Morgan Freeman is an American actor and film narrator. Freeman won an Academy Award in 2005 for Best Supporting Actor with Million Dollar Baby and has received Oscar nominations for his performances in Street Smart, Driving Miss Daisy, The Shawshank Redemption and Invictus, he has won a Golden Globe Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award. Freeman has appeared in many other box office hits, including Glory, Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, Deep Impact, The Sum of All Fears, Bruce Almighty, The Dark Knight Trilogy, Red, Now You See Me, The Lego Movie and Lucy, he rose to fame as part of the cast of the 1970s children's program The Electric Company. Noted for his deep voice, Freeman has served as a narrator and voice actor for numerous programs and television shows, he is ranked as the seventh-highest box office star since July 2019. He has a combined total box office gross of $4.57 billion, with an average of $71.5 million per film. Morgan Freeman was born on June 1937 in Memphis, Tennessee, he is the son of Mayme Edna, a teacher, Morgan Porterfield Freeman, a barber, who died of cirrhosis in 1961.
He has three older siblings. According to a DNA analysis, some of his ancestors were from Niger. In 2008, a DNA test suggested that among all of his African ancestors, a little over one-quarter came from the area that stretches from present-day Senegal to Liberia and three-quarters came from the Congo-Angola region. Freeman was sent as an infant to his paternal grandmother in Mississippi, he moved during his childhood, living in Greenwood, Mississippi. When Freeman was 16 years old, he died of pneumonia. Freeman made his acting debut at age nine, he attended Broad Street High School, a building which serves today as Threadgill Elementary School, in Greenwood, Mississippi. At age 12, he won a statewide drama competition, while still at Broad Street High School, he performed in a radio show based in Nashville, Tennessee. In 1955, he graduated from Broad Street, but turned down a partial drama scholarship from Jackson State University, opting instead to enlist in the United States Air Force and served as an Automatic Tracking Radar Repairman, rising to the rank of Airman 1st Class.
After four years in the military, he moved to Los Angeles, took acting lessons at the Pasadena Playhouse and dancing lessons in San Francisco in the early 1960s, worked as a transcript clerk at Los Angeles City College. During the early 1960s, Freeman worked as a dancer at the 1964 World's Fair and was a member of the Opera Ring musical theater group in San Francisco, he acted in a touring company version of The Royal Hunt of the Sun, appeared as an extra in the 1965 film The Pawnbroker. Freeman made his Off-Broadway debut in 1967, opposite Viveca Lindfors in The Nigger Lovers, before debuting on Broadway in 1968's all-black version of Hello, Dolly! which starred Pearl Bailey and Cab Calloway. Although his first credited film appearance was in 1971's Who Says I Can't Ride a Rainbow!, Freeman first became known in the American media through roles on the soap opera Another World and the PBS kids' show The Electric Company. Joan Ganz Cooney claims that Freeman hated doing The Electric Company, saying "it was a unhappy period in his life."
Freeman himself admitted in an interview that he never thinks about his tenure with the show, but he acknowledged that, contrary to Cooney's claims, he was glad to have been a part of it. Since Freeman has considered his Street Smart character Fast Black, rather than any of the characters he played in The Electric Company, to be his breakthrough role. Freeman continued to be involved in theater work and received the Obie Award in 1980 for the title role in Coriolanus. In 1984, he received his second Obie Award for his role as the preacher in The Gospel at Colonus. Freeman won a Drama Desk Award and a Clarence Derwent Award for his role as a wino in The Mighty Gents, he received his third Obie Award for his role as a chauffeur for a Jewish widow in Driving Miss Daisy, adapted for the screen in 1989. Beginning in the mid-1980s, Freeman began playing prominent supporting roles in feature films, earning him a reputation for depicting wise, fatherly characters; as he gained fame, he went on to bigger roles in films such as the chauffeur Hoke in Driving Miss Daisy, Sergeant Major Rawlins in Glory.
In 1994, he portrayed Red. In the same year he was a member of the jury at the 44th Berlin International Film Festival, he starred in such films as Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, Unforgiven and Deep Impact. In 1997, together with Lori McCreary, founded the film production company Revelations Entertainment, the two co-head its sister online film distribution company ClickStar. Freeman hosts the channel Our Space on ClickStar, with specially crafted film clips in which he shares his love for the sciences space exploration and aeronautics. After three previous nominations – a Best Supporting Actor nomination for Street Smart, Best Actor nominations for Driving Miss Daisy and The Shawshank Redemption—he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in Million Dollar Baby at the 77th Academy Awards. Freeman is recognized for his distinctive voice, making him a frequent choice for narrat
Eastern Orthodoxy in North America represents adherents, religious communities and organizations of Eastern Orthodox Christianity in North America, including the United States, Canada and other North American states. Estimates of the number of Eastern Orthodox adherents in North America vary depending on methodology and fall in range from 3 million to 6 million. Most Eastern Orthodox Christians in North America are Russian Americans, Greek Americans, Arab Americans, Ukrainian Americans, Albanian Americans, Macedonian Americans, Romanian Americans and Bulgarian Americans with Americans from other Eastern European countries and growing minorities of converted Americans of Western European, Latin American, East Asian descent. Statistically, Eastern Orthodox Christians are among the wealthiest Christian denominations in the United States, they tend to be better educated than most other religious groups in America, they have a high number of post-graduate degrees per capita. Russian traders settled in Alaska during the 18th century.
In 1740, a Divine Liturgy was celebrated on board a Russian ship off the Alaskan coast. In 1794, the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries—among them Saint Herman of Alaska – to establish a formal mission in Alaska, their missionary endeavors contributed to the conversion of many Alaskan natives to the Orthodox faith. A diocese was established; the headquarters of this North American Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church was moved from Alaska to California around the mid-19th century. It was moved again in the last part of this time to New York; this transfer coincided with a great movement of Eastern Catholics to the Eastern Orthodox Church in the eastern United States. This movement, which increased the numbers of Eastern Orthodox Christians in America, resulted from a conflict between John Ireland, the politically powerful Roman Catholic Archbishop of Saint Paul, Minnesota. Archbishop Ireland's refusal to accept Fr. Toth's credentials as a priest induced Fr. Toth to return to the Eastern Orthodox Church of his ancestors, further resulted in the return of tens of thousands of other Uniate Catholics in North America to the Eastern Orthodox Church, under his guidance and inspiration.
For this reason, Ireland is sometimes remembered as the "Father of the Orthodox Church in America." These Uniates were received into Eastern Orthodoxy into the existing North American diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. At the same time large numbers of Greeks and other Eastern Orthodox Christians were immigrating to America. At this time all Eastern Orthodox Christians in North America were united under the omophorion of the Patriarch of Moscow, through the Russian Church's North American diocese; the unity was not theoretical, but was a reality, since there was no other diocese on the continent. Under the aegis of this diocese, which at the turn of the 20th century was ruled by Bishop Tikhon, Eastern Orthodox Christians of various ethnic backgrounds were ministered to, both non-Russian and Russian. One of the effects of the persecution and administrative chaos wreaked on the Russian Orthodox Church by the Bolshevik Revolution was a flood of refugees from Russia to the United States and Europe.
The Revolution of 1917 severed large sections of the Russian church—dioceses in America and Manchuria, as well as refugees in Europe—from regular contact with the mother church. In 1920 Patriarch Tikhon issued an ukase that dioceses of the Church of Russia that were cut off from the governance of the highest Church authority should continue independently until such time as normal relations with the highest Church authority could be resumed; the financial hardship that beset the North American diocese as the result of the Russian Revolution resulted in a degree of administrative chaos, with the result that other national Orthodox communities in North America turned to the Churches in their respective homelands for pastoral care and governance. A group of bishops who had left their sees in Russia gathered in Sremski-Karlovci and adopted a political monarchist stand; the group further claimed to speak as a synod for the entire "free" Russian church. This group, which to this day includes a sizable portion of the Russian emigration, was formally dissolved in 1922 by Patriarch Tikhon, who appointed metropolitans Platon and Evlogy as ruling bishops in America and Europe, respectively.
Both of these metropolitans continued to entertain relations intermittently with the synod in Karlovci, but neither of them accepted it as a canonical authority. Between the World Wars the Metropolia coexisted and at times cooperated with an independent synod known as Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, sometimes called the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad; the two groups went their separate ways. ROCOR, which moved its headquarters to North America after the Second World War, claimed but failed to establish jurisdiction over all parishes of Russian origin in North America; the Metropolia, as a former diocese of the Russian Church, looked to the latter as its highest church authority, albeit one from which it was tempo
Sultanate of Tidore was a sultanate in Southeast Asia, centered on the Spice Islands of Tidore, a rival of Sultanate of Ternate for control of the spice trade. The Sultanate of Tidore ruled most of southern Halmahera, and, at times, controlled Buru and many of the islands off the coast of New Guinea. In 1605 war broke out with neighbouring Ternate. Tidore had established a loose alliance with the Portuguese in the seventeenth century who had several forts on the island. Ternate had allied with Dutch traders. Tidore established a loose alliance with the Spanish in the sixteenth century, Spain had several forts on the island. While there was much mutual distrust between the Tidorese and the Spaniards, for Tidore the Spanish presence was helpful in resisting incursions by their Dutch enemy on Ternate, as well as their Dutch ally, that had a fort on that island. Before the Spanish withdrawal from Tidore and Ternate in 1663, Tidore became one of the most independent kingdoms in the region, resisting direct control by Dutch East India Company.
Under Sultan Saifuddin, the Tidore court was skilled at using Dutch payment for spices for gifts to strengthen traditional ties with Tidore's traditional periphery. As a result, he was respected by many local populations, had little need to call on the Dutch for military help in governing the kingdom, as Ternate did. Tidore remained an independent kingdom, albeit with frequent Dutch interference, until the late eighteenth century. Like Ternate, Tidore allowed the Dutch spice eradication program to proceed in its territories; this program, intended to strengthen the Dutch spice monopoly by limiting production to a few places, impoverished Tidore and weakened its control over its periphery. List of rulers of Maluku