Lock (water navigation)
A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways. The distinguishing feature of a lock is a fixed chamber. Locks are used to make a river more navigable, or to allow a canal to cross land, not level. Canals used more and larger locks to allow a more direct route to be taken. Since 2016, the largest lock worldwide is the Kieldrecht Lock in the Port of Belgium. A pound lock is a type of lock, used exclusively nowadays on canals and rivers. A pound lock has a chamber with gates at both ends. In contrast, an earlier design with a single gate was known as a flash lock. Pound locks were first used in medieval China during the Song Dynasty, having been pioneered by the Song politician and naval engineer Qiao Weiyue in 984, they replaced earlier double slipways that had caused trouble and are mentioned by the Chinese polymath Shen Kuo in his book Dream Pool Essays, described in the Chinese historical text Song Shi: The distance between the two locks was rather more than 50 paces, the whole space was covered with a great roof like a shed.
The gates were'hanging gates'. The water level could differ by 4 feet or 5 feet at each lock and in the Grand Canal the level was raised in this way by 138 feet. In medieval Europe a sort of pound lock was built in 1373 at Netherlands; this pound lock serviced many ships at once in a large basin. Yet the first true pound lock was built in 1396 at Damme near Belgium; the Italian Bertola da Novate constructed 18 pound locks on the Naviglio di Bereguardo between 1452 and 1458. When a stretch of river is made navigable, a lock is sometimes required to bypass an obstruction such as a rapid, dam, or mill weir – because of the change in river level across the obstacle. In large scale river navigation improvements and locks are used together. A weir will increase the depth of a shallow stretch, the required lock will either be built in a gap in the weir, or at the downstream end of an artificial cut which bypasses the weir and a shallow stretch of river below it. A river improved by these means is called a Waterway or River Navigation.
Sometimes a river is made non-tidal by constructing a sea lock directly into the estuary. In more advanced river navigations, more locks are required. Where a longer cut bypasses a circuitous stretch of river, the upstream end of the cut will be protected by a flood lock; the longer the cut, the greater the difference in river level between start and end of the cut, so that a long cut will need additional locks along its length. At this point, the cut is, in effect, a canal. Early artificial canals, across flat countryside, would get round a small hill or depression by detouring around it; as engineers became more ambitious in the types of country they felt they could overcome, locks became essential to effect the necessary changes in water level without detours that would be uneconomic both in building costs and journey time. Still, as construction techniques improved, engineers became more willing to cut directly through and across obstacles by constructing long tunnels, aqueducts or embankments, or to construct more technical devices such as inclined planes or boat lifts.
However, locks continued to be built to supplement these solutions, are an essential part of the most modern navigable waterways. All pound locks have three elements: A watertight chamber connecting the upper and lower canals, large enough to enclose one or more boats; the position of the chamber is fixed. A gate at each end of the chamber. A gate is opened to allow a boat to leave the chamber. A set of lock gear to fill the chamber as required; this is a simple valve which allows water to drain into or out of the chamber. The principle of operating a lock is simple. For instance, if a boat travelling downstream finds the lock full of water: The entrance gates are opened and the boat moves in; the entrance gates are closed. A valve is opened, this lowers the boat by draining water from the chamber; the exit gates are opened and the boat moves out. If the lock were empty, the boat would have had to wait 5 to 10 minutes. For a boat travelling upstream, the process is reversed; the whole operation will take between 10 and 20 minutes, depending on the size of the lock and whether the water in the lock was set at the boat's level.
Boaters approaching a lock are pleased to meet another boat coming towards them, because this boat will have just exited the lock on their level and therefore set the lock in their favour – saving about 5 to 10 minutes. However, this is not true for staircase locks, where it is quicker for boats to go through
Parlement of Brittany
The Parlement of Brittany was a court of justice under the Ancien Régime in France, with its seat at Rennes. The last building to house the Parlement still stands and now houses the Rennes Court of Appeal, the natural successor of the Parlement; as with all the Parlements before they were abolished in 1789, that of Brittany was a sovereign court of justice, principally listening to appeals of sentences issued by lower jurisdictions. The Parlement possessed limited legislative powers and asserted some autonomy with respect to the royal prerogative; the nobles of Brittany were keen to defend the rights of the province, known as the "Breton liberties", maintained under the treaty of union with France. They were determined to exercise these powers, to play a big part in the life of the Parlement and in the life of the whole province; this resistance to royal powers, involving the defending of its institutions and the privileges of the nobility, was widespread. Composed of similar members with many interests in common, the Estates of Brittany were invariably united with the Parlement of Brittany in defence of their rights.
1485: Duke Francis II establishes a sovereign Parlement at Vannes, first sitting in the autumn. 1532: The Parlement is cancelled by a special tribunal of Charles VIII, after which, all appeals are judged by the Parlement of Paris, contributing to delays in the restoration of a sovereign court in the province. March 1553: Recreation of the Parlement of Brittany, sitting alternately at Rennes and Nantes. August 2, 1554: First meeting at Rennes, followed by the second one at Nantes on February 4, 1555 June 1557: Meeting twice a year, but only at Nantes; the meetings are divided between the Inquiry Chamber. Sixty judges take part. 1561: Meeting at Rennes, at the convent of the Cordeliers. December 1575: Creation of the criminal room, the Tournelle September 1580: Creation of the Repeal Chamber, where appeals against sentences of the Parlement itself were heard. 1591: Beginning of extended meetings, but with no increase in payments. March 20, 1598: Duke Philippe-Emmanuel of Lorraine grants an amnesty for the judges of the Parlement who established a court at Nantes in 1589.
1599-1600: Ban on magistrates meeting in August 1578: Rennes is permitted to raise taxes for the construction of a new Parlement building - notably a tax on cider jars. July 1600: The meetings become twice-yearly again, February to July and August to January. September 15, 1618: First stone laid for the new building 1631: Conflict with Cardinal Richelieu after the restoration of mooring fees. January 16, 1655: The new building opened by the oldest of the presidents of the Parlement January 22, 1668: Creation of the Upper Chamber of the nobility of Brittany September 18, 1675: Louis XIV transfers the Parlement to Vannes to punish Rennes for participating in the Stamp Duty Revolt February 1, 1690: First meeting after the Parlement returns to Rennes February 1704: Creation of an Appeal Chamber for matters concerning water and forests. March 1724: A single annual meeting from November to August. Creation of a chamber to be assembled during the summer vacation. A second Inquiry Chamber was created, as well as a second Repeal Chamber.
July 15, 1769: Parlement restored after three years’ suspension by the military governor, Emmanuel Armand de Vignerot. September 1771: Parlement closed by Louis XV on the advice of René Nicolas de Maupeou December 1774: Parlement recalled on the accession of Louis XVI 1788: Strong opposition of the Parlement of Brittany to the edicts setting up the new large administrative areas of France, it refuses to name any representatives to the États Généraux. 1789: Last meeting. February 3, 1790: Legal existence ended, though the closure by the National Assembly was never ratified by the Parlement itself, which met on the same day to declare the decision “null and void forever”. 1804: The Parlement building began to house the Court of Appeals of Rennes February 4-5, 1994: The building was destroyed by fire during a fishermen's strike. 1999: After five years of restoration the building once again began to house the Court of Appeals The foremost responsibilities of the Parlement of Brittany were the processing of appeals against judgements in civil matters rather than criminal matters.
It had to instruct and to judge across wide-ranging areas of litigation, question all that which may have escaped the attention, for various reasons, of the lower provincial jurisdictions. Matters relating to the "privileges and pre-eminences” of the barons of Brittany Matters concerning the bishops and the chapters of their cathedrals Matters concerning royal officers and the clergy Matters arising within the Parlement itself Abuse or embezzlement by clerks and prosecutors Privileges of cities, towns and parishes Regulations for fairs and markets Questions of general policy Vested interest Disputes of judges relating to their workloads Conflicts of jurisdiction Taxation disputes Questions of choice of place of judgement where the matters may cover many jurisdictions. Questions regarding guardianship of children or the insane Appeals as a result of "an incompetent judge" Appeals of royal jurisdictions concerning ownership of land Appeals as a result of "denial of justice" and of "dismissal" Appeals against sentences passed by the Provost of the University of Nantes Appeals as a result of the jurisdiction of the chapter-house Appeals as a result of abuse Appeals as a result of legal confiscation or permission to confiscate Appeals against leases and auctions of buildings Appeals against judgments regarding the beneficiaries of wills Appeals against consular and
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Air France, stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France. It is a subsidiary of the Air France–KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance; as of 2013 Air France serves 36 destinations in France and operates worldwide scheduled passenger and cargo services to 168 destinations in 78 countries and carried 46,803,000 passengers in 2015. The airline's global hub is at Charles de Gaulle Airport with Orly Airport as the primary domestic hub. Air France's corporate headquarters in Montparnasse, are located on the grounds of Charles de Gaulle Airport, north of Paris. Air France was formed on 7 October 1933 from a merger of Air Orient, Air Union, Compagnie Générale Aéropostale, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation Aérienne, Société Générale de Transport Aérien. During the Cold War, from 1950 until 1990, it was one of the three main Allied scheduled airlines operating in Germany at West Berlin's Tempelhof and Tegel airports. In 1990, it acquired the operations of French domestic carrier Air Inter and international rival UTA – Union de Transports Aériens.
It served as France's primary national flag carrier for seven decades prior to its 2003 merger with KLM. Between April 2001 and March 2002, the airline carried 43.3 million passengers and had a total revenue of €12.53bn. In November 2004, Air France ranked as the largest European airline with 25.5% total market share, was the largest airline in the world in terms of operating revenue. On 25 July 2000, a Concorde that Air France owned crashed on a hotel in Gonesse. Air France operates a mixed fleet of Airbus and Boeing widebody jets on long-haul routes, uses Airbus A320 family aircraft on short-haul routes. Air France introduced the A380 on 20 November 2009 with service to New York City's JFK Airport from Paris' Charles de Gaulle Airport; the carrier's regional airline subsidiary, HOP!, operates the majority of its regional domestic and European scheduled services with a fleet of regional jet aircraft. Air France was formed on 7 October 1933, from a merger of Air Orient, Air Union, Compagnie Générale Aéropostale, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation Aérienne and Société Générale des Transports Aériens.
Of these airlines, SGTA was the first commercial airline company in France, having been founded as Lignes Aériennes Farman in 1919. The constituent members of Air France had built extensive networks across Europe, to French colonies in North Africa and farther afield. During World War II, Air France moved its operations to Casablanca. In 1936, Air France added French-built twin engine Potez 62 aircraft to its fleet featuring a two compartment cabin that could accommodate 14 to 16 passengers. A high wing monoplane, it had a wooden fuselage with composite coating while the wings were fabric covered with a metal leading edge. Equipped with Hispano-Suiza V-engines, they were used on routes in Europe, South America and the Far East. Although cruising at only 175 miles per hour, the Potez 62 was a robust and reliable workhorse for Air France and remained in service until the Second World War with one used by the Free French Air Force. On 26 June 1945 all of France's air transport companies were nationalised.
On 29 December 1945, a decree of the French Government granted Air France the management of the entire French air transport network. Air France appointed its first flight attendants in 1946; the same year the airline opened its first air terminal at Les Invalides in central Paris. It was linked to Paris Le Bourget Airport, Air France's first operations and engineering base, by coach. At that time the network covered 160,000 km, claimed to be the longest in the world. Société Nationale Air France was set up on 1 January 1946. European schedules were operated by a fleet of Douglas DC-3 aircraft. On 1 July 1946, Air France started direct flights between Paris and New York via refuelling stops at Shannon and Gander. Douglas DC-4 piston-engine airliners covered the route in just under 20 hours. In September 1947 Air France's network stretched east from New York, Fort de France and Buenos Aires to Shanghai. By 1948 Air France operated one of the largest fleets in the world. Between 1947 and 1965 the airline operated Lockheed Constellations on passenger and cargo services worldwide.
In 1946 and 1948 the French government authorised the creation of two private airlines: Transports Aériens Internationaux – Transports Aériens Intercontinentaux – and SATI. In 1949 the latter became part of Union Aéromaritime de Transport, a private French international airline. Compagnie Nationale Air France was created by act of parliament on 16 June 1948; the government held 70%. In subsequent years the French state's direct and indirect shareholdings reached 100%. In mid-2002 the state held 54%. On 4 August 1948 Max Hymans was appointed the president. During his 13-year tenure he would implement modernisation practices centred on the introduction of jet aircraft. In 1949 the company became a co-founder of Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautiques, an airline telecommunications services company. In 1952 Air France moved its operations and engineering base to the new Paris Orly Airport South terminal. By the network covered 250,000 km. Air France entered the jet age in 1953 with the original, short-lived de Havilland Comet series 1, the world's first jetliner.
During the mid-1950s it operated the Vickers Viscount turboprop, with twelve entering services between May 1953 and August 1954 on the European routes. On 26 September1953z the government instructed Air France to share long-distance
A viaduct is a bridge composed of several small spans for crossing a valley, dry or wetland, or forming an overpass or flyover. The term is conventional for a rail flyover as opposed to a flying junction or a rail bridge which crosses one feature; the term viaduct is derived from the Latin via for ducere, to lead. The ancient Romans did not use the term. Like the Roman aqueducts, many early viaducts comprised a series of arches of equal length; the longest in antiquity may have been the Pont Serme. At its longest point, it measured 2,679 meters with a width of 22 meters. Viaducts are used in many cities that are railroad centers, such as Chicago, Birmingham and Manchester; these viaducts cross the large railroad yards that are needed for freight trains there, cross the multi-track railroad lines that are needed for heavy railroad traffic. These viaducts keep highway and city street traffic from having to be continually interrupted by the train traffic; some viaducts carry railroads over large valleys, or they carry railroads over cities with many cross-streets and avenues.
Many viaducts over land connect points of similar height in a landscape by bridging a river valley or other eroded opening in an otherwise flat area. Such valleys had roads descending either side that become inadequate for the traffic load, necessitating a viaduct for "through" traffic; such bridges lend themselves for use by rail traffic, which requires straighter and flatter routes. Some viaducts have more than one deck, such that one deck has vehicular traffic and another deck carries rail traffic. One example of this is the Prince Edward Viaduct in Toronto, Canada, that carries motor traffic on the top deck as Bloor Street, metro as the Bloor-Danforth subway line on the lower deck, over the steep Don River valley. Others were built to span settled areas, crossing over roads beneath—the reason for many viaducts in London. Viaducts over water make use of successive arches, they are combined with other types of bridges or tunnels to cross navigable waters as viaduct sections, while less expensive to design and build than tunnels or bridges with larger spans lack sufficient horizontal and vertical clearance for large ships.
See the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel. The Millau Viaduct is a cable-stayed road-bridge that spans the valley of the river Tarn near Millau in southern France. Designed by the French bridge engineer Michel Virlogeux, in collaboration with architect Norman Robert Foster, it is the tallest vehicular bridge in the world, with one pier's summit at 343 metres —slightly taller than the Eiffel Tower and only 38 m shorter than the Empire State Building, it was formally opened to traffic two days later. The viaduct Danyang–Kunshan Grand Bridge in China is the longest bridge in the world according to Guinness World Records as of 2011. Where a viaduct is built across land rather than water, the space below the arches may be used for businesses such as car parking, vehicle repairs, light industry and nightclubs. In the United Kingdom, many railway lines in urban areas have been constructed on viaducts, so the infrastructure owner Network Rail has an extensive property portfolio in arches under viaducts. In Berlin the space under the arches of elevated subway lines is used for several different purposes, including small eateries or bars.
A notable exception to this trend is in the U. S. City of Chicago, where parking regulations forbid parking in a viaduct/underpass; this is worth noting for anybody traveling to Chicago, since the law is irregular and there is no signage or notice of the rule. Elevated expressways were built in major cities such as Boston, Tokyo, Toronto; some were demolished because they were divided the city. However, in developing nations such as Thailand, China, Pakistan, Nicaragua elevated expressways have been built and more are under construction to improve traffic flow as a workaround of land shortage when built atop surface roads. In Indonesia viaducts are used for railways in Java and for highways such as the Jakarta Inner Ring Road; the Coulée verte René-Dumont in Paris, France is a disused viaduct, converted to an urban park in 1993. On January 11, 2019 the Viaduct closed for good after so many years
Roscoff is a commune in the Finistère département of Brittany in northwestern France. Roscoff is renowned for its picturesque architecture, labeled "petite cité de caractère de Bretagne" since 2009. Roscoff is a traditional departure point for Onion Johnnies. After lobbying by local economic leaders headed by Alexis Gourvennec, the French government agreed in 1968 to provide a deep water port at Roscoff. Existing ferry operators were reluctant to take on the long Plymouth/Roscoff crossing, so Gourvennec and colleagues founded Brittany Ferries. Since the early 1970s, Roscoff has been developed as a ferry port for the transport of Breton agricultural produce, for motor tourism. Brittany Ferries and Irish Ferries link Roscoff with the United Kingdom. Due to the richness of iodine in the surrounding waters and the mild climate maintained by a sea current that only varies between 8 ° C and 18 °C, Roscoff is a center of post-cure which gave rise to the concept of thalassotherapy in the latter half of the 19th century.
A French doctor, Louis-Eugène Bagot opened Institut marin in Roscoff in 1899, the first center for thalassotherapy in Europe. Since many important centers of thalassotherapy such as the Institut de Rockroum, the clinic Kerléna, a heliomarin hospital founded in 1900, the Perharidy Center can be found on the edges of the sea of Roscoff; the nearby Île de Batz, called Enez Vaz in Breton, is a small island that can be reached by launch from the harbour. Roscoff parish church Our Lady of Croaz Batz: Renaissance and Gothic church from the 16th century The house known as "that of Mary, Queen of Scots" The Station Biologique de Roscoff, a research laboratory in oceanography and marine biology; the Jardin Exotique de Roscoff The Onion Johnny museum Inhabitants of Roscoff are called in French Roscovites. The municipality launched a linguistic plan through Ya d'ar brezhoneg on 14 November 2008. In 2008, 18.44% of primary-school children attended bilingual schools. Brittany Ferries operate ferry services from Roscoff to Plymouth daily from February to November with occasional Christmas sailings and to Cork twice a week from March to November.
Irish Ferries used to operate a ferry service from Roscoff to Rosslare from May to September but now sail to Cherbourg instead. In 1375, the harbour was destroyed by the Earl of Arundel, it would be rebuilt at its current location, at Kroas Batz. From 1522 to 1545–1550, construction the Church of Our Lady of Kroas Batz. In 1548, the six-year-old Mary, Queen of Scots, having been betrothed to the Dauphin François, disembarks at Roscoff. In 1790, Roscoff was raised to independent commune; until this time, the town had depended on Saint-Pol-de-Léon. The illustrator Henry Gerbault and his wife moved to Roscoff in 1919 and lived there the rest of their lives. Roscoff is twinned with: Great Torrington, United Kingdom Auxerre, France Communes of the Finistère department INSEE The commune's website Tourism office Daily life in Roscoff Jardin exotique de Roscoff Cultural Heritage The Perharidy point diving centre's official website Bernard Beaulien Painter Tripping diary Station Biologique de Roscoff, Brittany Ferries, Port of Roscoff
The railway from Paris to Brest is a 622-kilometre long railway line in France that connects Paris and the western port city Brest, via Le Mans and Rennes. It is used for freight traffic; the railway was opened in several stages between 1840 and 1865. The railway leaves Paris-Montparnasse in southwestern direction for the first 3 km, turns west at Malakoff, skirting the southern quarters of the city of Versailles, it turns southwest again until Maintenon, where it starts following the river Eure upstream, passing Chartres. At La Loupe, it leaves the Eure valley in southwestern direction until it enters the Huisne valley at Condé-sur-Huisne, it follows the Huisne downstream to Le Mans. At Sillé-le-Guillaume it turns west. After Vitré, it follows the river Vilaine downstream to Rennes, it continues northwest to Lamballe, where it turns west. Just before Saint-Brieuc, it nearly touches the English Channel coast, it continues west through Guingamp and Morlaix until it reaches its terminus Brest, at a bay of the Atlantic Ocean.
TGV high speed trains with destination Le Mans and further west use the LGV Atlantique between Paris and Connerré instead of the "classic" line. Gare Montparnasse Gare de Versailles-Chantiers Gare de Chartres Gare du Mans Gare de Laval Gare de Vitré Gare de Rennes Gare de Lamballe Gare de Saint-Brieuc Gare de Guingamp Gare de Plouaret-Trégor Gare de Morlaix Gare de Landerneau Gare de Brest The railway Paris–Brest was first built and exploited by the Chemins de Fer de l'Ouest; the oldest section of the line is the part between Paris and Viroflay, built in 1840 as part of the railway between Paris and the city of Versailles. The part between Viroflay and Chartres was opened in 1849, Chartres–La Loupe in 1852, La Loupe–Le Mans in 1854, Le Mans–Laval in 1855, Laval–Rennes in 1857, followed by Rennes–Guingamp in 1863 and Guingamp–Brest in 1865; the line is on a double track in its entirety. The gauge is the 1,435 mm standard gauge; the overhead current is 1.5 kV DC between Paris and Le Mans, 25 kV 50 Hz between Le Mans and Brest.
The train protection system Contrôle de vitesse par balises is operational on the Paris - Saint-Brieuc section. The signaling is either block automatique lumineux or block automatique à permissivité restreinte on the whole line