channels to limit the participation of actors coming from Taiwan and Hong Kong; the policy had a great impact on those TV channels, focusing on producing entertainment programmes, among which included Hunan Television, Dragon Television, Jiangsu Television, Zhejiang Television, Shenzhen Satellite TV.
Some of the programmes, planned needed to be suspended. For those others satellite TV channels that had not been focusing on entertainment programmes, the policy did not have a large impact