Cara Williams is an American film and television actress. She is best known for her role as Billy's Mother in The Defiant Ones, for which she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, for her role as Gladys Porter on the 1960-1962 CBS television series Pete and Gladys, for which she was nominated for the Emmy Award for Best Lead Actress in a Comedy. Cara Williams was born Bernice Kamiat in Flatbush, the daughter of New York-born Florence "Flora", whose parents were Romanian Jewish immigrants, Benjamin Irving Kamiat, a Jewish immigrant born in Lemberg, Austrian Empire. Benny Kamiat was a journalist for the Brooklyn Eagle, her mother worked as a manicurist next to Brooklyn's Albee Theatre, where she would leave her daughter Bernice with the theatre owners to babysit. Young Bernice began making impersonations of all the screen stars she watched in the movies there, knew she wanted to be an actress, her parents divorced, her mother relocated her to Los Angeles, where she chose Cara Williams as her stage name and attended the Hollywood Professional School.
Soon, she began performing in radio and at the age of 16 in 1941, she was signed to a film contract and began performing in bit roles, credited as Bernice Kay. Williams married Alan Gray in 1945. Williams married John Drew Barrymore, the father of Drew Barrymore, in 1952; the marriage was troubled and they divorced in 1959. Their son, John Blyth Barrymore, is a former actor, she is married to her third husband, Los Angeles real estate entrepreneur Asher Dann. Williams grew up in the same neighborhood as Oscar-winning actress Susan Hayward, her first credited role was in the 1941 western Wide Open Town. She followed this with the dramas Girls Happy Land with Don Ameche. In 1944, she appeared uncredited in the Oscar-nominated musical film Sweet and Low-Down and as a secretary in the Oscar-winning film Laura directed by Otto Preminger, she had a supporting role in the drama In the Meantime, which stars Jeanne Crain. Around this time, she took some time off, marrying her first husband, Alan Gray, in 1945 and having her daughter Cathy.
She had supporting roles in the Oscar-nominated films Boomerang directed by Elia Kazan, in Sitting Pretty. She next had supporting roles in The Saxon Charm which stars Susan Hayward, Knock on Any Door, which stars Humphrey Bogart. Williams started the'50s appearing in television from 1950–1952, she played supporting roles in The Great Diamond Robbery. She appeared in Monte Carlo Baby, a comedy with Audrey Hepburn. Williams took time off during this period in which she was married to John Drew Barrymore and gave birth to their son, John Blyth Barrymore, in 1954. In 1956, Williams appeared in the Oscar-nominated film Meet Me in Las Vegas, in which she performs a memorable song titled "I Refuse to Rock n Roll". In 1957, she played a supporting role in The Helen Morgan Story, which stars Ann Blyth and Paul Newman. In 1958, she was cast as Billy's Mother in The Defiant Ones, which went on to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture and for which she was nominated for the Golden Globe and Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress.
In 1959, she appeared in a musical comedy with James Cagney. Williams co-starred with Danny Kaye in the 1963 comedy film The Man from the Diner's Club. Williams appeared in four episodes of Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "Decoy", "De Mortuis", "Last Request", "The Cure". From 1960 to 1962, she starred in the CBS television comedy series Pete and Gladys, with Harry Morgan as Pete; the series was a spin-off of the popular CBS comedy December Bride, in which Morgan appeared from 1954 to 1959 as Pete Porter. Gladys, his wife, was never shown. Williams brought the character to life with Morgan retaining his role as her husband; the show lasted for two seasons, Williams was nominated for the Emmy Award for Best Lead Actress in a Comedy. For the next two years, while still under contract to the network, CBS kept her in the public eye by repeating Pete and Gladys episodes as part of its morning line-up, an unusual move for a short-run series. CBS returned Williams to prime time in 1964 in her own series, The Cara Williams Show, which lasted only one season.
During the 1970s, Williams' acting appearances became less frequent. In 1971 she had a supporting role in the film Doctors' Wives, she guest-starred in three episodes of Rhoda in 1975, performing in the role of Mae. Her last television performance was in a 1977 episode of Visions, her last film role came in 1978 with The One Man Jury. After retiring from acting, Williams began a career as an interior designer, she is married to Asher Dann, her third husband. Cara Williams on IMDb
The straight man is a stock character in a comedy performance a double act, sketch comedy, or farce. When a comedy partner behaves eccentrically, the straight man is expected to maintain composure; the ability to maintain a serious demeanor in the face of the most preposterous comedy is crucial to a successful straight man. Whatever direct contribution to the comedy a straight man provides comes in the form of deadpan. A straight man with no direct comedic role has been known as a stooge, he is expected to feed the funny man lines that he can respond to for laughs, while seeking no acclamation for himself. In vaudeville, effective straight men were much less common than comedians; the straight man's name appeared first and he received 60% of the take. This helped take the sting out of not being the laugh-getter and helped ensure the straight man's loyalty to the team. Abbott and Costello, one of America's most popular comedy duos of the 1940s and 50s in radio and television, began as nightclub performers when the straight-faced Bud Abbott contrasted against the bumbling Lou Costello.
The role is still found today in sitcoms. In the manzai comedy of Japan, the straight man is called tsukkomi. Everyman Foil Owarai
Vaudeville is a theatrical genre of variety entertainment born in France at the end of the 18th century. A vaudeville was a comedy without psychological or moral intentions, based on a comical situation: a kind of dramatic composition or light poetry, interspersed with songs or ballets, it became popular in the United States and Canada from the early 1880s until the early 1930s, but the idea of vaudeville's theatre changed radically from its French antecedent. In some ways analogous to music hall from Victorian Britain, a typical American vaudeville performance was made up of a series of separate, unrelated acts grouped together on a common bill. Types of acts have included popular and classical musicians, dancers, trained animals, ventriloquists, strongmen and male impersonators, illustrated songs, one-act plays or scenes from plays, lecturing celebrities and movies. A vaudeville performer is referred to as a "vaudevillian". Vaudeville developed from many sources including the concert saloon, freak shows, dime museums, literary American burlesque.
Called "the heart of American show business", vaudeville was one of the most popular types of entertainment in North America for several decades. The origin of the term is obscure, but is explained as being derived from the French expression voix de ville. A second speculation is that it comes from the 15th-century songs on satire by poet Olivier Basselin, "Vaux de Vire". In his Connections television series, science historian James Burke argues that the term is a corruption of the French "Vau de Vire", an area known for its bawdy drinking songs and where Basselin lived. Some, preferred the earlier term "variety" to what manager Tony Pastor called its "sissy and Frenchified" successor. Thus, vaudeville was marketed as "variety" well into the 20th century. With its first subtle appearances within the early 1860s, vaudeville was not a common form of entertainment; the form evolved from the concert saloon and variety hall into its mature form throughout the 1870s and 1880s. This more gentle form was known as "Polite Vaudeville".
In the years before the American Civil War, entertainment existed on a different scale. Variety theatre existed before 1860 in Europe and elsewhere. In the US, as early as the first decades of the 19th century, theatregoers could enjoy a performance consisting of Shakespeare plays, singing and comedy; as the years progressed, people seeking diversified amusement found an increasing number of ways to be entertained. Vaudeville was characterized by traveling companies touring through towns. A handful of circuses toured the country. In the 1840s, the minstrel show, another type of variety performance, "the first emanation of a pervasive and purely American mass culture", grew to enormous popularity and formed what Nick Tosches called "the heart of 19th-century show business". A significant influence came from Dutch minstrels and comedians. Medicine shows traveled the countryside offering programs of comedy, music and other novelties along with displays of tonics and miracle elixirs, while "Wild West" shows provided romantic vistas of the disappearing frontier, complete with trick riding and drama.
Vaudeville incorporated these various itinerant amusements into a stable, institutionalized form centered in America's growing urban hubs. In the early 1880s, impresario Tony Pastor, a circus ringmaster turned theatre manager, capitalized on middle class sensibilities and spending power when he began to feature "polite" variety programs in several of his New York City theatres; the usual date given for the "birth" of vaudeville is October 24, 1881 at New York's Fourteenth Street Theatre, when Pastor famously staged the first bill of self-proclaimed "clean" vaudeville in New York City. Hoping to draw a potential audience from female and family-based shopping traffic uptown, Pastor barred the sale of liquor in his theatres, eliminated bawdy material from his shows, offered gifts of coal and hams to attendees. Pastor's experiment proved successful, other managers soon followed suit. B. F. Keith took the next step, starting in Boston, where he built an empire of theatres and brought vaudeville to the US and Canada.
E. F. Albee, adoptive grandfather of the Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Edward Albee, managed the chain to its greatest success. Circuits such as those managed by Keith-Albee provided vaudeville's greatest economic innovation and the principal source of its industrial strength, they enabled a chain of allied vaudeville houses that remedied the chaos of the single-theatre booking system by contracting acts for regional and national tours. These could be lengthened from a few weeks to two years. Albee gave national prominence to vaudeville's trumpeting "polite" entertainment, a commitment to entertainment inoffensive to men and children. Acts that violated this ethos were admonished and threatened with expulsion from the week's remaining performances or were canceled altogether. In spite of such threats, performers flouted this censorship to the delight of the audience members whose sensibilities were supposedly
Jacqueline Susann was an American writer and actress. Her first novel, Valley of the Dolls, is one of the best-selling books in publishing history. With her two subsequent works, The Love Machine and Once Is Not Enough, Susann became the first author to have three consecutive #1 novels on The New York Times Best Seller List. Jacqueline Susann was born on August 20, 1918, in Philadelphia, a single daughter to a Jewish couple: Robert Susan, a portrait painter, Rose Jans, a public schoolteacher; as a child, Susann was an inattentive but imaginative student, in the fifth grade scored 140 on an IQ test, the highest in her school. An only child, devoted to her father, Susann was determined to carry on the family name, she decided to be an actress, despite the advice of a teacher. She breaks all the rules, but it works." In 1936, after graduating from West Philadelphia High School, she left for New York to pursue an acting career. Her father told her, ``, be a good actress. Be a people watcher." In New York, in 1937, Susann landed a small role in the Broadway company of The Women, the caustic comedy by Clare Boothe which had opened on December 26, 1936, would run for 657 performances.
She subsequently appeared in such Broadway shows as The Girl from Wyoming, My Fair Ladies, Blossom Time, A Lady Says Yes, which starred Hollywood siren Carole Landis. Only one of her shows following The Women was a hit: Banjo Eyes, starring Eddie Cantor, ran for 126 performances. Together with her friend, actress Beatrice Cole, Susann wrote a play called The Temporary Mrs. Smith, a comedy about a one-time movie actress whose former husbands interfere with her scheme to marry a man of wealth. Retitled Lovely Me, the play, directed by actress Jessie Royce Landis, starring Luba Malina and Mischa Auer, opened on Broadway at the Adelphi Theatre on December 25, 1946. Said to be an "audience-pleaser," the play nonetheless closed after just 37 performances. Four years Susann and Cole wrote another play, Cock of the Walk, to open on Broadway with Oscar-winning actor James Dunn. For reasons which remain unclear, the play was not produced. In 1970, Susann made a brief return to the stage when she appeared in Blanche Yurka's off-Broadway revival of Jean Giraudoux's The Madwoman of Chaillot.
Clive Barnes in the New York Times panned the production. From 1948 to 1950, Susann appeared on The Morey Amsterdam Show, a comedy series, in which she played Lola the Cigarette Girl to Amsterdam's nightclub emcee. In 1951, she hosted Jacqueline Susann's Open Door, the premise of, to help people—most of whom had experienced hardships—find jobs, she appeared in such series as Danger, Studio One, Suspense, but found herself typecast: "I got cast as what I looked like—a glamorous divorcée who gets stabbed or strangled." In the summer of 1956, she appeared in NBC's revival of the panel show This Is Show Business, produced by her husband. In addition to her acting and hosting work, Susann did commercials. In 1955, she became spokesperson for the Schiffli Embroidery Institute. Over the next six years, she wrote and starred in commercials which aired during such shows as New York's local Night Beat, with Mike Wallace, nationally on such shows as The Mike Wallace Interview and The Ben Hecht Show. Sometimes she was joined on the air by Josephine.
Susann energetically promoted the product, made personal appearances on its behalf. One night in the early 1960s, as she was leaving a New York restaurant, Susann heard someone shout, "There's the Schiffli girl!" Susann, realizing that 25 years of hard work had culminated only in recognition as the "Schiffli girl," was discouraged."She appeared in a 1971 episode of the crime drama Mannix. During the mid-1950s, Susann had written a science-fiction novel called The Stars Scream. In the early 1960s, she considered writing a book about show business and drug use, to be entitled The Pink Dolls. In 1962, after encouragement from showman Billy Rose, husband of Susann friend Joyce Mathews, she began to adapt into book form letters she had written about her beloved poodle, Josephine. Published by Bernard Geis Associates on November 14, 1963, Every Night, Josephine! sold 35,000 copies in hardcover, by 1973 sold 1.7 million paperbacks. This affectionate account of Josephine's hijinks earned positive reviews and appeared on Time magazine's best seller list, peaking at #8.
In support of Josephine!, Susann undertook her first book tour, on which she was accompanied by the subject herself. After publishing her novels, Susann cited Josephine! as her favorite of her own books. Valley of the Dolls spans twenty years in the lives of three young women: Anne Welles, the New England beauty who liberates herself from her staid small town by coming to New York, where she falls in love with the dashing Lyon Burke. All three women fall prey to the "dolls," amphetamines and barbiturates, a euphemism which Susann coine
The cello or violoncello is a string instrument. It is played by bowing or plucking its four strings, which are tuned in perfect fifths an octave lower than the viola: from low to high, C2, G2, D3 and A3, it is the bass member of the violin family, which includes the violin and the double bass, which doubles the bass line an octave lower than the cello in much of the orchestral repertoire. After the double bass, it is the second-largest and second lowest bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra; the cello is used as a solo instrument, as well as in chamber music ensembles, string orchestras, as a member of the string section of symphony orchestras, most modern Chinese orchestras, some types of rock bands. Music for the cello is written in the bass clef, but both tenor clef and treble clef are used for higher-range parts, both in orchestral/chamber music parts and in solo cello works. A person who plays the cello is called a violoncellist. In a small classical ensemble, such as a string quartet, the cello plays the bass part, the lowest-pitched musical line of the piece.
In an orchestra of the Baroque era and Classical period, the cello plays the bass part doubled an octave lower by the double basses. In Baroque-era music, the cello is used to play the basso continuo bassline along with a keyboard instrument or a fretted, plucked stringed instrument. In such a Baroque performance, the cello player might be joined or replaced by other bass instruments, playing bassoon, double bass, viol or other low-register instruments; the name cello is derived from the ending of the Italian violoncello, which means "little violone". Violone was a large-sized member of the violin family; the term "violone" today refers to the lowest-pitched instrument of the viols, a family of stringed instruments that went out of fashion around the end of the 17th century in most countries except England and France, where they survived another half-century before the louder violin family came into greater favour in that country as well. In modern symphony orchestras, it is the second largest stringed instrument.
Thus, the name "violoncello" contained both the augmentative "-one" and the diminutive "-cello". By the turn of the 20th century, it had become common to shorten the name to'cello, with the apostrophe indicating the missing stem, it is now customary to use "cello" without apostrophe as the full designation. Viol is derived from the root viola, derived from Medieval Latin vitula, meaning stringed instrument. Cellos are tuned in fifths, starting with C2, followed by G2, D3, A3, it is tuned in the same intervals as the viola. Unlike the violin or viola but similar to the double bass, the cello has an endpin that rests on the floor to support the instrument's weight; the cello is most associated with European classical music, has been described as the closest sounding instrument to the human voice. The instrument is a part of the standard orchestra, as part of the string section, is the bass voice of the string quartet, as well as being part of many other chamber groups. Among the most well-known Baroque works for the cello are Johann Sebastian Bach's six unaccompanied Suites.
The cello figures as a member of the basso continuo group in chamber works by Francesca Caccini, Barbara Strozzi with pieces such as Il primo libro di madrigali, per 2–5 voci e basso continuo, op. 1 and Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre who wrote six sonatas for violin and basso continuo. From the Classical era, the two concertos by Joseph Haydn in C major and D major stand out, as do the five sonatas for cello and pianoforte of Ludwig van Beethoven, which span the important three periods of his compositional evolution. A Divertimento for Piano, Clarinet and Cello is among the surviving works by Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. A review of compositions for cello in the Romantic era must include the German composer Fanny Mendelssohn who wrote the Fantasy in G minor for cello and piano and a Capriccio in A-flat for cello. Other well-known works of the era include the Robert Schumann Concerto, the Antonín Dvořák Concerto as well as the two sonatas and the Double Concerto by Johannes Brahms.
Compositions from the late-19th and early 20th century include three cello sonatas by Dame Ethel Smyth, Edward Elgar's Cello Concerto in E minor, Claude Debussy's Sonata for Cello and Piano, unaccompanied cello sonatas by Zoltán Kodály and Paul Hindemith. Pieces including cello were written by American Music Cente founder Marion Bauer and Ruth Crawford Seeger. Polish composer Grażyna Bacewicz was writing for cello in the mid 20th century with Concerto No. 1 for Cello and Orchestra, Concerto No. 2 for Cello and Orchestra and in 1964 composed her Quartet for four cellos. The cello's versatility made it popular with many male composers in this era as well, such as Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Benjamin Britten, György Ligeti, Witold Lutoslawski and Henri Dutilleux. Well-known cellists include Jacqueline du Pre, Raya Garbousova, Zara Nelsova, Hildur Gudna
Harold Block was an American comedy writer, producer and television personality. Although Block was a successful comedy writer for over 15 years, today he is most remembered as an original panelist of the television game show What's My Line?, fired from the show in its third season for inappropriate on-air behavior. Block is a controversial figure in the history of television, denounced by some, while praised by others as a writer and for contributing to the original success of What's My Line? During the 1940s, Block was considered one of America's best comedy writers, having worked for many of the top comedians of the era, such as Bob Hope and Costello, Martin and Lewis, Milton Berle and Burns and Allen and in all major mediums, including radio, Hollywood movies and print. Block made major contributions to the USO during World War II. In March 1950, producers of the new game show What's My Line? hired Block for its fourth episode to add humor to the show's format. With a panel consisting of journalists, a politician and a poet, reviewers had criticized the show as bland.
After a rocky start, What's My Line? became one of the top-rated shows on television. Critics praised his work. However, his humor could be risqué, he once risked the sponsor's wrath, referring to their deodorant with the line "Make your armpit a charmpit." In early 1953, Block was suspended and fired. He left show business for the investment business a few years while What's My Line? continued on as a staple of Sunday night television for another 14 years. Block was raised in the Hyde Park area. According to Gil Fates, producer of the What's My Line? television game show, there were rumors Block had come from a wealthy family. Three comedy writing contemporaries of Block, Melvin Frank, Norman Panama and Bob Weiskopf came from Hyde Park. Block attended the University of Chicago High School, graduating in 1930, the University of Chicago where he majored in law, graduating in 1935. At the University of Chicago he was co-captain of the university track team, running the 100 and 220 yards sprints, member of Zeta Beta Tau fraternity and editor of the university humor magazine.
Block had paid his way through college selling material to comedian and radio emcee Phil Baker at $20 a joke. While still in college, he was Baker's head writer. However, getting into Baker's employ had required persistence and some chicanery. Block met Baker when he and his writing partner, Phil Cole, introduced themselves while Baker was performing in Chicago. Based upon Baker's dismissive "Sure, next time you're in New York look me up" the two promptly followed him to New York. Informed by his agent that he didn't know where Baker was, they went to every restaurant leaving the message "When Mr. Baker comes in, tell him that Block and Cole are here." Discovering the suburb where Baker resided, but not the address, they devised the ruse of pretending to send him a wire from the local telegraph office. The attendant noticed the recipient and said "Why, Mr. Baker lives just a few blocks from here!" At Baker's home they told the maid, "Tell Mr. Baker that Block and Cole are here." Angered by all the restaurant messages, Baker charged to the door demanding "Who are Block and Cole, anyway?"
Amused by the response that they were "his new writers", Baker met them at his offices the next day. Reading the script, they suggested a joke for his show. Despondent and halfway back to Chicago they listened to Baker's radio show which included their joke, they turned the car around and armed with a new comedy routine were subsequently hired. After two years of studying law, Block quit for the profession of comedy writing. Block was considered one of the best writers of comedic radio scripts of the 1940s. During his days as a comedy writer, Time magazine described Block as a "serious, curly-haired, stocky... gag-factory" who "resembles actor Edward G. Robinson"; the 1930s and 1940s were the Golden Age of radio and there were significant financial rewards to be made for those writing for radio comedy programs. Phil Baker, for whom Block was the head writer spent $1,500 per week on his three writers, equivalent to $24,000 in 2010 dollars. However, the failure rate of those attempting to make it a career was high.
Despite the risk, against his father's expressed wishes, in 1935 Block abandoned the study of law and moved to New York City. He was able to achieve immediate success, being hired by the comedy team of Costello, he continued to write for Phil Baker, for whom he would write into the 1940s, including Baker's hit game show, The $64,000 Question. By 1937, he was so busy as a writer that in September he only had three hours to stop off in Chicago for his parent's anniversary party before continuing by train to Hollywood, writing for Baker's radio show.}} In the years that followed, Block would establish his reputation by writing for many of the top comedians in radio, including Bob Hope and Allen, Eddie Cantor, Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis and Milton Berle. In the early 1940s, with the world at war and the Depression still a recent memory, light-hearted musical comedies were popular and Block found his humor skills in demand for Broadway musicals and Hollywood movies; as early as 1939, he contributed music to the film Charlie McCarthy, Detective.
In 1940, he wrote the low-budget Universal film musical I'm Nobody's Sweetheart Now and contributed to the script for 1943's Stage Door Can