Mormon Trail

The Mormon Trail is the 1,300-mile route from Illinois to Utah that members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints traveled from 1846 to 1868. Today, the Mormon Trail is a part of the United States National Trails System, known as the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail; the Mormon Trail extends from Nauvoo, the principal settlement of the Latter Day Saints from 1839 to 1846, to Salt Lake City, settled by Brigham Young and his followers beginning in 1847. From Council Bluffs, Iowa to Fort Bridger in Wyoming, the trail follows much the same route as the Oregon Trail and the California Trail; the Mormon pioneer run began in 1846, when his followers were driven from Nauvoo. After leaving, they aimed to establish a new home for the church in the Great Basin and crossed Iowa. Along their way, some were assigned to establish settlements and to plant and harvest crops for emigrants. During the winter of 1846–47, the emigrants wintered in Iowa, other nearby states, the unorganized territory that became Nebraska, with the largest group residing in Winter Quarters, Nebraska.

In the spring of 1847, Young led the vanguard company to the Salt Lake Valley, outside the boundaries of the United States and became Utah. During the first few years, the emigrants were former occupants of Nauvoo who were following Young to Utah; the emigrants comprised converts from the British Isles and Europe. The trail was used for more than 20 years, until the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869. Among the emigrants were the Mormon handcart pioneers of 1856–60. Two of the handcart companies, led by James G. Willie and Edward Martin, met disaster on the trail when they departed late and were caught by heavy snowstorms in Wyoming. Under the leadership of Joseph Smith, Latter Day Saints established several communities throughout the United States between 1830 and 1844, most notably in Kirtland, Ohio. However, the Saints were driven out of each of them in turn, due to conflicts with other settlers; this included the actions of Missouri Governor Lilburn Boggs, who issued Missouri Executive Order 44, which called for the "extermination" of all Mormons in Missouri.

Latter-day Saints were forced to abandon Nauvoo in 1846. Although the movement had split into several denominations after Smith's death in 1844, most members aligned themselves with Brigham Young and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Under Young's leadership, about 14,000 Mormon citizens of Nauvoo set out to find a new home in the West; as the senior apostle of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles after Joseph Smith's death, Brigham Young assumed responsibility of the leadership of the church. He would be sustained as President of the Church and prophet. Young now had to lead the Saints into the far west, without knowing where to go or where they would end up, he insisted the Mormons should settle in a place no one else wanted and felt the isolated Great Basin would provide the Saints with many advantages. Young reviewed information on the Great Salt Lake Valley and the Great Basin, consulted with mountain men and trappers, met with Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, a Jesuit missionary familiar with the region.

Young organized a vanguard company to break trail to the Rocky Mountains, evaluate trail conditions, find sources of water, select a central gathering point in the Great Basin. A new route on the north side of the Platte and North Platte rivers was chosen to avoid potential conflicts over grazing rights, water access, campsites with travelers using the established Oregon Trail on the river's south side; the Quincy Convention of October 1845 passed resolutions demanding that the Latter-day Saints withdraw from Nauvoo by May 1846. A few days the Carthage Convention called for establishment of a militia that would force them out if they failed to meet the May deadline. To try to meet this deadline and to get an early start on the trek to the Great Basin, the Latter-day Saints began leaving Nauvoo in February 1846; the departure from Nauvoo began on February 1846, under the leadership of Brigham Young. This early departure exposed them to the elements in the worst of winter. After crossing the Mississippi River, the journey across Iowa Territory followed primitive territorial roads and Native American trails.

Young planned to lead an express company of about 300 men to the Great Basin during the summer of 1846. He believed they could reach the Missouri River in four to six weeks. However, the actual trip across Iowa was slowed by rain, swollen rivers, poor preparation, it required 16 weeks – nearly three times longer than planned. Heavy rains turned the rolling plains of southern Iowa into a quagmire of axle-deep mud. Furthermore, few people carried adequate provisions for the trip; the weather, general unpreparedness, lack of experience in moving such a large group of people all contributed to the difficulties they endured. The initial party reached the Missouri River on June 14, it was apparent that the Latter-day Saints could not make it to the Great Basin that season and would have to winter on the Missouri River. Some of the emigrants established. Others moved across the river into the area of present-day Omaha and built a camp called Winter Quarters. In April 1847, chosen members of the vanguard company gathered, final supplies were packed, the group was organized into 14 military companies.

A militia and night guard were formed. The company consisted of 143


Drymophila is a bird genus in the antbird family. It is a relative of the typical antwrens; the genus Drymophila was introduced by the English naturalist William Swainson in 1824. The type species is the ferruginous antbird; the name of the genus combines the Ancient Greek words drumos for "wood" or "copse" and philos "fond of". The genus Drymophila contains the following eleven species: Ferruginous antbird Bertoni's antbird Rufous-tailed antbird Ochre-rumped antbird Dusky-tailed antbird Scaled antbird Striated antbird Santa Marta antbird Klages's antbird East Andean antbird Streak-headed antbird Formerly, some authorities considered the following species as species within the genus Drymophila: Spectacled monarch Island monarch Shining flycatcher Six of the Drymophila species are associated with regions of southeastern Brazil. At their highest diversity in Brazil's Mata Atlântica, the species are completely parapatric, in some cases like the dusky-tailed and scaled antbird to exclusive habitat preferences.

Of course, the rampant deforestation in that region may obscure that there has been more overlap in the past. In any case, habitat fragments tend to hold at most a single species. D. Devillei, the striated antbird, is a species of the southwestern quadrant of the Amazon Basin, a disjunct population lives in north-western Ecuador and adjacent parts of Colombia. Rajão, Henrique & Cerqueira, Rui: Distribuição altitudinal e simpatria das aves do gênero Drymophila Swainson na Mata Atlântica. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 23: 597–607. Doi:10.1590/S0101-81752006000300002 PDF fulltext Ecuadorian birds: Report of "Long-tailed Antbird"

List of Australian Football League team songs

An Australian Football League team song is traditionally sung by members of the winning team after an AFL game. It is played when each team runs out onto the field prior to the beginning of the match, played for the winning team at the end of the match; the first team song was the Collingwood song "Good Old Collingwood Forever", written by player Tom Nelson in 1906 to the tune of "Goodbye, Dolly Gray", an American music hall song. Other clubs have continued to rewrite other songs' lyrics to suit their team, with four of the 18 team songs having both original lyrics and music; the Fitzroy team song was compiled by Bill Stephen in 1952 on a train to Perth during a football trip. Bill Stephen wrote the first line of the song, it is to the tune of the French National Anthem, "La Marseillaise" and was adopted by Brisbane in 1997. The Brisbane team song prior to 1997 was to the tune of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" The Western Bulldogs team song was called "Sons of the'Scray" before Footscray changed their name to the Western Bulldogs in 1997, with the song's lyrics being altered to "Sons of the West".

The Fremantle Dockers' club song used from 1995 until 2011 contained a section based on "The Song of the Volga Boatmen", a Russian folk song, but most of the song was an original composition by Ken Walther. After the 2011 season, the "Volga Boatmen" section was dropped, leaving only the part written by Walther