The BMW M62 is a aspirated V8 petrol engine, produced from 1995 to 2005. A successor to the BMW M60, the M62 features an aluminium engine block and a single row timing chain. In 1998, a Technical Update included VANOS for the intake camshafts; the S62 engine is the BMW M high performance version of the M62, released in the E39 M5. Like the BMW M60 engine it replaced, the M62 is a DOHC engine with four valves per cylinder, an aluminium block and aluminium heads; the M62 has fracture-split forged connecting rods, hypereutectic pistons with ferrous coated side skirts. Most of the M62 engines used Alusil for the block material, however some early M62 engines used Nikasil cylinder coating instead. Alusil is a technology which incorporates a percentage of silicon integrated throughout the aluminum cast, therefore liners, or treated bores are not needed within this block family; the M62 uses a Bosch Motronic 5.2 engine control unit and a hot wire MAF. In 1998, a "Technical Update" was applied to the M62.
New features include electronic throttle control. The engine management was updated to Motronic ME7.2. Figures specified are for European models. * 175 kW for E38 7 Series models. ** 216 kW for 2001-2003 540i models sold in the United States The M62B35 has a bore of 84 mm and a stroke of 78.9 mm. Applications: 1996–1998 BMW 5 Series 535i 1996–1998 BMW 7 Series 735i/735iL In 1998, the Technical Update was applied, resulting in the M62TUB35. Versions used in the E39 5 Series application have more power than versions used in the E38 7 Series. Applications: 1999–2001 BMW 7 Series 735i/735iL - 175 kW 1998–2003 BMW 5 Series 535i - 183 kW The M62B44 has a bore of 92 mm and a stroke of 82.7 mm. Applications: 1996–1998 BMW 5 Series 540i 1996–1998 BMW 7 Series 740i/740iL 1997–1999 BMW 8 Series 840Ci The M62B46 was developed by Alpina, was designated the F3, based on the M62B44, it has a bore of 93 mm and a stroke of 85 mm. Applications: 1997–1998 Alpina B10 V8 In 1998, the Technical Update was applied, resulting in the M62TUB44.
In the United States, power for 2001-2003 540i models was increased to 216 kW. Applications: 1998–2003 BMW 5 Series 540i 1999–2001 BMW 7 Series 740i/740iL 1999–2003 BMW X5 X5 4.4i 2000–2004 Morgan Aero 8 2002–2005 Range Rover The M62TUB46 is based on the M62TUB44. Featureing a 10.5mm lift intake and exhaust camshaft. Stronger valve springs and valves, it has a bore of 93 mm and a stroke of 85 mm. Applications: 1999–2001 Alpina B10 V8 2000–2004 Morgan Aero 8 GTN 2002–2004 BMW X5 X5 4.6is The M62B48 was developed by Alpina, based on the M62TUB44. It has a stroke of 89 mm. Applications: 2002–2004 Alpina B10 V8S 2002-2003 Alpina Roadster V8 The BMW S62 engine is the high-performance variant of the M62, fitted to the E39 M5 and the E52 Z8; the S62 was BMW's first V8 engine to have double-VANOS. The S62 engine produces 500 N ⋅ m at 3800 rpm; the redline is 7000 rpm. The bore and stroke are 89 mm respectively; this results in a displacement of 4,941 cc, compared with the 4,398 cc of the largest M62 engine at the time.
Other differences compared to the M62 include: Individual throttle bodies for each of the eight cylinders, which are electronically actuated and have driver-selectable "normal" and "sport" mode throttle response. Compression ratio is 11.0:1, compared with 10.0:1 for the M62 A double-row timing chain, compared with the single-row chain used by the M62 Hollow camshafts. Engine control unit is a Siemens MSS 52 Dual air intakes and mass flow sensors A semi-dry sump oil system, consisting of two additional scavenging pumps which activates during hard corneringAs per the M62, the S62 has an aluminium block and head; the S62 was assembled at BMW's Dingolfing plant. Applications: 1998–2003 BMW 5 Series M5 2000–2004 Hartge H50 BMW 3 Series 2000–2003 BMW Z8 1999–2006 Ascari KZ1 2006 Ascari A10 The 1998-2000 Bentley Arnage is powered by a Cosworth-developed twin-turbo version of the M62B44; this engine produces 260 kW and 569 N⋅m
ZF Friedrichshafen AG known as ZF Group Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen, abbreviated to ZF, is a German car parts maker headquartered in Friedrichshafen, in the south-west German region of Baden-Württemberg. Specialising in engineering, it is known for its design and development, manufacturing activities in the automotive industry, it is a worldwide supplier of driveline and chassis technology for cars and commercial vehicles, along with specialist plant equipment such as construction equipment. It is involved in rail, marine and aviation industries, as well as general industrial applications. ZF has 230 production locations in 40 countries with 146,000 employees. ZF Friedrichshafen is more than 90% owned by the Zeppelin Foundation, controlled by the town of Friedrichshafen; the company was founded in 1915 in Zepernick, Germany by Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH, to produce gears for Zeppelins and other airships. Zeppelin was unable to otherwise obtain gears for his airships; the German Zahnradfabrik translates to'gear factory' in English.
Literally'tooth-wheel factory'. By 1919, ZF had moved into the automobile market, a move consolidated by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles; some of the most important milestones that followed: 1920: Patent application submitted for the Soden pre-selector transmission. 1921: Under a rampant inflation and investor fears, the company goes public as the Zepernicker Zahnradfabrik, with the Zeppelin Luftschiffbau GmbH holding 80% of the stock options, valued at 4 million Marks. 1927: Moved to Friedrichshafen and changed the name to ZF Friedrichshafen 1929: A thriving auto industry warrants the series production of the innovative helical ZF Aphon transmission for cars and commercial vehicles. 1932: Launch of steering systems production under license. Today: ZF Lenksysteme GmbH. 1944: On 3 August, the Zahnradfabrik was bombed by the Fifteenth Air Force as a secondary target. As early as 20 September 1942, Albert Speer had warned Hitler of how important the Friedrichshafen tank engine production and the Schweinfurt ball-bearing facilities were.
After the bombing, the company was relocated to Zepernick until the 1970s. 1953: Market launch of the first synchronised transmission for commercial vehicles worldwide. 1961: Development of a automatic transmission for passenger cars. With series production beginning in 1969, proving popular, the 3HP20 is built to be swappable with the company's manual transmissions; the 1960s sees ZF supplying transmissions to major German automakers as well as Peugeot and Alfa Romeo. 1977: Start of volume production for automatic transmissions for commercial vehicles. Worldwide subsidiaries and factories were opened in the 1970s, the company moved into India and South Korea. 1980s: ZF started operating in Asia in the mid 80s 1984: Majority shareholding gained in Lemförder Metallwaren AG, today ZF Lemförder GmbH. 1986: Start of USA transmission production in Gainesville, for pickup trucks. ZF became a major supplier to Ford in the 1980s. 1991: The 5HP18 was the first 5-speed automatic transmission for passenger cars.
Introduced in 1991 on the BMW E36 320i/325i and E34 5 Series 1994: Development of an automatic transmission system for heavy commercial vehicles. The company expanded into China in the 1990s. 1999: World premiere for the first automatic 6-speed transmission. Series production begins with the BMW 7 Series as the first client. Today, ZF produces around one million six-speed automatic transmissions annually. 2001: Acquisition of Mannesmann Sachs AG. Today: ZF Sachs AG. 2001: Active Roll Stabilization premiere on BMW 7 Series 2002: Presentation of the world's first 4-point link – a newly developed chassis module for trucks and buses. 2003: First deliveries of the Active Steering systems for passenger cars. 2004: Ford starts volume production of the continuously variable transmissions for passenger cars developed by ZF. 2005: The 10-millionth airbag casing, the 5-millionth passenger car axle system and the 2-millionth'Servolectric' electric power steering system are delivered. 2006: ZF produces the 10-millionth passenger car automatic transmission.
2007: One of the world's first 8-speed automatic transmissions, the 8HP boasted to achieve an 11% improvement in fuel economy in comparison with standard 6-speed automatic transmissions. Production began in 2009. 2008: Acquisition of keyboard manufacturers Cherry Corporation. Incorporated into the ZF Electronics GmbH Corporate Division. 2011: World premiere for the first automatic 9-speed transmission. 2011: Production of 8-speed automatic transmission begins in Chrysler-owned plant in Kokomo, Indiana, USA, to supply Chrysler with RWD transmissions. Land Rover will demonstrate the world's first nine-speed automatic transmission for a passenger car at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show; the ZF 9HP transmission is designed for transverse applications, is one of the most efficient and technically advanced transmissions used in a production vehicle. Land Rover is the lead partner with ZF on this project. 2013: Jeep announces that ZF has developed a nine-speed automatic transmission for use in its all-new 2014 Jeep Cherokee midsized crossover utility vehicle.
2013: ZF Opens Passenger Car Transmission Plant in the U. S. 2014: Acquires American auto parts manufacturer TRW Automotive for $13.5 billion. 2015: Acquires industrial gears and wind turbine gearbox segment from Bosch Rexroth. ZF Friedrichshafen products include automatic and manual transmissions for cars, trucks and construction equipment.
Paul James O'Grady, MBE is an Irish-English comedian, television presenter, actor and radio DJ. O'Grady achieved notability in the London gay scene during the 1980s with his drag queen character, Lily Savage, with which he went mainstream in the 1990s, he subsequently dropped the character and in the 2000s became the presenter of a range of television and radio shows, most notably The Paul O'Grady Show. Born to a working-class Irish migrant family in Birkenhead, O'Grady moved to London in the late 1970s, there working as a peripatetic care officer for Camden Council, it was here in 1978 that he developed his drag act, basing the character of Lily Savage upon traits found amongst female relatives. Touring northern England as part of drag mime duo, the Playgirls, he went solo as a stand-up comedian. Performing as Savage for eight years at a South London gay pub, the Royal Vauxhall Tavern, he gained a popular following among the city's gay community and used his character to speak out for LGBT rights.
After being nominated for a 1992 Perrier Award, he attracted mainstream attention and made various television and theatrical appearances. As Savage, he presented morning chat show The Big Breakfast, game show Blankety Blank, comedy series Lily Live!, earning various awards and becoming a well known public figure. Seeking to diversify his career away from Savage, O'Grady starred in BBC sitcom Eyes Down and presented two travel documentaries for ITV. In 2004, he began presenting ITV's daytime chat show The Paul O'Grady Show, which proved a hit with audiences. After the network refused to transfer creative control of the series to O'Grady's production company, Olga TV, in 2006 he defected to rival Channel 4, where the show was rebranded as The New Paul O'Grady Show and ran until 2009. O'Grady subsequently presented a late night ITV show, Paul O'Grady Live as well as Paul O'Grady: For the Love of Dogs and Paul O'Grady's Animal Orphans, while presenting BBC Radio 2's Paul O'Grady on the Wireless and publishing a four-volume autobiographical.
O'Grady has received a variety of awards, among them honorary degrees and an MBE in the 2008 Birthday Honours for services to entertainment. O'Grady's father, Patrick "Paddy" Grady, had grown up on a farm in Ballincurry, County Roscommon, before moving to England in 1936, in search of work, settling down in the working-class area of Birkenhead, Cheshire, his name was changed from "Grady" to "O'Grady" in a paperwork mistake when he joined the Royal Air Force. Patrick married Mary "Molly" Savage, born in England, to Irish immigrants from County Louth. Patrick and Mary brought up their children in the Catholic faith. O'Grady was their third child, born at 7:30 am on 14 June 1955 at St. Catherine's Hospital, Tranmere, his birth, over a decade after that of siblings Sheila and Brendan, was unplanned. O'Grady spent his early life at the family's rented home of 23 Holly Grove, Higher Tranmere, Birkenhead, a house built in a former quarry during the early-1930s. Attending St. Joseph's Catholic Primary School, O'Grady excelled in all subjects except maths.
Hoping that he had a good future ahead of him, his parents budgeted to send him to a private school, the Catholic-run Redcourt, but his grades dropped. Failing the eleven plus exam, to his mother's dismay he was unable to enter a grammar school, instead attending the Blessed Edmund Campion R. C. Secondary Modern and the Corpus Christi High School, where O'Grady experienced his first homosexual encounter, enjoying a brief romance with another boy, although still assumed he was heterosexual. A fan of the popular television series The Avengers and Batman, he was enrolled in the cub scouts by his mother, but he hated it, leaving after a month. An altar boy at a local Catholic church, he was dismissed after laughing during a funeral service. Joining the Marine cadets, he commented that he was following in the footsteps of his childhood hero, the cartoon Popeye. Enjoying the cadets, at the advice of his captain he joined the Boys' Amateur Boxing Club, developing a lifelong love of the sport. Playing truant from school, he got into trouble with his parents, subsequently with the police after burgling a house with three friends.
O'Grady's first job was a paper round that he kept for a week, through this and other jobs, he saved up to afford Mod clothes, for a time becoming a suedehead. Leaving school aged sixteen, O'Grady obtained a job in the civil service, working as a clerical assistant for the DHSS at their Liverpool office. Supplementing this income, he worked part-time at the bar of the Royal Air Forces Association club in Oxton. Called for a disciplinary hearing at the DHSS and accused of incompetent behaviour and tardiness, he resigned. Obtaining a job at the Wheatsheaf Hotel in Virginia Water, aged seventeen, O'Grady moved there. Promptly returning to Birkenhead, he worked at the RAFA club socialising within the Liverpudlian gay scene, attending meetings of the Campaign for Homosexual Equality and working at gay bar the Bear's Paw. With his best friend Tony, O'Grady travelled to London to socialise with Tony's friend, the classical mu
A roadster is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. An American term for a two-seat car with no weather protection, usage has spread internationally and has evolved to include two-seat convertibles; the roadster was a style of racing car driven in United States Auto Club Championship Racing, including the Indianapolis 500, in the 1950s and 1960s. This type of racing car was superseded by mid-engined cars; the term "roadster" originates in the United States, where it was used in the nineteenth century to describe a horse suitable for travelling. By the end of the century the definition had expanded to include tricycles. In 1916, the United States Society of Automobile Engineers defined a roadster as: "an open car seating two or three, it may have additional seats on running boards or in rear deck." Due to it having a single row of seats, the main seat for the driver and passenger was further back in the chassis than it would have been in a touring car. Roadsters had a hooded dashboard.
In the United Kingdom the preferred terms were "open two-seater" and "two-seat tourer". Since the 1950s, the term "roadster" has been used in the United Kingdom, it is noted that the optional 4-seat variant of the Morgan Roadster would not be technically considered a roadster. The earliest roadster automobiles had only basic bodies without doors, windshields, or other weather protection. By the 1920s they were appointed to touring cars, with doors, simple folding tops, side curtains. Roadster bodies were offered on automobiles of all sizes and classes, from mass-produced cars like the Ford Model T and the Austin 7 to expensive cars like the Cadillac V-16, the Duesenberg Model J and Bugatti Royale. 1920s to 1950s roadsters By the 1970s "roadster" could be applied to any two-seater car of sporting appearance or character. In response to market demand they were manufactured as well-equipped as convertibles with side windows that retracted into the doors. Popular models through the 1960s and 1970s were the Alfa Romeo Spider, MGB and Triumph TR4.
1950s to 1980s roadsters The highest selling roadster is the Mazda MX-5, introduced in 1989. The early style of roadster with minimal weather protection is still in production by several low-volume manufacturers and fabricators, including the windowless Morgan Roadster, the doorless Caterham 7 and the bodyless Ariel Atom. 1990s to present day roadsters The term roadster was used to describe a style of racing cars competing in the AAA/USAC Championship Cars series from 1952 to 1969. The roadster engine and drive shaft are offset from the centerline of the car; this allows the driver to sit lower in the chassis and facilitates a weight offset, beneficial on oval tracks. One story of why this type of racing car is referred to as a "roadster" is that a team was preparing a new car for the Indianapolis 500, they had it covered in a corner of their shop. If they were asked about their car they would try and obscure its importance by saying that it was just their "roadster". After the Indianapolis racer was made public, the "roadster" name was still attached to it.
Frank Kurtis built the first roadster to race and entered it in the 1952 Indianapolis 500. It was driven by Bill Vukovich; the Howard Keck owned team with Vukovich driving went on to win the 1953 and 1954 contests with the same car. Bob Sweikert won the 1955 500 in a Kurtis. A. J. Watson, George Salih and Quinn Epperly were other notable roadster constructors. Watson-built roadsters won in 1956, 1959 - 1964 though the 1961 and 1963 winners were close copies built from Watson designs; the 1957 and 1958 winner was the same car built by Salih with help by Epperly built with a unique placement of the engine in a'lay down' mounting so the cylinders were nearly horizontal instead of vertical as traditional design dictated. This gave a lower center of gravity and a lower profile. Roadsters had disappeared from competition by the end of the 1960s, after the introduction, subsequent domination, of rear-engined machines. In 1965 Gordon Johncock brought the Wienberger Homes Watson to the finish in fifth place, the last top-ten roadster finish and the final time that a roadster finished the full distance of the race.
The last roadster to make the race was built and driven by Jim Hurtubise in the 1968 race and dropped out early. Hurtubise attempted to run the same car in 1969 but, while making his qualifying run at a good speed, the engine failed on the last of the four laps. Other classes of racing cars were built with the offset drive train and were referred to as roadsters; some pavement midgets roadsters raced into the early 1970s but never were dominant. Barchetta, a related two-seater body style designed for racing Convertible, the general term to describe vehicles with retractable roofs and retractable side windows Roadster utility Tonneau cover, a protective cover for the seats in an open car Media related to Roadsters at Wikimedia Commons
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles, the wheelbase is the distance between the steering axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a tri-axle truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles; the wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its rear wheels. At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. Therefore, the wheelbase is related to the force on each pair of tires by the following formula: F f = d r L m g F r = d f L m g where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, L is the wheelbase, d r is the distance from the center of mass to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the center of gravity to the front wheels, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the gravity constant. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward and the force on the rear tires increases.
The vehicle will ride lower. The amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces, like the size of the tires, tire pressure, the spring rate of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively; the equation relating the wheelbase, height above the ground of the CM, the force on each pair of tires becomes: F f = d r L m g − h c m L m a F r = d f L m g + h c m L m a where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, d r is the distance from the CM to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the CM to the front wheels, L is the wheelbase, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the acceleration of gravity, h c m is the height of the CM above the ground, a is the acceleration. So, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension; when braking the front noses down and the rear rises.:Because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering.
For example, a car with a much greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load on the front tires and therefore the grip from them. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, to distribute the caravan's weight so that down-thrust on the tow-hook is about 100 pounds force. A car may oversteer or "spin out" if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires; when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the tire distances from the CM. Thus, in a car with a short wheelbase, the short lever arm from the CM to the rear wheel will result in a greater lateral force on the rear tire which means greater acceleration and less time for the driver to adjust and prevent a spin out or worse. Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems; some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle.
This practice can be found on full-size cars like the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, but ultra-luxury vehicles such as the Rolls-Royce Phantom and large family cars like the Rover 75 came with'limousine' versions. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a long-wheelbase version of the Rover 75 for official use, and some SUVs like the VW Tiguan and Jeep Wrangler come in LWB models In contrast, coupé varieties of some vehicles such as the Honda Accord are built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from. The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, that they are able to perform stoppies and wheelies. In skateboarding the word'wheelbase' is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck; this is different from the distance between the rotational centers
Morgan 4/4 is an automobile, produced by the Morgan Motor Company since 1936. It was Morgan's first car with four wheels, the "4-4" designation indicating that the model has four wheels and four cylinders. Earlier Morgans had been three-wheelers with V-twin engines. Apart from a break during World War II the 4/4 has been in continuous production from its debut right up to the present day. Engine capacity has increased from the 1,122 cc Coventry Climax engine in 1936 to a 1.8-litre Ford engine in 2004, although it is back down to 1,595 cc. The original open two-seater 4-4 was introduced in 1936 and ended up being the most popular of the three body options available. 663 were built by 249 more from 1946 to 1950, representing 53 % of the overall production. For the first years the car had a 1,122 cc Coventry Climax engine with 34 bhp, superseded from 1939 by a Standard Special 1,267 cc overhead valve engine with 38.8 bhp. A four-speed Meadows gearbox was used until 1938 a Moss gearbox; the four-seat version was introduced in 1937 and 99 were built by 1939 and a further 140 from 1946 to 1950.
The Drophead Coupé was introduced in 1938 with 58 built by 1939 and another 106 from 1946 to 1950. This has a better folding roof and permanent window frames, along with certain other creature comforts; the Series II, now the 4/4 rather than the 4-4, was introduced in 1955 with 386 built by October 1960. Although similar in appearance to the old 4-4 it was a new car with a chassis based on the one used in the Morgan Plus 4; the traditional independent front suspension using sliding pillars and coil springs was fitted with a rigid axle and semi-elliptic leaf springs at the rear. Disc wheels were fitted as standard items. A side-valve 1,172 cc Ford 100E engine was used with a Ford three-speed gearbox; the engine produced 36 bhp. Hydraulic brakes with 9 in drums were fitted, it was available in 40 bhp'Competition' form with Aquaplane head conversion, twin S. U. carburettors, an improved gearshift linkage. Inside there was a bench seat back and individual squabs covered in PVC, with leather as an option, rubber floor covering.
A heater was available as an option as was a rev counter and more direction indicators. In 1956 The Motor magazine tested a Series II and recorded a top speed of 75.3 mph, acceleration from 0-60 mph in 26.9 seconds and a fuel consumption of 35.1 miles per imperial gallon. The test car cost £713 including taxes; the short-lived Series III was introduced in October 1960 and 58 were built by November 1961 when the Series IV arrived. The chassis was the same as that used on the Series II but the track was increased by 2 inches. Hydraulic shock absorbers replaced the old Hartford friction type. A 39 bhp overhead valve 997 cc Ford Anglia 105E engine and Ford four-speed gearbox were used; the Series IV introduced October 1961 with 114 built by March 1963 had a 62 bhp, 1340 cc, Ford Classic 109E engine and Ford four-speed gearbox. Front 11 in disc brakes were now fitted; the Motor magazine tested a Series IV in 1962 and found it had a top speed of 80.3 mph, acceleration from 0-60 mph in 18.6 seconds and a touring fuel consumption of 32.0 miles per imperial gallon.
The test car cost £729 including taxes on the home market. The Series V was introduced in February 1963 with 639 built by March 1968. A 65 bhp, 1498 cc, Ford Cortina 116E engine and Ford four-speed gearbox were used; the car was further updated in 1968 to become the 1600 with two- and four-seat open bodies available. The 4/4 1600 was introduced in February 1968 fitted with a variety of Ford 1599 cc Kent engines of type 2737E, type 2737GT and type 2265E from 1971 and a Ford four-speed gearbox. A total of 3513 were built by March 1982. Introduced in November 1981 was five-speed Fiat gearbox. 96 were built by November 1985. Introduced in March 1982 with a Ford 1597 cc CVH engine and Ford four-speed gearbox until 1984 a Ford five-speed gearbox from Ford Sierra. From 1986 steering peg to a Gemmer recirculating ball system. 1652 were built by November 1991. From November 1991 a 100 bhp Ford 1597 cc CVH engine with electronic fuel injection was used. 187 were built by January 1993. Starting in April 1993 the Morgan 4/4 used a 114 bhp Ford 1,796 cc 16-valve Zetec R engine.
In 2003 Morgan launched a new entry level model named the Runabout based on the 4/4. It was available in three standard colours only with a standard no-option specification; the Runabout could be recognised by the reduced number of bonnet louvres. From 2006 to 2009 the 4/4 sported a 125 bhp Ford Duratec 1,798 cc 16-valve all-alloy engine. On these models the exhaust is on the right side. In January 2006 a "70th Anniversary Special edition" was presented, celebrating 70 years having passed since the introduction of the 4/4; this received black paint and special wheels, similar to those used on the original "flat-rad" 4-4 Morgan. 142 were planned to be made. In spite of seventy years of production, the accumulated figure had not yet reached 10,000 in 2006. From 2009 to 2018 the Ford Sigma engine used is 1,595 cc and produces 110 bhp, enough for a 185 km/h top speed; the engine drives the rear wheels via a five-speed manual gearbox. A Ford gearbox was used from 2012 a Mazda unit was fitted. In 2018 the model was discontinued for European and North American markets as the engine does no
The Morgan Plus 4 Plus or +4+ was an attempt by the Morgan Motor Company to modernize the bodywork. Announced at the 1963 Earls Court Motor Show, only 26 were built, due to poor sales, in spite of its performance; the equipment may have varied, but an example sold in 1969 was mechanically similar to the Morgan +4 of the same year. It had the straight 4 pushrod engine of a Triumph TR4A; the transmission was 4 speed with synchromesh on 3rd and 4th. It shared the suspension with the +4. In front, it had sliding king pins tilted 17 degrees from the vertical, a development of a 1910 design; this was lubricated by engine oil released by a button under the clutch pedal. It had coil springs and bottoming coils instead of rubber pads; the rear had conventional leaf springs with solid rear axle. There was no perceptible body lean when cornering hard, it had disc brakes in front, drums in the rear, hard pedal pressure with no power assist. The frame was Z section steel rails with structural plywood floor, extended by steel tubes in front.
The closed envelope two seat body was thin streamlined fibreglass with fixed top and all glass windows, roll-up on the sides, giving it a weight of 1800 pounds and a top speed of around 115 mph. Performance was better than +4, because the fibreglass kept the weight low in spite of more interior space, the more modern shape had less air drag. Sound insulation was limited. GoMoG Workshop Manual