Cramond is a village and suburb in the north-west of Edinburgh, Scotland, at the mouth of the River Almond where it enters the Firth of Forth. The Cramond area has a long history, with evidence of Bronze Age and Roman activity. In modern times, it was the birthplace of the Scottish economist John Law. Cramond was incorporated into the City of Edinburgh by Act of Parliament in 1920, it was once believed. A stone altar was dug up in the grounds of Cramond House dedicated "To the Alatervan Mothers and the Mothers of the Parade-ground." Early antiquarians interpreted the inscription as referring to the place where the stone was found, but this idea is no longer accepted among scholars, "Alatervae" is a native name for the Matronae originating with the Tungrian cohort who erected the altar. In the centuries that followed the end of the Roman occupation, Cramond passed into the hands of the Votadini, who spoke Cumbric, a Brythonic Celtic language, gave the settlement its name. Cramond is derived from the compound Caer Amon, meaning'fort on the river', referring to the Roman fort that lay on the River Almond.
Archaeological excavations at Cramond have uncovered evidence of habitation dating to around 8500 BC, making it, for a time, the earliest known site of human settlement in Scotland. The inhabitants of the Mesolithic camp-site were nomadic hunter-gatherers who moved around their territories according to the season of the year. Although no bones survived the acid soil, waste pits and stakeholes that would have supported shelters or windbreaks were excavated. Numerous discarded hazelnut shells, the waste product of the inhabitants' staple food, were found in the pits and used to carbon-date the site, it is thought the site was chosen for its location near the junction of the Firth of Forth and the River Almond, where the rich oyster and mussel beds proved a reliable natural resource. Many microlith stone tools manufactured at the site were found, pre-date finds of similar style in England. Around 142, Roman forces arrived at Cramond by order of Emperor Antoninus Pius, who had given them the task of establishing a fort at the mouth of the River Almond.
This fort would guard the eastern flank of the frontier that the Romans had established across Scotland. Nearly five hundred men worked on the site, building a fort that covered nearly six acres and a harbour for communication. However, the fort was only inhabited for a short time fifteen years, before it was abandoned by the troops who were ordered to retreat south to Hadrian's Wall. Pottery and coins of date indicate that the fort and harbour were reinhabited and used as a base for the army and navy of the Emperor Septimius Severus, sometime between 208 and 211; the medieval parish church of Cramond parish, was built within the Roman fort. Though knowledge of the Roman presence at Cramond was recorded afterwards, the remains of the fort itself were only rediscovered in 1954. Substantial archaeological research was carried out upon its discovery to build up a reasonably accurate picture of the site in Roman times; the fort was rectangular with walls fifteen feet high on all sides. A gatehouse was set in every wall.
Inside, there were barracks, granaries and the commander's house. Excavations revealed other constructions outside the boundary of the fort, including a bath-house, further industrial workshops and a native settlement. In 1997 the Cramond Lioness was uncovered in the harbour mud by a local boatman, was identified as a sandstone statue of a lioness devouring a hapless male figure one of a pair at the tomb of a military commander. After conservation, the statue was displayed in the Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh, it is one of the most ambitious pieces of Roman sculpture to have survived in Scotland. After the departure of the Romans, little is known about the state of Cramond for several centuries; the historiography of the period is best summed up by the historian J. Wood, who wrote'a dark cloud of obscurity again settled over the parish of Cramond, of which I cannot find the smallest memorial in any historian till the year 995.'A tower house, Cramond Tower built in the early 15th century, part of a now-demolished larger establishment, was once a manor house of the Bishops of Dunkeld, of whose diocese Cramond was a part.
It was converted to a private dwelling in the 1980s. Cramond developed over the centuries, with Cramond Kirk being founded in 1656. After a brief period spent as an industrial village in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, by the late 19th century it became a desirable suburb of Edinburgh, which it remains to this day. Cramond is located at 55°58.78′N 3°18.04′W in northwest Edinburgh, about 5 miles from the city centre, at the mouth of the River Almond where it enters the Firth of Forth. The parish of Cramond extended from the shore of the Firth of Forth in the north to the parish of Corstorphine in the south, was bounded on the west by the parishes of Dalmeny and Kirkliston and on the east by the parish of St Cuthbert's, it covered an area of fifteen square miles, encompassed the villages of Granton, Muirhouse, Davidson's Mains, Ravelston, Craigcrook and Craigiehall. The area has a low undulating topography that drops down from the top of Corstorphine hill to the shore in three gradual stages and is intersected by the River Almond which flows northward into the Forth.
During the last ice age
Bingham is a suburb of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. It is east of Duddingston, south of Portobello and north of Niddrie; the main A1 road skirts Bingham to the north
The Canongate is a district of Edinburgh, the capital city of Scotland. The name is inherited from the burgh of the Canongate founded by David I of Scotland c.1143. It was bought by the adjacent city of Edinburgh in 1636 but it remained a semi-autonomous burgh under its own administration of bailies chosen by Edinburgh magistrates, until its formal incorporation into the city in 1856; the burgh gained its name from the route that the canons of Holyrood Abbey took to Edinburgh - the canons' way or the canons' gait, from the Scots word gait meaning "way". In more modern times, the eastern end is sometimes referred to as part of the Holyrood area of the city; as well as Queensberry House, now incorporated in the new Scottish Parliament Building complex, the Canongate contains other historic buildings including Huntly House, the Canongate Tolbooth and the Canongate Kirk, opened in 1691 replacing Holyrood Abbey as the parish church of the Canongate. The church is still used for Sunday services as well as weekday concerts.
The Canongate owes its existence to the establishment of Holyrood Abbey in 1128. King David I, who established the Abbey, gave the surrounding area to the Augustinian canons resident at Edinburgh Castle in the form of a regality; the King gave leave to the canons to establish a burgh between the abbey and Edinburgh, as it was the only burgh within the regality it was given the status of burgh of regality of Canongate. The area controlled by the abbey included the lands of Broughton, areas around the Pleasance and North Leith, giving the canons access to a port. Holyrood Palace was developed from the 14th Century onwards as successive monarchs made increasing use of the Abbey for political events such as parliaments and royal councils; the word "Pallais" appears in a reference to the royal lodgings in the reign of James IV, but they were first converted to palace buildings by James V in 1525. The burgh of Canongate had a sometimes turbulent relationship with Edinburgh; the main reason for this was the continual battle over their exact boundaries up until their unification in 1856, an event which proved unpopular with the former's townsfolk.
King James VI of Scotland's accession to the throne of England in 1603 began the long and slow decline of the Canongate. The loss of the royal court from the Holyrood Palace affected the wealth of the surrounding area; this was compounded by the union of the parliaments in 1707, as up until Edinburgh had been the location of the Parliament of Scotland with the Canongate providing a fashionable suburb for the dwellings of the political class. The North Bridge opened in 1772, provided a new and more convenient route to Leith bypassing the Canongate which had until been the main route from Edinburgh to its port of Leith via Easter Road causing more neglect to the residential area, taken over by industrial premises including breweries and a large gasworks; the Canongate was an important district during the Scottish Enlightenment because of the presence of the Canongate Theatre, of which one of the proprietors was Lord Monboddo. The philosopher David Hume performed in a play staged there. Writing in 1824, Robert Chambers said of the Canongate, "As the main avenue from the palace into the city, it has borne upon its pavements the burden of all, beautiful, all, gallant, all that has become interesting in Scotland for the last six or seven hundred years".
Sir Walter Scott writing in 1827 stated. Such is the ancient motto attached to the armorial bearings of the Canongate, and, inscribed, with greater or less propriety, upon all the public buildings, from the church to the pillory, in the ancient quarter of Edinburgh which bears, or rather once bore, the same relation to the Good Town that Westminster does to London"; the area has seen various attempts at improvements and slum clearance, including various schemes by Ebenezer James MacRae in the 1930s and Sir Robert Hurd in the 1950s in traditional style replicating original facades. Another scheme, completed in 1969, by the Basil Spence practice was in modern style but in proportion to surrounding buildings. Due to the redevelopment of the 1950s/60s the once overcrowded and poverty-stricken area suffered from serious depopulation. From the 1960s onwards the Canongate area became notably less industrial, with all of the breweries closing. Residential redevelopment began on former industrial sites in the 1990s and 2000s with flats and other commercial operations being built south of the main road, reversing the decline in population.
Whilst much of this development has a modern appearance, some attempt has been made in terms of layout to retain the "fishbone" pattern characteristic of the Royal Mile. As of 2006, the redevelopment of former industrial land to the north of the Canongate, once occupied by Victorian gasworks and a bus garage, has proved controversial due to the original proposal, now abandoned, to demolish some of the replacement buildings from the 1930s. Above all, the construction of the new Scottish Parliament Building on the site of the old Younger's Abbey Brewery has led to a resurgence of the area's vitality with the Canongate becoming the centre of Scottish political life; the Royal Mile Primary School known as Milton House Public School, is a non-denominational state school that provides primary education for 5- to 11-year-old children. It was designed in 1886 by architect for the Edinburgh Board of Education. Within the school, there is a nursery which caters for 3- to 5-year-old children; as the school is so central to the Canongate community, its pu
Broughton is an ancient feudal barony, today within the City of Edinburgh, Scotland, once known for its witchcraft. The feudal barony of Broughton in the 16th and 17th centuries was in the hands of the Bellenden family, who had made their money in the legal profession. Sir John Bellenden of Broughton, Knt., present at the Coronation of King James VI in 1567, possessed the barony of Broughton, with the additional superiorities of the Canongate and North Leith, having therein nearly two thousand vassals, according to Sir John Scott of Scotstarvit, writing in 1754. Broughton passed to Sir Lewis Bellenden, Knt. Lord Justice-Clerk and a Lord of Session, cited as one of the Ruthven Raiders and to William Bellenden, 1st Lord Bellenden of Broughton. Scattered houses on the farmlands which made up Broughton gave way to more general housing in the century prior to the formation of Edinburgh's New Town which adjoined the parish of Broughton, its modern borders are defined as being Leith Walk in the south east, Broughton Street in the south west, Broughton Road in the north west and McDonald Road in the north east.
Moving clockwise from south east, Broughton is bordered by Greenside and Calton, the New Town and Pilrig. Broughton's main thoroughfare is Broughton Street; the street has many independent speciality shops. Broughton is today at the centre of Edinburgh's "pink triangle", an area of the city with a number of gay bars and clubs. Edinburgh's first traffic lights were installed in Broughton Street in 1928; the Scottish folk band Silly Wizard were based for some time in a flat located at 69 Broughton Street. Phil Cunningham, member of Silly Wizard and younger brother of the band's founder, Johnny Cunningham, lived in Broughton; the Broughton Spurtle: Broughton's Free Independent Stirrer is a community newspaper for Broughton and adjacent areas in north-east and central Edinburgh. It has no political, religious or commercial affiliation, it reports hyperlocally relevant political, environment, licensing, cultural and plain odd stories, tries to be rude to all sides without fear or favour during elections.
Speaking, it does not see eye to eye with the Edinburgh Evening News. Gayfield House is a Category A listed building at Edinburgh. Father and son builders Charles and William Butler built Gayfield House between 1761 and 1764 as a stylish country villa combining Scots Palladian with Dutch details and a touch of French decor, within walking distance of the crowded Old Town of Edinburgh. In 1765 the Butlers sold it for £ 2,000 to Lord Erskine and his wife Lady Charlotte Hope. In 1767, after Lord Erskine's death it was sold to the Earl of Leven. An entry in the Scots Magazine in 1766 states: "Marriage. June 10th. At Gayfield, near Edinburgh, the Earl of Hopetoun to Lady Betty Leven." A late 18th century print shows Gayfield House standing in attractive grounds, surrounded by fields and by orchards, bounded to the South East by Leith Walk. The fortunes of the house declined in the 19th century as Edinburgh expanded. Loss of garden ground and the ever-approaching tenements around made it less attractive as a private house.
In 1873, it was sold to William Williams as Edinburgh's New Veterinary College. This closed in 1904 and it was bought by a merchant who stored manure in the downstairs rooms. After World War 1 it was used as a laundry which manufactured ammonia and bleach. In the 1970s it was used as a garage and for car repairs, a hole was opened in its facade and the basement was used as a garage. By 1990 it had fallen into disrepair, was vandalised and much was stolen including carved wood and gesso chimneypieces. A roofer Trevor Harding bought it in 1991, renovated much of it and sub-divided the interior into basement and upper floors, he sold it in 2013. Gayfield Square Police station, featured in the Inspector Rebus stories written by Edinburgh-based writer Ian Rankin, is located on Gayfield Square in the south east of Broughton. Broughton High School was located in Broughton, but is now located further west in Comely Bank; the Scottish poet Hugh MacDiarmid undertook part of his formal education at Broughton High.
Schools still located in Broughton include Drummond Community High School, Broughton Primary School and St Marys RC Primary School. 8 7, 14, 49 1, 4, 19, 26, 44 10, 11, 12, 16, 22, 25 Edinburgh Trams operate services to & from York Place tram stop, near the top of Broughton Street. This is the eastern terminus for the route. Bartholomew's Chronological map of Edinburgh Broughton Spurtle Broughton Primary School
Blackford is an area in the south of Edinburgh, the capital city of Scotland. It is located near Morningside, The Grange. Blackford Hill dominates the view to the south; the majority of the Blackford is now housing dating from the Victorian or Edwardian eras. The local parish church of the Church of Scotland is the Reid Memorial Church, opened in 1935. Jordan Burn Blackford Hill Blackford Pond Bartholomew's Chronological map of Edinburgh The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
Bruntsfield is an area of Edinburgh, about a mile south-west of the city centre. In feudal times, it fell within the barony of Colinton; the modern district of Bruntsfield lies west of Bruntsfield Links, beyond which lies the district of Marchmont. Merchiston is to Tollcross to the north. To the south and east lies the former estate of Greenhill, to the south Morningside; the estate built on land belonging to Bruntsfield House is called Marchmont, which the Warrender family began feuing in 1872. Many of the street names reflect the association with that family; the whole area lay within the Burgh Muir of Edinburgh, from which a former farm Burghmuirhead took its name which passed to a small area within Bruntsfield. The Burgh Muir stretched all the way through from the present-day Meadows to the Braid Burn at the foot of the northern slopes of the Pentland Hills; the junction where Bruntsfield meets Burghmuirhead on the road to Morningside is popularly known as "Holy Corner" from its cluster of Victorian churches.
Bruntsfield Links is home to a pitch and putt golf course which serves as a reminder that it was one of the earliest places where golf was played in the Edinburgh area. The Links continue north east to Melville Drive where they meet The Meadows, a park formed after the old Burgh Loch was drained in the 19th century. At the southern end of the links, near Bruntsfield House, a sunken area formed by a former quarry is known locally as Tumbler's Hollow; the original name for the area was "Brounysfelde" or Brown's Fields, after the owner of Bruntsfield House, built on a pocket of land granted by the Crown within the Burgh Muir. A note in appendix 2 of the Great Seal of Scotland, 1306–1424, records a 1381 charter from the reign of Robert II which grants to William Lauder the lands of "Burrowmure in Edinburghshire", which had belonged to Richard Broun of Boroumore, he was the elder brother of Alan de Lawedre of the Haltoun House family, in a further charter of the Great Seal of 4 June 1382, Alan succeeded his brother William de Lawedre in the lands of "Boroughmuir".
It appears from subsequent charters that the Lauders acquired "Bruntisfield" at about the same time, unless it was all part and parcel of the 1381 acquisition. Sir Alexander Lauder of Blyth, Provost of Edinburgh, acquired from his father, Sir Alexander Lauder of Haltoun, Knt. in August 1497 "the lands of Brounisfeld, with the manor-house and gardens, herbarium, etc. except for one perticate of land at the east end, adjoining the ditch thereof, in the common muir of Edinburgh." J. Stewart-Smith states that "Bruntsfield Manor", or as it is known today, Bruntsfield House, had been the dower house of each successive bride of the Lauders of Haltoun for 226 years. Sir William Lauder of Haltoun invested his son, Sir Alexander Lauder, Knt. younger of Haltoun and Sheriff Principal of Edinburgh, his mother in life-rent in Bruntsfield in 1587, they resided in Bruntsfield Manor, being estranged from the laird of Haltoun. They rebuilt the mansion house. In 1603 Sir Alexander Lauder sold it to John Fairlie of the family of Braid.
Fairlie carried out extensive work to the original building, incorporated in the present mansion. His great-grandson, William Fairlie of Brounsfield, was still in possession after the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots, he sold Brounisfield to George Warrender of Lochend – Baillie and afterwards Lord Provost of Edinburgh – in July 1695, that family were still in possession in 1900. Until just before the Second World War the Union flag flew over the house whenever the family were in residence. By 1915 the feuing of the Bruntsfield Estate Marchmont was complete and no more than seven acres around the house remained in possession of the family; the carriage drive from Whitehouse Loan which swept round the now demolished Victorian wing and along the Lime Walk to the stables with their own entrance close to the twentieth century putting green. Bruntsfield House passed into Council ownership and since the 1970s has been incorporated into James Gillespie's High School as the school's main admin block; the house was categorised as a Listed Building by Historic Scotland in the early days of that agency.
Bruntsfield was home to other mansions, not least that of Wrychtishousis on a site adjacent to present-day Gillespie Crescent. It was replaced by Gillespie's Hospital, built 1803-1805; the site is now occupied by offices of the Royal Blind Asylum and apartments for the elderly run by the Viewpoint Housing Association. One conspicuous building is the original Boroughmuir School at Viewpark off Whitehouse Loan, before that school moved to nearby Viewforth in 1914; the building became James Gillespie's School for Girls until it was transformed into a new comprehensive school built on the grounds of Bruntsfield House in 1973. After serving as an annexe to a number of schools over the years, the Viewpark building has been converted into student residences; the area is affluent, with several restaurants and numerous small shops, many of which are gift shops. The housing is in the form of high-quality tenements, interspersed with some large villas; the area is served by the nearby secondary, Boroughmuir High School.
The area is popular with students due to its proximity to a major campus of Napier University. Bruntsfield falls in the Church of Scotland parishes of Barclay Viewforth Church and Morningside United Church; the area is served by a number of bus routes operated by Lothian Buses including the 11, 15, 16, 23, 36 & 45. In 2006 Bruntsfield was brou
The City of Edinburgh Council
The City of Edinburgh Council is the local government authority for the City of Edinburgh. It was created in 1996 under the Local Government etc. Act 1994, with the boundaries of the post-1975 City of Edinburgh district of the Lothian region. Prior to the Local Government Act 1973 Edinburgh was administered by the single tier "Edinburgh Corporation", which covered the "City and Royal Burgh of Edinburgh"; as such, the Edinburgh Corporation was responsible for local government services, such as the Edinburgh Corporation Transport Department. The Edinburgh Corporation had the power to make Burgess of the City of Edinburgh and to grant "Seals of Cause" to guilds and trade organisations; the Edinburgh Corporation awarded Burgess Ticket through the Lord Dean of Guild, an office in the Corporation. Like the Corporation of the City of London, Burgess Tickets were awarded along with a'Freedom Casket' – a container to hold the ticket. Bodies such as the Merchant Company of Edinburgh, the Incorporated Trades of Edinburgh and The High Constables of Edinburgh formed part of the corporation, contributing councillors and law enforcement officers.
The Edinburgh Corporation had the power to institute these organisations via the granting of a "Seal of Cause". This empowered the societies as "a legal corporation with power to hold property, make its own by-laws and regulations". Other organisations to receive the "Seal of Cause" include The Royal Burgess Golfing Society of Edinburgh, who received their seal on the 2nd July 1800; the history of the corporation lives on elsewhere around the city, for example in the name of the members of Muirfield golf club, who were granted a charter by the corporation in 1800 becoming "The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers". Many of Edinburgh's ceremonies and traditions date back to the days of the Edinburgh Corporation, such as the Edinburgh Ceremony of the Keys, where the Lord Provost symbolically hands the keys to the City of Edinburgh to the monarch, who hands them back to the Lord Provost proclaiming "that they cannot be placed in better hands than those of the Lord Provost and Councillors of my good City of Edinburgh".
In 1975, Edinburgh Corporation was abolished. The new two-tier system consisted of Lothian Regional Council and the City of Edinburgh District Council; the City of Edinburgh became a single-tier council area under the Local Government etc.. Act 1994, with the boundaries of the City of Edinburgh district of the Lothian region; the district had been created in 1975, under the Local Government Act 1973, to include the former county of city of Edinburgh. The City of Edinburgh Council governs on matters of local administration such as: Housing Planning Local transport Parks Local economic development Urban renewal regenerationThe Council is responsible for: Appointing Committees of the Council Appointing of the Chief Executive, Chief Officers, members of Committees, joint boards and outside bodies Setting council rules, bye-laws and standing orders Setting the council tax, annual council budget and administering the city's capital investment programmeThe full Council meets once a month on a Thursday, except during recess and holiday periods, is chaired by the Lord Provost of Edinburgh.
Each Executive Committee has Review Sub-Committee. These sub-committees develop policy aided by witnesses who are invited to give evidence or provide their view on a particular policy; this approach aims to increase the public’s engagement with the democratic process and result in improved, more inclusive policies. The Governance and Best Value Committee considers and scrutinises the financial and service performance of the Council, its companies and major projects, it performs the audit function of the Council. The Convener of the Committee is an opposition Councillor; the Petitions Committee allows a new method for individuals, community groups and organisations can get involved in what the Council does. It allows people to raise issues of public concern and gives Councillors the opportunity to consider the need for change; the Convener of the Committee is an opposition Councillor. The Planning Committee is principally concerned with issues of planning and development, including the granting of planning permission and street naming.
The Regulatory Committee deals with issues such as health and safety and buildings in need of repair as well as determining individual applications for registration and licensing of food premises, bars and entertainment venues under the Civic Government Act 1982 and other statutory powers. Membership of such committees reflects the party balance on the council. In June 2007 the six local development committees in Edinburgh, one for each Scottish Parliamentary Constituency were replaced by neighbourhood partnerships; these combine the councillors from two council wards with representatives of community councils. Neighbourhood partnerships are tasked with dealing with issues that are specific to their local area and influencing the delivery of key council services including street cleaning, urban parks, local development, road maintenance and parking issues. Local committees meet several times each year; the Council appoints elected members to serve on: The Licensing Board Lothian Valuation Joint Board The last election to the council was held on Thursday, 4 May 2017.