Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge
The Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge is a 35,000 acre National Wildlife Refuge located along the Tennessee River near Decatur, Alabama. Named after Major General Joseph Wheeler, it was established to provide a habitat for wintering and migrating birds in the eastern United States. Of the 35,000 acres of the refuge, about 4,085 acres are located within Redstone Arsenal. 1,500 acres of the Redstone Arsenal land is administered by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The facility has a sixteen-person staff with a $1,694,000 annual budget. Wheeler NWR is charged with the administration of four other National Wildlife Refuges including Fern Cave, Key Cave, Sauta Cave, the Watercress Darter National Wildlife Refuge; until Wheeler NWR administered the Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge. In 1934, the Tennessee Valley Authority began purchasing land as a bed for and buffer strip for Wheeler Reservoir. By 1936, the Tennessee River was impounded for flood control with the nearby Wheeler Dam providing hydroelectric power.
In 1938, the Refuge was established by Executive Order of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and became the first National Wildlife Refuge to be overlain on a multi-purpose reservoir. TVA impounded shallow backwater areas of the reservoir to control the mosquito population. By pumping these areas dry in the spring and summer, the mosquito breeding habitat was eliminated; these impounded areas produced natural waterfowl foods such as wild millet, smartweed and other seed bearing grasses that attracted waterfowl when the area was re-flooded in the winter. This food source allows the Refuge to be the home of Alabama's largest duck population as well as its only significant concentration of wintering Canada geese. In 1940, a presidential proclamation renamed Wheeler Migratory Waterfowl Refuge to its present name. In 1941, for national security reasons, about 4,085 acres were included inside the Redstone Arsenal boundary. About 1,500 acres of the 4,085 acres is administered by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center.
Located along the Tennessee River, the refuge provides a mix of bottomland hardwoods, mixed hardwood and pine uplands, shallow water embayments, agricultural fields. Of the Refuge's 35,000 acres, there are 16,000 acres of water; the area consists of some 10,000 acres of forested wetlands and upland hardwoods, with main species consisting of red and white oaks, poplar and tupelo. This mix of habitat provides for a wealth of wildlife diversity on the refuge. Wheeler NWR has supported up to 60,000 geese and 100,000 ducks, although these levels have declined to 30,000 geese and 60,000 ducks. Since 1990, winter goose populations have dropped due to many different factors. Snow geese are now the most prominent component of the winter goose population, peaking near 1,500-3,200 in recent years. In addition to migratory birds, the refuge hosts 115 species of fish, 74 species of reptiles and amphibians, 47 species of mammals, 288 different species of songbirds; some common mammals include squirrels, opossums, rabbits and deer.
Ten endangered species which live on the refuge. There is a small population of American alligators present within the reserve. Wheeler NWR offers five hiking trails ranging in length from 200 yards to four miles, providing opportunities to view wildlife in a wide variety of habitats. Additionally, six improved boat launch areas provide access to the Tennessee River. Fishing is popular at Wheeler NWR with an estimated 200,000 annual visitors; the Tennessee River provides excellent fishing opportunities for bass, crappie and catfish. Public hunting is permitted on 18,000 acres; the main visitor center provides an overlook of a waterfowl impoundment for birdwatching as well as the opportunity to see a red-tailed hawk. Several other spotting scope stations are set up throughout the refuge. Additionally, a wildlife observation tower is located on the north side of the Refuge and provides an elevated view of the Beaverdam peninsula, an area of the Refuge managed for Canada geese. Wheeler NWR has eight sites on North Alabama Birding Trail, the most sites on the trail within any public land area.
March: Federal Junior Duck Stamp Contest. May: Youth Fishing Rodeo, FAWN Festival. Summer: Wheeler Day Camps. August: United Way’s Day of Caring Fishing Rodeo. October: Wet and Wild Festival, Southern Wildlife Festival. List of National Wildlife Refuges Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge homepage FWS profile of Wheeler NWR Map Highlighting Refuge BoundaryRecreation.gov overview
Madison County, Alabama
Madison County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 334,811, making it the third-most populous county in Alabama, its county seat is Huntsville. The county is named in honor of James Madison, fourth President of the United States and the first President to visit the state of Alabama. Madison County covers parts of the former Decatur County. Madison County is included in Alabama Metropolitan Statistical Area. Madison County was established on December 1808 by the governor of the Mississippi Territory, it is recognized as the "birthplace" of Alabama, founded there on December 14, 1819. For much of the county's history, the economy revolved around agriculture. Madison County was one of the largest cotton-producing counties in the state, textile mills operated around the county; this changed when a group of German rocket scientists, led by Wernher von Braun, came to Redstone Arsenal in 1950. They developed, among others, the Redstone rocket, modified to launch the first two Americans into space.
Tens of thousands of jobs came to the area as a result of the Space Race, the population of Madison County rose from 72,903 in 1950 to an estimated 2015 population of 353,089. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 813 square miles, of which 802 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water; the topography in the southern and eastern portions of the county is dominated by the dissected remnants of the Cumberland Plateau, such as Keel Mountain, Monte Sano Mountain and Green Mountain. The northern and western portions of the county are flatter. Tennessee River Flint River Paint Rock River Lincoln County, Tennessee Franklin County, Tennessee Jackson County Marshall County Morgan County Limestone County Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 276,700 people, 109,955 households, 75,319 families residing in the county; the population density was 344 people per square mile. There were 120,288 housing units at an average density of 149 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 72.06% White, 22.78% Black or African American, 0.77% Native American, 1.86% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.59% from other races, 1.89% from two or more races. Nearly 1.91% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the 2000 census, the largest ancestry groups in Madison County were English 50.2%, African 22.78%, Scots-Irish 8.71%, Irish 4.3%, Scottish 4.12%, Welsh 2.9% According to the 2010 U. S. Census: 65.9 White 24.6% Black 0.8% Native American 2.5% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 2.3% Two or more races 4.7% Hispanic or Latino There were 109,955 households, out of which 33.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them. Nearly 27.20% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45, the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.60% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 31.50% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 10.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,704, the median income for a family was $54,360. Males had a median income of $40,779 versus $26,534 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,091. About 8.10% of families and 10.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.10% of those under age 18 and 9.60% of those age 65 or over. Huntsville Madison New Hope Gurley Owens Cross Roads Triana Harvest Hazel Green Meridianville Moores Mill New Market Redstone Arsenal The Madison County School System runs public schools throughout the unincorporated areas of the county and the incorporated and unincorporated communities of Gurley, New Hope, Hazel Green, Monrovia, New Market, Owens Cross Roads; the system runs 14 elementary schools, 4 middle schools, 5 high schools and a ninth grade school, a career/technical center. High schools in the Madison County School System are: Buckhorn High School Hazel Green High School Madison County High School New Hope High School Sparkman High School There are a number of private schools serving Madison County.
These include Randolph School, Madison Academy, Westminster Christian Academy, Faith Christian Academy, several others. Interstate 565 U. S. Highway 72 U. S. Highway 231 U. S. Highway 431 State Route 53 State Route 255 Norfolk Southern Railway Huntsville and Madison County Railroad Authority Madison County was an overwhelmingly Democratic county as with most of the rest of Alabama, with only a narrow loss by Al Smith in 1928 due to Prohibitionist anti-Catholicism disrupting this trend until the 1960s. In 1964, the county nearly voted against Barry Goldwater due to its opposition to the Arizona Senator’s privatization plans for the Tennessee Valley Authority. However, since that time the county has become solidly Republican due to opposition by its white majo
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Marshall County, Alabama
Marshall County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census the population was 93,019, its county seat is Guntersville. A second courthouse is in Albertville, its name is in honor of John Marshall, famous Chief Justice of the United States. Marshall County is a dry county, with the exception of the four cities of Albertville, Arab and Boaz. Marshall County comprises the Albertville, AL Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Huntsville-Decatur-Albertville, AL Combined Statistical Area. Marshall County was established on January 9, 1836. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 623 square miles, of which 566 square miles is land and 57 square miles is water; the Tennessee River runs both south within the county. Tennessee River Jackson County - northeast DeKalb County - east Etowah County - southeast Blount County - south Cullman County - southwest Morgan County - west Madison County - northwest Alabama and Tennessee River Railway As of the census of 2000, there were 82,231 people, 32,547 households, 23,531 families residing in the county.
The population density was 145 people per square mile. There were 36,331 housing units at an average density of 64 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.38% White, 1.47% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.24% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. 5.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the census of 2000, the largest ancestry groups in Marshall County were English 68.2%, Scots-Irish 12.31%, Scottish 5.1%, Irish 4.22%, Welsh 2.3% and African 1.47%. There were 32,547 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.80% were married couples living together, 10.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.70% were non-families. 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.90% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 14.20% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,167, the median income for a family was $38,788. Males had a median income of $30,500 versus $20,807 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,089. About 11.70% of families and 14.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.90% of those under age 18 and 19.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 93,019 people, 35,810 households, 25,328 families residing in the county; the population density was 164 people per square mile. There were 40,342 housing units at an average density of 71 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.6% White, 1.6% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 7.8% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. 12.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 35,810 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.4% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.3% were non-families.
25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 8.58% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,661, the median income for a family was $47,440. Males had a median income of $36,024 versus $27,478 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,875. About 15.3% of families and 19.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.3% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010: Southern Baptist Convention Catholic Church The United Methodist Church Church of God Churches of Christ Assemblies of God Episcopal Church The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Albertville Arab Boaz Guntersville Douglas Grant Sardis City Union Grove Joppa Red Apple Marshall County is home to numerous outdoor recreation areas including Lake Guntersville State Park, Cathedral Caverns State Park, Buck's Pocket State Park.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Marshall County, Alabama Properties on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in Marshall County, Alabama Marshall County Economic Development Council Marshall County Convention & Visitors Bureau
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com