Mormonism is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity started by Joseph Smith in Western New York in the 1820s and 30s. The word Mormon derived from the Book of Mormon, a religious text published by Smith, which he said he translated from golden plates with divine assistance; the book describes itself as a chronicle of early indigenous peoples of the Americas and their dealings with God. Based on the book's name, Smith's early followers were more known as Mormons, their faith Mormonism; the term was considered pejorative, but Mormons no longer consider it so. After Smith was killed in 1844, most Mormons followed Brigham Young on his westward journey to the area that became the Utah Territory, calling themselves The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Other sects include Mormon fundamentalism, which seeks to maintain practices and doctrines such as polygamy, other small independent denominations; the second-largest Latter Day Saint denomination, the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, since 2001 called the Community of Christ, does not describe itself as "Mormon", but follows a Trinitarian Christian restorationist theology, considers itself Restorationist in terms of Latter Day Saint doctrine.
Mormonism has common beliefs with the rest of the Latter Day Saint movement, including the use of and belief in the Bible, in other religious texts including the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants. It accepts the Pearl of Great Price as part of its scriptural canon, has a history of teaching eternal marriage, eternal progression and polygamy, although the LDS Church formally abandoned the practice of plural marriage in 1890. Cultural Mormonism, a lifestyle promoted by Mormon institutions, includes cultural Mormons who identify with the culture, but not the theology. Mormonism originated in the 1820s in western New York during a period of religious excitement known as the Second Great Awakening. After praying about which denomination he should join, Joseph Smith, Jr. said he received a vision in the spring of 1820. Called the "First Vision", Smith said that God the Father and His son Jesus Christ appeared to him and instructed him to join none of the existing churches because they were all wrong.
During the 1820s Smith reported several angelic visitations, was told that God would use him to re-establish the true Christian church, that the Book of Mormon would be the means of establishing correct doctrine for the restored church. Smith, Oliver Cowdery, other early followers, began baptizing new converts in 1829. Formally organized in 1830 as the Church of Christ. Smith was seen by his followers as a modern-day prophet. Joseph Smith said the Book of Mormon was translated from writing on golden plates in a reformed Egyptian language, translated with the assistance of the Urim and Thummim and seer stones. Both the special spectacles and the seer stone were at times referred to as the "Urim and Thummim", he said an angel first showed him the location of the plates in 1823, buried in a nearby hill, but he was not allowed to take the plates until 1827. Smith began dictating the text of The Book of Mormon around the fall of 1827 until the summer of 1828 when 116 pages were lost. Translation began again in April 1829 and finished in June 1829, saying that he translated it "by the gift and power of God".
Oliver Cowdery acted as scribe for the majority of the translation. After the translation was completed, Smith said. During Smith's supposed possession few people were allowed to "witness" the plates; the book described itself as a chronicle of an early Israelite diaspora, integrating with the pre-existing indigenous peoples of the Americas, written by a people called the Nephites. According to The Book of Mormon, Lehi's family left Jerusalem at the urging of God c. 600 BC, sailed to the Americas c. 589 BC. The Nephites are described as descendants of the fourth son of the prophet Lehi; the Nephites are portrayed as having a belief in Christ hundreds of years before his birth. Historical accuracy and veracity of the Book of Mormon continues to be hotly contested. No archaeological, linguistic, or other evidence of the use of Egyptian writing in ancient America has been discovered. To avoid confrontation with New York residents, the members moved to Kirtland and hoped to establish a permanent New Jerusalem or City of Zion in Jackson County, Missouri.
However, they were expelled from Jackson County in 1833 and fled to other parts of Missouri in 1838. Violence between the Missourians and church members resulted in the governor of Missouri issuing an "extermination order," again forcing the church to relocate; the displaced Mormons fled to a small town called Commerce. The church bought the town, renamed it Nauvoo, lived with a degree of peace and prosperity for a few years. However, tensions between Mormons and non-Mormons again escalated, in 1844 Smith was killed by a mob, precipitating a succession crisis; the largest group of Mormons accepted Brigham Young as the new prophet/leader and emigrated to what became the Utah Territory. There, the church began the open practice of plural marriage, a form of polygyny which Smith had instituted in Nauvoo. Plural marriage became the faith's most sensational characteristic during the 19th century, but vigorous opposition by the United States Congress threatened the church's existence as a legal institution.
Ming Cho Lee is a Chinese American theatrical set designer and professor at the Yale School of Drama. Lee, whose father was a Yale University graduate, moved to the United States in 1949 and attended Occidental College, he first worked on Broadway as a second assistant set designer to Jo Mielziner on The Most Happy Fella in 1956. Lee's first Broadway play as Scenic Designer was The Moon Besieged in 1962, he has won the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Set Design, a Helen Hayes Award, in 1983 he received a Tony Award for Best Scenic Design for K2. He has designed sets for opera (including eight productions for the Metropolitan Opera and thirteen for the New York City Opera and regional theatres such as Arena Stage, the Mark Taper Forum, the Guthrie Theater, he designed over 30 productions for Joseph Papp at The Public Theater, including the original Off-Broadway production of Hair. Since 1969, Lee has taught at the Yale School of Drama, where he is co-chair of the Design Department. In February 2017, he announced.
He is on the Board of Directors for The Actors Center in Manhattan. Lee is the subject of Ming Cho Lee: A Life in Design by Arnold Aronson, published by TCG Books in 2014. Lee was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame in 1998, was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 2002. In 1995, he won the Obie Award for Sustained Excellence for his consistent and valuable contributions to the theatrical community. Chinese in New York City Dramatic license Arnold. Ming Cho Lee: A Life in Design. New York: Theatre Communications Group, 2014. ISBN 9781559364614 Yale Bulletin biography, March 21, 2003 AILF Immigrant Achievement Award biography, 1999 Ming Cho Lee at the Internet Broadway Database
Andrei Mihailov is a Moldovan former swimmer, who specialized in backstroke events. He is a member of the Moldova Swimming Team. Mihailov's Olympic debut came at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. Swimming in heat one of the men's 200 m backstroke, he edged out Bulgaria's Ivan Angelov to take a second spot and thirty-eighth overall by 0.63 of a second in 2:06.67. At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Mihailov qualified again for the 200 m backstroke, he cleared a FINA B-standard entry time of 2:06.12 from the Russian Open Championships in Moscow. Swimming in the same heat as Sydney, he raced again to second place by 0.68 of a second behind Finland's Matti Mäki in 2:06.97. Mihailov failed to advance into the semifinals, as he placed thirty-fourth overall in the preliminaries