The Morane-Saulnier L, or Morane-Saulnier Type L, or MoS-3, was a French parasol wing one or two-seat scout aeroplane of the First World War. The Type L became one of the first successful fighter aircraft when it was fitted with a single machine gun that fired through the arc of the propeller, protected by armoured deflector wedges, its immediate effectiveness in this role launched an arms race in fighter development, the Type L was swiftly rendered obsolete. The original Type L used wing warping for lateral control, but a version designated Type LA was fitted with ailerons. Built by Morane-Saulnier, large numbers of the Type L were ordered by the French Aviation Militaire at the outbreak of the war. In total about 600 Type Ls were built and, in addition to the French air force, they served with the Royal Flying Corps, Royal Naval Air Service and the Imperial Russian Air Service; the type was produced under licence in Germany by Pfalz Flugzeugwerke as the unarmed A. I and A. II scouts. About 60 were built for Bavarian air service.
A few were modified as the E. III fighters. A few Type Ls captured by Germany were fitted with a single German Spandau LMG 08 machine gun; these captured and converted aircraft are mistaken for Pfalz E. IIIs. About 450 aircraft were licence-built in Russia by Lebed works; the Morane-Saulnier L was built under licence in Sweden with some minor improvements as the Thulin D. In December 1914 the famous French aviator Roland Garros serving with Escadrille 23, worked with Raymond Saulnier to create a gun synchronizer, using the gas operated Hotchkiss light machine gun; however the firing rate fluctuated too much for the synchronizer to function properly. As an interim measure, they designed a "safety backup" in the form of braced "deflectors" fitted to the rear surfaces of the propeller blades at the points where they could be struck by a bullet. Garros took his Type L fighter into combat with the deflectors in March 1915 and achieved immediate success, shooting down three German aircraft in April, a noteworthy feat at the time.
The bullets that the French used were not to damage the harder steel of the wedges themselves. On 18 April 1915, Garros' deflector-equipped Type L force-landed behind German lines and was captured before he could destroy it. Three two-seat Morane Type L aircraft were the first victims of the first German fighter aircraft. Leutnant Kurt Wintgens, flying the Parabellum machine gun-armed Fokker Eindecker M.5K/MG prototype E.5/15, a copy of the Morane-Saulnier H with a wire-braced welded steel tube fuselage and fitted with the Fokker Stangensteuerung synchronized gun, downed the first on July 1, 1915, followed by two similar victories on July 4 and 15. About 50 Type Ls were delivered to Britain's Royal Flying Corps, which used them as reconnaissance aircraft during 1915, with a further 25 being operated by the Royal Naval Air Service. On 7 June 1915 one of these aircraft, flown by Flight Sub-Lieutenant Reginald Alexander John Warneford of 1 Squadron RNAS intercepted the Deutsches Heer-flown Zeppelin LZ.37, destroying it, the first Zeppelin to be destroyed in the air.
Warneford received the Victoria Cross for this achievement. Cecil Lewis served with the RFC's Squadron Number 3 in 1916 through the Somme offensive, he flew the Type LA "Parasol" operationally, for over three hundred hours and was awarded the Military Cross. Most of that flying was conducted on a single airframe, RFC serial 5133. In his book "Sagittarius Rising" he recalled of the LA: "I had a look over her, the more I saw of her the less I liked her, it was not love at first sight... the elevator was as sensitive as a gold balance. You couldn't leave the machine to its own devices for a moment... the Morane was a death trap... Subsequently I flew, they were all child's play after the Morane... but I did come to love the Morane as I loved no other aeroplane."Three Pfalz A. II's were used by the Ottoman Empire in an attempt to combat the growing threat of the Arab RevoltA Morane-Saulnier "Parasol" was used for the first flight by an airplane across the Andes on April 13, 1918, when the Argentine aviator Luis Candelaria flew from Zapala, Argentina, to Cunco, Chile.
L basic model LA improved L with faired fuselage A. I with Oberursel U.0 engine A. II with Oberursel U. I engine E. III - A Pfalz A. II armed with single synchronised lMG 08 machine gun ArgentinaArgentine Air Force - One aircraft BelgiumBelgian Air Force BrazilBrazilian Army Aviation CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakian Air Force - One aircraft FinlandFinnish Air Force - Two aircraft FranceFrench Air Force NetherlandsRoyal Netherlands Air Force - One aircraft. PeruPeruvian Air Force PolandPolish Air Force RomaniaRoyal Romanian Air Force Russian EmpireImperial Russian Air Service SwedenSwedish Air Force - One aircraft SwitzerlandSwiss Air Force - One aircraft TurkeyOttoman Air Force - Original and Pfalz A. II aircraft. UkraineUkrainian Air Force - Three aircraft. Soviet UnionSoviet Air Force - ex-Imperial Russian Air Service aircraft. United KingdomRoyal Flying Corps No. 1 Squadron RFC No. 3 Squadron RFC No. 30 Squadron RFC Royal Naval Air Service Data from Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 6.88 m Wingspan: 11.20 m Height: 3.93 m Wing area: 18.3 m² Empty weight: 393 kg Loaded weight: 677.5 kg Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône 9C 9-cylinder rotary engine, 60 kW Performance Maximum speed: 125 km/h at
The Morane-Saulnier G was a two-seat sport and racing monoplane produced in France before the First World War. It was a development of the racing monoplanes designed by Léon Morane and Raymond Saulnier after leaving Borel and, like its predecessors, was a wire-braced, shoulder-wing monoplane. Construction was of fabric-covered wood throughout, except for the undercarriage struts which were of steel tube; the type was a sporting success. In April 1913, Roland Garros took second place in the inaugural Schneider Cup in a floatplane version, finishing with a time of 40 minutes 40 seconds. On 26 June, Claude Grahame-White flew another float-equipped example from Paris to London via Le Havre, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Dover, covering some 500 km that day. Between 21 and 28 September the same year, two float-equipped Type Gs competed at the seaplane meeting at San Sebastián, with Lord Carbery winning the short takeoff prize on one, Edmond Audemars winning the maneuverability prize on the other; the following week, Carbery flew his Type G in the Italian Waterplane Contest from Lake Como to Pavia and back, along with two other Type Gs in the field of fifteen competitors, these flown by Garros and Morane.
Garros not only won the Grand Prize in the "general class", but the prizes for best speed and greatest altitude. On 28 September 1913 Roland Garros became the first person to cross the Mediterranean Sea by air, flying from Fréjus in the south of France to Bizerte in Tunisia in a Morane-Saulnier G. In 1914, Russian manufacturer Duks arranged to build the type under licence at their Moscow factory for the Russian Army, the same year, the Turkish military ordered 40 examples. Before these could be delivered, war broke out, the aircraft were impressed into the French Army. To these, the Army soon added an order of 94 aircraft, the British Royal Flying Corps acquired a number, these latter machines purchased from Grahame-White, manufacturing the type in the UK under licence. At the outbreak of war, the type's military value was found to be wanting, the French machines were relegated to training duties. Despite this, a dedicated single-seat fighter version was built in 1915, armed with an 8 mm Hotchkiss machine gun that fired through the propeller arc, the propeller blades being protected by deflector plates.
Only one or two prototypes were built, the type never entered service. Some Type Gs were modified by Morane-Saulnier to have their wings mounted above the fuselage, parasol-fashion, rather than at the fuselage sides; this arrangement was found to offer far better visibility for the pilot, formed the basis for the Morane-Saulnier L. A Type G is preserved at the Museo del Aire. Type GA version with 40 kW Le Rhône engine Type GB version with 60 kW Gnome engine Type WB version for export to Russia with glazed forward fuselage MoS-2 official French government STAe designation for the G Thulin B Licence-built by AB Thulinverken in Sweden Grahame-White Type XIV License built by Claude Grahame-White in the United KingdomVarious versions were given the STAé designation MoS-2, MoS-14, MoS-15, MoS-17, MoS-18 and MoS-19. ArgentinaArgentine Air Force CubaCuban Air Force - One aircraft. FranceAéronautique Militaire French Navy RussiaImperial Russian Air Force Soviet UnionSoviet Air Force - Taken over from the Imperial Russian Air Force.
SpainSpanish Air Force TurkeyOttoman Air Force - 40 ordered, but never delivered. United KingdomRoyal Flying Corps Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War I, 116General characteristics Crew: one pilot Capacity: one passenger Length: 6.30 m Wingspan: 9.20 m Wing area: 16 m2 Empty weight: 95 kg Gross weight: 370 kg Powerplant: 1 × Gnome, 60 kW Performance Maximum speed: 123 km/h Rate of climb: 1.8 m/s Armament Green, William. The Complete Book of Fighters. Godalming, UK: Colour Library Direct. ISBN 0-86288-220-6. Hartmann, Gérard. "L'incroyable Morane-Saulnier hydro". La Coupe Schneider et hydravions anciens/Dossiers historiques moteurs. Retrieved 2008-11-07; the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing. "Italian Waterplane Contest". Flight: 1129. 11 October 1913. Retrieved 2008-11-10. Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War I. London: Studio Editions. 2001. ISBN 0-517-03376-3. "The Latest Morane-Saulnier Monoplane". Flight: 561–64. 24 May 1913. Retrieved 2008-11-07. "The Monaco Meeting".
Flight: 450. 19 April 1913. Retrieved 2008-11-07. "Mr Grahame-Wnite's Seine—Thames Trip". Flight: 749. 5 July 1913. Retrieved 2008-11-07. "Morane-Saulnier type G". EADS website. Retrieved 2008-11-07. Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. ISBN 0-7106-0710-5
The Morane-Saulnier MS.129 and its derivatives in the MS.130 series were a family of military trainer aircraft produced in France in the 1920s. They were conventional, parasol-wing monoplanes with open cockpits in tandem and fixed tailskid undercarriage; the initial version, the MS.129, was produced in small numbers for the Romanian Air Force and civil users, but the major production version was the MS.130, which equipped the French Navy and a number of foreign air arms. The second MS.130 prototype won the 1929 Coupe Michelin, flown by Michel Detroyat with an average speed of 190 km/h. The MS.130 was further developed as the MS.230, at least two MS.130s were rebuilt to this new standard. MS.129 initial production version with Hispano-Suiza 8Ab engine. MS.130 major production version with Salmson 9AB engine. MS.130 Coupe Michelin A single aircraft modified for competing in the Coupe Michelin 1929, which Michel Détroyat won at 190.203 km/h. MS.131 MS.130 converted to use a 230 hp Lorraine 7Me engine MS.132 version with Salmson 7Ac engine for French Navy.
MS.133 version with Gnome-Rhône 5Kc engine. MS.134 conversion of MS.130 with Clerget 9B engineThe MS.135, MS.136, MS.137, MS.138, MS.139 were of a different design derived from the MS.35, not related to the MS.130. France France Aéronavale Aéronautique Militaire Brazil Brazil Brazilian Air Force Varig Belgium Belgium China Guatemala Portugal Portuguese Air Force Romania Turkey Data from The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft 2554General characteristics Crew: Two and instructor Length: 6.97 m Wingspan: 10.70 m Height: 2.85 m Wing area: 19.7 m2 Empty weight: 793 kg Gross weight: 1,149 kg Powerplant: 1 × Salmson 9Ab, 170 kW Performance Maximum speed: 208 km/h Range: 510 km Service ceiling: 5,000 m Armament Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing. "The Michelin Cup". Flight: 623. 8 July 1932. Retrieved 2008-11-14. Niccoli, Riccardo. "Atlantic Sentinels: The Portuguese Air Force Since 1912". Air Enthusiast. No. 73. Pp. 20–35.
ISSN 0143-5450. Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. ISBN 0-7106-0710-5
DAHER-SOCATA is a producer of general aviation aircraft propelled by piston engines and turboprops, including business planes, small personal or training aircraft, as well as the production of aircraft structures for other manufacturers such as Airbus, Embraer and Lockheed Martin. The company headquarters is located in Tarbes, France. In March 2015 the company name was again changed to just Daher as part of a rebranding to align the division with its parent company Daher; the history of Socata goes back to 1911. In 1966, Morane-Saulnier changed its name to SOCATA when the company was bought by Sud Aviation to produce small aircraft. In 2000 Socata became a wholly owned subsidiary of EADS. On 27 June 2008, EADS announced its intention to sell a controlling interest in EADS Socata to DAHER. On 3 November 2008, EADS and DAHER announced that they had reached an agreement for DAHER to acquire a 70% of Socata. On 7 January 2009, DAHER confirmed its acquisition of a majority 70% stake in SOCATA. Daher acquired the remaining 30% of SOCATA from Airbus Group in June 2014.
Aircraft being produced by Socata TBM 910/930Aircraft produced by Socata in the past Rallye series ST 10 Diplomate TB 30 Epsilon TB 9 Tampico GT TB 10 Tobago GT TB 200 Tobago XL GT TB 20 Trinidad GT TB 21 Trinidad TC GT TBM 700/850/900 Socata HorizonAircraft that never entered production TB 31 Omega TB 360 Tangara Official website
The Morane-Saulnier T was a bomber aircraft developed in France in 1915 and produced in small numbers during World War I. The Morane-Saulnier T was a large, five-bay biplane of conventional configuration, with unstaggered wings of equal span; the conical rear fuselage and large triangular vertical stabilizer were reminiscent of a scaled-up version of some Morane-Saulnier's smaller designs. The engines were mounted tractor-fashion in streamlined nacelles supported by struts in the interplane gap and the propellers on the Type T were fitted with large spinners; the landing gear consisted of two main units, each of which had two wheels joined by a long axle, plus a tailskid and an auxiliary nosewheel. Three open cockpits in tandem were provided: one in the nose for a gunner, others for the pilot and a second gunner placed further back. Although designed as a bomber, the French Army ordered the type T in 1916 hoping to use it either as a bomber escort or reconnaissance aircraft. Only one example of the Type S was built, while an order was placed for 100 Type T aircraft, although only 60 or so of these were built before production was cancelled.
Morane-Saulnier T company designation for 80 hp Le Rhône 9C powered version MoS-25 official French government STAe designation for the T Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War IGeneral characteristics Crew: 3 Wingspan: 17.65 m Powerplant: 2 × Le Rhône 9C 9 cylinder air-cooled rotary piston engines, 60 kW each Propellers: 2-bladed fixed pitch propellersPerformance Maximum speed: 156 km/h Service ceiling: 4,500 m Armament Bombs: 640 kg Davilla, Dr. James J.. French Aircraft of the First World War. Mountain View, CA: Flying Machines Press. ISBN 978-1891268090. Passieux, JN. "Morane-Saulnier T". Jn.passieux.free.fr. Paris. Retrieved 27 September 2018