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Moritz Schlick

Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. Schlick was born in Berlin to a wealthy family, his father was Ernst Albert Schlick and his mother was Agnes Arndt. At the age of sixteen, he started to read Descartes' Meditations and Schopenhauer's Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik; also sprach Zarathurstra by Friedrich Nietzsche would impress him. He studied physics at the University of Heidelberg, the University of Lausanne, the University of Berlin under Max Planck. Schlick explained this choice in his autobiography by saying that, despite his love for philosophy, he believed that only mathematical physics could help him obtain actual and exact knowledge, he felt deep distrust towards any metaphysical speculation. In 1904, he completed his PhD thesis at the University of Berlin, Über die Reflexion des Lichts in einer inhomogenen Schicht. After a year as Privatdozent at Göttingen, he turned to the study of Philosophy in Zurich.

In 1907, he married Blanche Hardy. In 1908, he published Lebensweisheit, a slim volume about eudaemonism, the theory that happiness results from the pursuit of personal fulfillment as opposed to passing pleasures, his habilitation thesis at the University of Rostock, Das Wesen der Wahrheit nach der modernen Logik, was published in 1910. Several essays about aesthetics followed, whereupon Schlick turned his attention to problems of epistemology, the philosophy of science, more general questions about science. In this last category, Schlick distinguished himself by publishing a paper in 1915 about Einstein's special theory of relativity, a topic only ten years old, he published Raum und Zeit in der gegenwärtigen Physik, which extended his earlier results by applying Poincaré's geometric conventionalism to explain Einstein's adoption of a non-Euclidean geometry in the general theory of relativity. After early appointments at Rostock and Kiel, in 1922 Schlick assumed the chair of Naturphilosophie at the University of Vienna, held by Ludwig Boltzmann and Ernst Mach.

Schlick displayed an unusual success in organizing talented individuals in the philosophical and scientific spheres. When Schlick arrived in Vienna, he was invited to lead a group of scientists and philosophers who met to discuss philosophical topics in the sciences. Early members included the mathematician Hans Hahn and, within a few years, they were joined by Rudolf Carnap, Herbert Feigl, Kurt Gödel, Otto Neurath, Friedrich Waismann and others, they called themselves the Ernst Mach Association, but they became best known as the Vienna Circle. In the years 1925–26, the Thursday night group discussed recent work in the foundations of mathematics by Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein. Wittgenstein's book, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, was a work that advanced, among other things, a logical theory of symbolism and a "picture" or "model" theory of language. Schlick and his group were impressed by the work, devoting considerable time to its study and when it was no longer the principal focus of their discussion, it was mentioned in discussion.

Wittgenstein agreed to meet with Schlick and other Circle members to discuss the Tractatus and other ideas but he found it necessary to restrict the visitors to sympathetic interlocutors. Through Schlick's influence, Wittgenstein was encouraged to consider a return to philosophy after some ten years away from the field. Schlick and Waismann's discussions with Wittgenstein continued until the latter felt that germinal ideas had been used without permission in an essay by Carnap, a charge of dubious merit, but he continued discussions in letters to Schlick. Schlick had worked on his Allgemeine Erkenntnislehre between 1918 and 1925, though developments in his philosophy were to make various contentions of his epistemology untenable, the General Theory is his greatest work in its acute reasoning against synthetic a priori knowledge; this critique of synthetic a priori knowledge argues that the only truths which are self-evident to reason are statements which are true as a matter of definition, such as the statements of formal logic and mathematics.

The truth of all other statements must be evaluated with reference to empirical evidence. If a statement is proposed, not a matter of definition, not capable of being confirmed or falsified by evidence, that statement is "metaphysical", synonymous with "meaningless", or "nonsense"; this is the principle upon which members of the Vienna Circle were most in agreement — with each other, as well as with Wittgenstein. Between 1926 and 1930, Schlick labored to finish Fragen der Ethik, in which he surprised some of his fellow Circlists by including ethics as a viable branch of philosophy. In his 1932-33 contribution to Erkenntnis, "Positivism and Realism", Schlick offered one of the most illuminating definitions of positivism as every view "which denies the possibility of metaphysics". Accordingly he defined metaphysics as the doctrine of “true being”, “thing in itself” or “transcendental being”, a doctrine which "presupposes that a non-true, lesser or apparent being stands opposed to it"; therefore in this work he bases the positivism on a kind of epistemology which holds that the only true beings are givens or constitue

Coalition for Public Safety

The Coalition for Public Safety is a bipartisan coalition of American advocacy groups dedicated to criminal justice reform, established in February 2015. Its members include conservative organizations such as Koch Industries and Americans for Tax Reform, as well as left-wing organizations such as the Center for American Progress and the American Civil Liberties Union. Neera Tanden, the president of the Center for American Progress, said that the Center had been, would continue to be, critical of the Koch brother companies' agenda, but added that "where we can find common ground on issues, we will go forward"; the organization plans a multimillion-dollar campaign in support of proposals to reduce prison populations and recidivism, among other initiatives. The ACLU's executive director, Anthony D. Romero, has said that the Coalition plans to target civil forfeiture as one of their first areas for reform

Porirua (New Zealand electorate)

Porirua was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate in the North Island. It existed during two periods; this electorate was based on Porirua City, north of Wellington. The electorate was first created in 1860 for the term of the 3rd New Zealand Parliament, it existed until the end of the 4th Parliament in 1870. Alfred Brandon was the representative during that period; the electorate was recreated in 1963 for the 34th Parliament. In 1996 with MMP, the electorate was replaced by the new Mana electorate; the holder of Porirua, Graham Kelly chose to become a list MP in 2002. From 1963 to 1996, the electorate was held by three Labour Party representatives: Henry May, Gerard Wall, Graham Kelly. Key Independent Labour Gustafson, Barry; the First 50 Years: A History of the New Zealand National Party. Auckland: Reed Methuen. ISBN 0-474-00177-6. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. Norton, Clifford. New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946–1987: Occasional Publications No 1, Department of Political Science.

Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 0-475-11200-8

Forward Poland

Polish Social Movement Forward, more rendered as Forward Poland is a National Conservative and Eurosceptic political party in Poland. It contended the 2009 European Parliament elections under a common banner with Polish People's Party "Piast", it was formed by former members of the League of Polish Families, including its leader Janusz Dobrosz. The party dated back to the Interim Executive Board made up of Sylwester Chruszcz, Bogusław Rogalski and Jan Szewczak; the inaugural Congress was held on 29 November 2008, the Interim Executive Board was replaced and its constituent declaration drawn up. Forward Poland intended to be part of Libertas, the pan-European political organization founded by Declan Ganley. Ganley came to Poland on 7 January 2009 to discuss terms with representatives from Forward Poland, PSL Piast and Prawica Rzeczypospolitej. Ganley insisted that the party used the word "Libertas" but the party politicians were concerned that the non-Polish name would deter voters; the name "Forward Poland - Libertas" was suggested as a compromise.

Another Congress took place on 25 January 2009 in Warsaw. The party signed a declaration of cooperation with PSL Piast. Letters of support were received from Krzysztof Wyszkowski, Declan Ganley and Czech President Václav Klaus. Talks were held with representatives from Unia Polityki Realnej and Libertas. Talks were held with representatives from Radio Maryja, which NP politicians had connections with from their days in LPR. Forward Poland rejected cooperation with Libertas because Forward Poland felt that Libertas did not reflect their desire for a more independent Poland. However, Forward Poland accepted political cooperation and joint programming with PSL Piast to contend the 2009 European Parliament elections under a common banner, formally signed the agreement to that effect on March 1, 2009. Present during the signing of the agreement were representatives from Konfederacja Polski Niepodległej, Zjednoczenie Chrześcijańsko-Narodowe, Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy Rolników Indywidualnych "Solidarność", Związek Zawodowy Rolników "Ojczyzna" and Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy "Solidarność" 80.

Forward Poland had the following MEPs in the 2004-2009 term of the European Parliament Sylwester Chruszcz Dariusz Grabowski Bogdan Pęk Bogusław Rogalski Andrzej ZapałowskiThey were all elected as members of LPR and all sat in the Union for Europe of the Nations group. Official site

John Hoar

For the American pirate, see John Hoar. For other persons named John Hoar / John Hore / John Hoare, see this disambiguation page. John Hoar was Indian liaison in colonial Massachusetts during King Philip's War, he is best known for securing the release of Mary Rowlandson from Indian captivity at Redemption Rock. The event was depicted in the best selling book The Sovereignty and Goodness of God: Being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. On Feb. 10, 1676, during an Indian attack on her hometown of Lancaster, Massachusetts Mary Rowlandson, wife of the village minister Joseph Rowlandson, was taken prisoner with three of her children by a band of Nipmuc warriors. Hoar, a prominent lawyer and Indian missionary, was requested by the Rev. Rowlandson to act as the colonial representative in the negotiation for her release. Hoar departed Lancaster on April 28, 1676 with two native guides and Peter Tatatiquinea to meet King Philip's War party at Wachusett Lake, located in what is now Princeton, Massachusetts.

On May 2, after eleven weeks in captivity, Rowlandson was released to Hoar for a £20 ransom at the glacial stone outcropping known today as Redemption Rock. Rowlandson would go on to write a famous narrative of her experience as a captive, The Sovereignty and Goodness of God: Being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson which became a bestseller throughout the English speaking world, it is considered to be a seminal work in the American literary genre of captivity narratives and ranks as the first published book written by a colonial American woman. John Hoar was born in 1622 in Gloucester, England, he died on 2 Apr 1704 in Middlesex Co.. Massachusetts. There is no recorded date for his birth, he is mentioned in his grandfather's will of 1632 and there is a record of apprenticeship to his father dated the next year which indicates that he was eleven years old at that time and thus born in 1622. It is estimated that his widowed mother emigrated to Massachusetts about 1641 and soon settled in Scituate, Mass.

The first evidence of John's settlement in Scituate is a list of men of the town bearing arms dated 1643. In 1659, he moved to Concord, where he tried to give shelter to John Eliot's Praying Indians during King Philip's War. However, his neighbors took the Indians to Deer Island where they perished; because of his good relations with the Indians, he was asked to rescue Mrs. Rowlandson and her children, he was known to have a wife named, but there is no record of her last name or the date of their marriage. It has been incorrectly stated that he married a daughter of Lord Lisle. However, it was his brother, Leonard, a graduate of Oxford University and president of Harvard College, who had married Bridget, daughter of John Lord Lisle, President of the High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I. Bridget's mother was Dame Alicia Lisle, a victim of Royalist justice, beheaded after being tried by Judge Jeffreys in 1685. John and Leonard Hoar's sister, married Edmund Quincy of Braintree. One of their descendants, Abigail Smith, married John Adams of the American Revolution.

Robert Sidney was coincidentally granted the title of Viscount Lisle on 4 May 1605, allowing the "Lisle" title to be passed on through to his descendants, adding further confusion for researchers in search of the identity of Hoar's wife. No physical or reliable evidence exists providing John Hoar's wife's maiden name, as many early records from the Concord colony have been lost, their children were Mary, Elizabeth and Daniel. Note that the only reference to Alice as a child of Lord Lisle is from the late 1800s, there is no reference to Alice's surname in records contemporary to her life; the petition to Parliament regarding the estate of Lord Lisle's martyred wife is signed by Bridget Lisle Hoar and Bridget's sisters, but not by Alice Hoar, living at that time

Varimax rotation

In statistics, a varimax rotation is used to simplify the expression of a particular sub-space in terms of just a few major items each. The actual coordinate system is unchanged, it is the orthogonal basis, being rotated to align with those coordinates; the sub-space found with principal component analysis or factor analysis is expressed as a dense basis with many non-zero weights which makes it hard to interpret. Varimax is so called. Preserving orthogonality requires. Intuitively, this is achieved if, any given variable has a high loading on a single factor but near-zero loadings on the remaining factors and if any given factor is constituted by only a few variables with high loadings on this factor while the remaining variables have near-zero loadings on this factor. If these conditions hold, the factor loading matrix is said to have "simple structure," and varimax rotation brings the loading matrix closer to such simple structure. From the perspective of individuals measured on the variables, varimax seeks a basis that most economically represents each individual—that is, each individual can be well described by a linear combination of only a few basis functions.

One way of expressing the varimax criterion formally is this: R V A R I M A X = arg ⁡ max R. Suggested by Henry Felix Kaiser in 1958, it is a popular scheme for orthogonal rotation. A summary of the use of varimax rotation and of other types of factor rotation is presented in this article on factor analysis. In the R programming language the varimax method is implemented in several packages including stats, or in contributed packages including GPArotation or psych. In SAS varimax rotation is available in PROC FACTOR using ROTATE = VARIMAX. Factor analysis Empirical orthogonal functions Q methodology Rotation matrix Factor rotations in Factor Analyses by Herve Abdi About Varimax Properties of Principal Components This article incorporates public domain material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology website