Penile subincision is a form of genital modification or mutilation consisting of a urethrotomy, in which the underside of the penis is incised and the urethra slit open lengthwise, from the urethral opening toward the base. The slit can be of varying lengths. Subincision was traditionally performed around the world, notably in Australia, but in Africa, South America and the Polynesian and Melanesian cultures of the Pacific as a coming of age ritual. Disadvantages include the risks inherent in the procedure itself, self-performed, increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections; the ability to impregnate may be decreased. Subincisions can affect urination and require the subincised male to sit or squat while urinating; the scrotum can be pulled up against the open urethra to quasi-complete the tube and allow an approximation to normal urination, while a few subincised men carry a tube with which they can aim. Subincision is well documented among the peoples of the central desert of Australia such as the Arrernte and Luritja.
The Arrernte word for subincision is arilta, occurs as a rite of passage ritual for adolescent boys. It was given to the Arrernte by a lizard-man spirit being from the Dreamtime. A subincised penis is thought to resemble a vulva, the bleeding is likened to menstruation; this type of modification of the penis was traditionally performed by the Lardil people of Mornington Island, Queensland. The young men who endured this custom were the only ones to learn a simple ceremonial language, Damin. In ceremonies, repeated throughout adult life, the subincised penis would be used as a site for ritual bloodletting. According to Ken Hale, who studied Damin, no ritual initiations have been carried out in the Gulf of Carpentaria for half a century, hence the language has died out. Another indigenous Australian term for the custom is the terrible rite. Indigenous cultures of the Amazon Basin practise subincision, as do Samburu herdboys of Kenya, who are said to perform subincisions on themselves at age seven to ten.
In Samoa, subincision of the foreskin, skin located along the tip of the penis, was ritually performed upon young men, as in Hawaii, where subincision of the foreskin is reported to have been performed at age six or seven. Meatotomy Modern primitive Body modification General Roheim, G´esa. "The Symbolism of Subincision". The American Iago. 6: 321–8. Bettelheim, Bruno Symbolic Wounds: Puberty Rites and the Envious Male. New York: Collier. Farb, Peter Man's Rise to Civilization New York: E. P. Dutton p98-101. Polynesia Firth, Raymond, We the Tikopia: A Sociological Study of Kinship in Primitive Polynesia. Boston: Beacon. Martin, John Tonga Islands: William Mariner’s Account. Tonga: Vava’u Press. Diamond, M. Selected Cross-Generational Sexual Behavior in Traditional Hawai’i: A Sexological Ethnography, in Feierman, J. R. Pedophilia: Biosocial Dimensions. New York: Springer-Verlag, p422-43Melanesia Kempf, Wolfgang. "The Politics of Incorporation: Masculinity and Modernity among the Ngaing of Papua New Guinea".
Oceania. 73: 56–78. Doi:10.1002/j.1834-4461.2002.tb02806.x. Hogbin, Ian The Island of Menstruating Men: Religion in Wogeo, New Guinea. Prospect Heights, IL: WavelandAustralia Basedow H.. "Subincision and Kindred Rites of the Australian Aboriginal". J Royal Anth. Inst. 57: 123–156. Doi:10.2307/2843680. Cawte JE, Djagamara N, Barrett MG. "The meaning of subincision of the urethra to aboriginal Australians". Br. J Med. Psychol. 39: 245–253. Doi:10.1111/j.2044-8341.1966.tb01334.x. PMID 6008217. Morrison J.. "The origins of the practices of circumcision and subincision among the Australian Aborigines". Medical Journal of Australia: 125–7. Montagu, Ashley Coming into Being among the Australian Aborigines: The Procreative Beliefs of the Australian Aborigines. 2nd ed. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Pounder DJ. "Ritual mutilation. Subincision of the penis among Australian Aborigines". Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 4: 227–9. Doi:10.1097/00000433-198309000-00009. PMID 6637950. Abley, Mark. Spoken Here: Travels Among Threatened Languages.
Africa Margetts, E. L.. "Sub-incision of the urethra in the Samburu of Kenya". East Afr Med J. 37: 105–8. Commons.wikimedia.org A mention of penile subincision in Hawaii during the early Twentieth Century A mention of penile subincision among Papuans Rickharrison.com "The story of my subincision" at Kuro5hin.org
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Manowar and Rocky Islands Important Bird Area
The Manowar and Rocky Islands Important Bird Area comprise two small islands in the Wellesley Islands group, lying in the south-east of the Gulf of Carpentaria and part of the state of Queensland, Australia. They are important for breeding seabirds; the islands have a collective area of 51 ha and lie about 40 km north-west of Mornington Island, the largest of the Wellesley Group. The climate is monsoonal with a hot wet season from December to April and an extended dry season from May to November; the islands are Aboriginal land owned by the Lardil people. The traditional name of Manowar Island is Wudma; the islands have been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because they support over 1% of the world populations of brown boobies and lesser frigatebirds. Large numbers of Australian pelicans and smaller numbers of eastern reef egrets and white-bellied sea-eagles breed on the islands
Nine Publishing is a media company in Australia and New Zealand, with investments in newspaper, magazines and digital properties. The company was founded by John Fairfax, who purchased The Sydney Morning Herald in 1841; the Fairfax family retained control of the business until late in the 20th century. The company owned regional and other major Australian newspapers, including The Age, Australian Financial Review and Canberra Times, majority stakes in property business Domain Group and the Macquarie Radio Network, joint ventures in streaming service Stan and online publisher HuffPost Australia; the group's last chairman was Nick Falloon and the chief executive officer was Greg Hywood. On 26 July 2018, Fairfax Media and Nine Entertainment Co. announced it had agreed on terms for a merger between the two companies to become Australia's largest media company. Shareholders in Nine Entertainment Co. took a 51% of the combined entity and Fairfax shareholders own 49%. Fairfax Media was delisted from the Australian Securities Exchange in December 2018.
John Fairfax purchased The Sydney Morning Herald in 1841. Several generations of the Fairfax family continued to control the company. Fairfax Media was founded by the Fairfax family as John Fairfax and Sons to become John Fairfax Holdings; the Fairfax family lost control of the company in December 1990. It was renamed from John Fairfax Holdings to Fairfax Media in 2007; the Australian Financial Review was founded in 1951. In that decade, Fairfax started two television stations, ATN and QTQ. Fairfax began expanding in the 1960s, among others, The Age, The Newcastle Herald and the Illawarra Mercury. In 1979, Rupert Murdoch attempted to take over rival The Weekly Times. Due to the costs of defending the takeover, Fairfax sold its television properties, including the Seven Network. In 1988, Fairfax sold its magazines to Australian Consolidated Press, discontinued its Sydney afternoon tabloid The Sun, transferring some of its content and the sponsorship of the City to Surf to its new Sunday tabloid The Sun-Herald which replaced the broadsheet Sunday Herald.
In 1987, Warwick Fairfax aged 26, controversially bought out his family's holdings in the company by borrowing heavily. He took it over. By 1993, the company was re-listed on the Australian Securities Exchange and the two biggest shareholders of John Fairfax Holdings were the Canadian newspaper magnate Conrad Black and his Hollinger Group with 25%, the Australian media mogul, Kerry Packer and his publicly listed company and Broadcasting Limited with 15%. Due to Australian government concerns over media consolidation that limited any single foreign shareholder holding more than 25% interest in national and metropolitan newspapers, after intense lobbying for the right to increase his stake, Black conceded defeat in 1996, selling his holding to the New Zealand corporate "raider" Brierley Investments, subject to the same restrictions. In 2003, Fairfax acquired many of New Zealand's highest-profile newspapers when it bought the publishing assets of that country's Independent Newspapers Limited, whose cornerstone shareholder was News Corp Australia.
In July 2005, Fairfax acquired the RSVP dating site for A$38 million. In August 2005, Fairfax's general classifieds site created in March 2004, Cracker.com.au exceeded 500,000 unique visitors a month. In December 2005, Fairfax acquired Stayz Pty Ltd for A$12.7 million. This investment proved to be successful as Stayz was sold on 27 November 2013, for $220 million, far exceeding its estimated net debt of $154 million. In August 2005, Fairfax ended its 16-month search for a new chief executive officer with David Kirk, a former Rugby Union World Cup winning captain of the New Zealand All Blacks being appointed to replace departing CEO Fred Hilmer. David Kirk got the job ahead of Fairfax COO Brian Evans and Doug Flynn, who took the top job at UK Pest control company Rentokil after negotiations with Fairfax broke off. In March 2006, Fairfax acquired New Zealand auction website Trademe.co.nz for NZ$700 million. On 4 March 2006, it was announced that Fairfax would purchase The Border Mail newspaper in Albury-Wodonga for A$162 million.
In October 2006, speculation began to grow that the company would be bought out and split up after the passage of changes to Australian media laws. Rival media company News Corp Australia purchased a 7.5 per cent stake in the company at this time, with the stated aim of keeping Fairfax in one piece. On 7 December 2006, John Fairfax Holdings and Rural Press announced the beginning of their merger proceedings. Once merged, the new entity formed a publishing company worth A$9 billion and resulted in regaining control of The Canberra Times, through John B. Fairfax of Rural Press, saw the return of the Fairfax family to the company board; the company gained a number of other regional newspapers, radio stations and websites. On 12 January 2007, John Fairfax Holdings changed its name to Fairfax Media. On 7 March 2007, Fairfax Media announced a new website for Brisbane, called the Brisbane Times; the website employed 14 journalists and was an attempt by Fairfax to break into the South East Queensland market.
On 20 March 2007 Fairfax Media launched a new business website, BusinessDay.com.au that aggregated feeds from the other news vehicles in the Fairfax stable as well as "from the world's most respected news sources". It featured breaking news updated "eve
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers; the earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures and languages.
In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken. Aboriginal people today speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English; the population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European settlement beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers contributed to depopulation; the characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from origo; the word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term Indigenous Australians, has grown since the 1980s to be more inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity. Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. Terms that are considered disrespectful include Aborigine and ATSI The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that identify under names from local Indigenous languages; these include: Murrawarri people -- see Murawari language. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land.
These larger groups may be further subdivided. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Indigenous Australians was 318,000–750,000 across the continent; the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians"; this has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage; the Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879. Many Indigenous organisations incorporate the phrase "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander" to highlight the distinctiveness and importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's Indigenous population.
Eddie Mabo was from "Mer" or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. While related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal he
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation is Australia's national broadcaster founded in 1929. It is principally funded by direct grants from the Australian government, but is expressly independent of government and partisan politics; the ABC plays a leading role in journalistic independence and is fundamental in the history of broadcasting in Australia. Modelled on the BBC in the United Kingdom, it was financed by consumer licence fees on broadcasting receivers. Licence fees were abolished in 1973 and replaced principally by direct government grants, as well as revenue from commercial activities related to its core broadcasting mission; the ABC now provides television, radio and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional Australia and overseas through ABC Australia and Radio Australia. The ABC headquarters is in an inner-city suburb of Sydney, New South Wales. Founded in 1929 as the Australian Broadcasting Company, the ABC was a Government licensed consortium of private entertainment and content providers, authorised under supervision to broadcast on the airwaves using a two-tiered system.
The "A" system derived its funds from the licence fees levied on the purchasers of the radio receivers, with an emphasis on building the radio wave infrastructure into regional and remote areas, whilst the "B" system relied on privateers and their capacity to establish viable enterprises using the new technology. Following the general downward economic trends of the era, as entrepreneurial ventures in National infrastructure struggled with viability, the "Company" was subsequently acquired to become a state-owned corporation on 1 July 1932 and renamed as Australian Broadcasting Commission, re-aligning more to the British, BBC model; the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, effective 1 July 1983. Although funded and owned by the government, the ABC remains editorially independent as ensured through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983; the ABC is sometimes informally referred to as "Aunty" in imitation of the British Broadcasting Corporation's nickname.
The first public radio station in Australia opened in Sydney on 23 November 1923 under the call sign 2SB with other stations in Melbourne, Adelaide and Hobart following. A licensing scheme, administered by the Postmaster-General's Department, was soon established allowing certain stations government funding, albeit with restrictions placed on their advertising content. Following a 1927 royal commission inquiry into radio licensing issues, the government established the National Broadcasting Service which subsequently took over a number of the larger funded stations, it nationalised the Australian Broadcasting Company, created by entertainment interests to supply programs to various radio stations. On 1 July 1932, the Australian Broadcasting Commission was established, taking over the operations of the National Broadcasting Service and establishing offices in each of Australia's capital cities. Over the next four years the stations were reformed into a cohesive broadcasting organisation through regular program relays, coordinated by a centralised bureaucracy.
The Australian broadcast radio spectrum was constituted of the commercial sector. News broadcasts were restricted, due to pressure from Sir Keith Murdoch, who controlled many Australian newspapers. However, journalists such as Frank Dixon and John Hinde began to subvert the agreements in the late 1930s. In 1939, Warren Denning was appointed to Canberra as the first ABC political correspondent, after Murdoch had refused to allow his newspapers to cover a speech by Joseph Lyons. In 1942 The Australian Broadcasting Act was passed, giving the ABC the power to decide when, in what circumstances, political speeches should be broadcast. Directions from the Minister about whether or not to broadcast any matter now had to be made in writing, any exercise of the power had to be mentioned in the Commission's Annual Report, it was used only once, in 1963. In the same year, "Kindergarten of the Air" began on ABC Radio in Perth, was broadcast nationally. In 1944 18-year-old Patricia Delaney, of Sydney, was the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's only girl cadet announcer, the youngest member of announcing staff.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1920-1949 The ABC commenced television broadcasting in 1956, followed the earlier radio practice of naming the station after the first letter of the base state. ABN-2 Sydney was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November 1956, with the first broadcast presented by Michael Charlton, James Dibble reading the first television news bulletin. ABV-2 followed two weeks on 18 November 1956. Stations in other capital cities followed: ABQ-2, ABS-2, ABW-2, ABT-2. ABC-3 Canberra opened in 1961, ABD-6 started broadcasting in 1971, both named after the base city. Although radio programs could be distributed nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. Other television programs at the time included the popular Six O'Clock Rock hosted by Johnny O'Keefe, Mr. Squiggle, as well as operas and plays.
In 1973 New South Wales Rugby League boss Kevin Humphreys negotiated rugby league's first television deal with the ABC. In 1975, colour television was
Child neglect is a form of child abuse, is a deficit in meeting a child's basic needs, including the failure to provide adequate health care, clothing, housing as well as their physical, social and safety needs. Society believes there are necessary behaviors a caregiver must provide in order for a child to develop physically and emotionally. Causes of neglect may result from several parenting problems including mental disorders, substance abuse, domestic violence, unplanned pregnancy, poverty. Child neglect depends on how a society perceives the parents' behavior. Parental failure to provide for a child, when options are available, is different from failure to provide when options are not available. Poverty and lack of resources are contributing factors and can prevent parents from meeting their children's needs, when they otherwise would; the circumstances and intentionality must be examined before defining behavior as neglectful. Child neglect is the most frequent form of child abuse, with children born to young mothers at a substantial risk for neglect.
In 2008, the U. S. state and local Child Protective Services received 3.3 million reports of children being abused or neglected. Seventy-one percent of the children were classified as victims of child neglect. Maltreated children were about five times more to have a first emergency department presentation for suicide related behavior, compared to their peers, in both boys and girls. Children permanently removed from their parental home because of substantiated child abuse, are at an increased risk of a first presentation to the emergency department for suicide related behavior. Neglected children are at risk of developing lifelong social and health problems if neglected before the age of two years. Neglect is difficult to define, since there are no clear, cross-cultural standards for desirable or minimally adequate child-rearing practices. Research shows that neglect coexists with other forms of abuse and adversity. While neglect refers to the absence of parental care and the chronic failure to meet children's basic needs, defining those needs has not been straightforward.
In "Working Together", the Department for Education and Skills defined neglect in 2006 as:...the persistent failure to meet a child's basic physical and/or psychological needs to result in the serious impairment of the child's health or development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance abuse. Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to provide adequate food and shelter, it may include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child's basic emotional needs. Child neglect is defined as a failure by a child's caregiver to meet a child's physical, educational, or medical needs. Forms of child neglect include: Allowing the child to witness violence or severe abuse between parents or adult, insulting, or threatening the child with violence, not providing the child with a safe environment and adult emotional support, showing reckless disregard for the child's well-being. Other definitions of child neglect are: "a form of child abuse caused by the denial of basic requirements like correct nutrition and love", per wiktionary.
"the failure of a person responsible for a child's care and upbringing to safeguard the child's emotional and physical health and general well-being" per Webster's New World Law Dictionary "Acts of omission: failure to provide for a child's basic physical, emotional, or educational needs or to protect a child from harm or potential harm. Harm to a child may not be the intended consequence. Failure to provide physical neglect, emotional neglect, medical/dental neglect, educational neglect; the failure to supervise inadequate supervision, exposure to violent environments." Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention "the persistent failure to meet a child's basic physical and/or psychological needs resulting in serious impairment of health and/or development". Summary: The definition of child neglect is broad. There are no specific guidelines. In general, child neglect is considered the failure of parents or caregivers to meet the needs that are necessary for the mental and emotional development of a child.
Child neglect is one of the most common forms of child maltreatment, it continues to be a serious problem for many children. Child neglect tremendously affects the physical development, mental development, emotional development of a child causing long term consequences, such as poor academic achievement and personality disorders; these consequences impact society, since it is more that children who suffered from child neglect will have drug abuse problems and educational failure when they grow up. There are various types of child neglect. Physical neglect refers to the failure to provide a child with basic necessities of life such as food and clothing. Medical neglect is a failure of caregivers to meet a child’s basic health care needs. Example: not brushing teeth on a daily basis, bathing a child and or taking children to doctor visits when