Moroccans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Moroccans
المغاربة
ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ
Total population
~ 45M
Regions with significant populations
 Morocco 36,191,805[1]
 France 1,514,000[2][3][4]
 Spain 792,158[5]
 Italy 546,424[6]
 Belgium 530 000[7]
 Israel 486,000[8]
 Netherlands 392,000[9]
 Germany 140,000[10]
 United States 113,544[11]
 Canada 100,000[12]
 United Arab Emirates 100,000[13]
 United Kingdom 70,000[14]
 Algeria 63,000[15]
 Saudi Arabia 60,000[16]
 Libya 50,000[17]
 Sweden 40,000
 Norway 30,000
 Denmark 26,000
 Egypt 18,000
 Qatar 9,000[18]
 Tunisia 9,500
  Switzerland 7,270[15]
 Ukraine 7,000[15]
 Australia 4,200[15]
 Oman 4,000[15]
 Brazil 3,500
 Russia 3,400
 Syria 3,056
 South Africa 2,100
 Ivory Coast 1,800
 Finland 1,200
 Mauritania 1,056
Languages
Maghrebi Arabic (Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic), Berber dialects (Standard Moroccan Berber)
Religion
Predominantly Islam (Sunni, Nondenominational Islam,[19] Sufi); minority Judaism, Christianity[20][21]

Moroccans (Arabic: al-Magharibah المغاربة‎, Berber: ⵉⵎⵖⵕⴰⴱⵉⵢⵏ, Imɣṛabiyen) are people inhabiting or originating from Morocco that share a common Moroccan culture and ancestry. The overwhelming majority of Moroccans are of Berber descent;[22] however, some also identify as Arabs, Arab-Berbers or Arabised Berbers.

In addition to the 33 million Moroccans in Morocco, there is a large Moroccan diaspora in France, Belgium, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, and a smaller one in United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Arabian Peninsula and in other Arab states. A sizeable part of the Moroccan diaspora is composed of Moroccan Jews.

History[edit]

  Iberomaurusian culture

The first anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) in North Africa are the makers of the Aterian, a Middle Stone Age (or Middle Palaeolithic) stone tool culture. The earliest Aterian lithic assemblages date to around 145,000 years ago, and were discovered at the site of Ifri n'Ammar in Morocco. This industry was followed by the Iberomaurusian culture, a backed bladelet industry found throughout the Maghreb. It was originally described in 1909 at the site of Abri Mouillah. Other names for this Cro-Magnon-associated culture include Mouillian and Oranian. The Epipaleolithic Iberomaurusian makers were centred in prehistoric sites, such as Taforalt and Mechta-Afalou. They were succeeded by the Capsians. The Capsian culture is often thought to have arrived in Africa from the Near East, although it is also suggested that the Iberomaurusians may have been the progenitors of the Capsians. Around 5000 BC, the populations of North Africa were primarily descended from the makers of the Iberomaurusian and Capsian cultures, with a more recent intrusion associated with the Neolithic revolution.[23] The proto-Berber tribes evolved from these prehistoric communities during the Late Bronze to Early Iron Age.[24]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Moroccans are primarily of Berber origin, like other neighbouring Maghrebians.[22] As such, Berbers are descendants of the prehistoric populations of Morocco through the Iberomaurusians and Capsians.

The Afroasiatic family may have originated in the Mesolithic period, perhaps in the context of the Capsian culture.[25][26] By 5000 BC, the populations of Morocco were an amalgamation of Ibero-Maurisian and a minority of Capsian stock blended with a more recent intrusion associated with the Neolithic revolution.[27] Out of these populations, the proto-Berber tribes formed during the late Paleolithic era.[28]

Berber-speaking groups include the Riffians, Shilha and Zayanes. Arabic-speaking groups include the Jebala in the north and Sahrawiyin in the southeast.

A small minority of the population is identified as Haratin and Gnawa. These are sedentary agriculturalists of non-Berber origin, who inhabit the southern and eastern oases and speak either Berber or Moroccan Arabic.

Between the Nile and the Red Sea were living Arab tribes expelled from Arabia for their turbulence, Banu Hilal and Sulaym, who often plundered farming areas in the Nile Valley.[29] According to Ibn Khaldun, whole tribes set off with women, children, ancestors, animals and camping equipment.[29]

Genetic composition[edit]

Distribution of the haplogroup E1b1b-M81, the most common paternal lineage among Moroccans.
Population Language n E1b1a E1b1b G I  J L N R1a R1b T Reference
Arabs (Morocco) AA (Semitic) 49 85.5 0.0 20.4 0 0 Semino 2004[30]
Berbers (Marrakesh) AA (Berber) 29 92.9 Semino et al. 2000[31]
Berbers (Middle Atlas) AA (Berber) 69 87.1 Cruciani et al. 2004[32]
Berbers (Southern Morocco) AA (Berber) 62 0 98.5% 0 0 0 0 0 Ahmed Reguig et al. 2014[33]
Berbers (North central Morocco) AA (Berber) 40 0 93.8 0 0 0 0 0 Alvarez et al. 2009[34]
Riffians (North Morocco) AA (Berber) 54 0 95.9 0 0 0 0 0 Dugoujon et al. 2005[35]
Béni-Snassen (fr) (Northern Morocco) AA (Berber) & (Semitic) 67 0 95.1 0 0 0 0 0 Dugoujon et al. 2005[35]

Culture[edit]

A Moroccan kaftan

Through Moroccan history, the country had many cultural influences (Europe, Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa). The culture of Morocco shares similar traits with those of neighboring countries, particularly Algeria and Tunisia and to a certain extent Spain.

Morocco influenced modern day Europe, in several fields, from architecture to agriculture, and the introduction of Moroccan numbers, widely used now in the world[citation needed]].

Each region possesses its own uniqueness, contributing to the national culture. Morocco has set among its top priorities the protection of its diversity and the preservation of its cultural heritage.

The traditional dress for men and women is called djellaba, a long, loose, hooded garment with full sleeves. For special occasions, men also wear a red cap called a bernousse, more commonly known as a fez. Women wear kaftans decorated with ornaments. Nearly all men, and most women, wear balgha (بلغه). These are soft leather slippers with no heel, often dyed yellow. Women also wear high-heeled sandals, often with silver or gold tinsel.

Moroccan style is a new trend in decoration, which takes its roots from Moorish architecture. It has been made popular by the vogue of riad renovation in Marrakech. Dar is the name given to one of the most common types of domestic structures in Morocco; it is a home found in a medina, or walled urban area of a city. Most Moroccan homes traditionally adhere to the Dar al-Islam, a series of tenets on Islamic domestic life. Dar exteriors are typically devoid of ornamentation and windows, except occasional small openings in secondary quarters, such as stairways and service areas. These piercings provide light and ventilation.

Moroccan cuisine primarily consists of a blend of Berber, Moorish and Arab influences. It is known for dishes like couscous and pastilla, among others. Spices such as cinnamon are also used in Moroccan cooking. Sweets like halwa are popular, as well as other confections. Cuisines from neighbouring areas have also influenced the country's culinary traditions.

Additionally, Moroccan craftsmanship has a rich tradition of jewellery-making, pottery, leather-work and woodwork.

The music of Morocco ranges and differs according to the various areas of the country. Moroccan music has a variety of styles from complex sophisticated orchestral music to simple music involving only voice and drums. There are three varieties of Berber folk music: village and ritual music, and the music performed by professional musicians. Chaabi (الشعبي) is a music consisting of numerous varieties which descend from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at any celebration or meeting. Gnawa is a form of music that is mystical. It was gradually brought to Morocco by the Gnawa and later became part of the Moroccan tradition. Sufi brotherhoods (tarikas) are common in Morocco, and music is an integral part of their spiritual tradition. This music is an attempt at reaching a trance state which inspires mystical ecstasy.

Languages[edit]

Linguistic map of Morocco

Morocco's official languages are Classical Arabic and Amazigh. The latter is a standardized version of the Berber languages.

The majority of the population speaks Moroccan Arabic. More than 12 million Moroccans speak Berber varieties, either as a first language or bilingually with Moroccan Arabic. Three different Berber dialects are spoken: Riff, Shilha (Chleuh) and Central Atlas Tamazight.

Hassaniya Arabic is spoken in the southern part of the country. Morocco has recently included the protection of Hassaniya in the constitution as part of the July 2011 reforms.

French is taught universally and still serves as Morocco's primary language of commerce and economics; it is also widely used in education, sciences, government and most education fields.

Spanish is also spoken by some in the northern part of the country as a foreign language. Meanwhile, English is increasingly becoming more popular among the educated, particularly in the science fields.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "RGPH-2014". RGPH. Retrieved 16 September 2017. 
  2. ^ "Répartition des étrangers par nationalité". INSEE. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  3. ^ "Être né en France d'un parent immigré". INSEE. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  4. ^ Fiches thématiques - Population immigrée - Immigrés - Insee Références - Édition 2012, Insee 2012
  5. ^ [1][dead link]
  6. ^ "Italie : Avec 524 775 membres, les marocains sont la première communauté étrangère hors UE". Yabiladi.com. Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  7. ^ "90 secondes pour comprendre pourquoi beaucoup de Marocains sont venus s'installer en Belgique dès 1964". Rtl.be. Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  8. ^ "Statistical Abstract of Israel 2009 - No. 60 Subject 2 - Table NO.24". Israeli government. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  9. ^ "CBS StatLine - Bevolking; generatie, geslacht, leeftijd en herkomstgroepering, 1 januari". statline.cbs.nl. Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  10. ^ "L'Allemagne veut attirer 40.000 Marocains par an". Bladi.net. Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  11. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  12. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables – Ethnic Origin (264), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey". 12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  13. ^ [2][dead link]
  14. ^ [3][dead link]
  15. ^ a b c d e [4][dead link]
  16. ^ "Chômage en Arabie Saoudite : Les MRE irréguliers sous menace d'expulsion". Yabiladi.com. Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  17. ^ "Libye: Des milliers de Marocains sur une poudrière en Libye" [Libya: Thousands of Moroccans on a powder keg in Libya] (in French). Fratmat.info. 24 July 2015. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  18. ^ Snoj, Jure (7 December 2014). "Population of Qatar by nationality". bq magazine. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  19. ^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  20. ^ Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008–2011). Refworld.org. Retrieved on 12 June 2016.
  21. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch (2003). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. 3. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 653–. ISBN 978-0-8028-2415-8. 
  22. ^ a b Tej K. Bhatia, William C. Ritchie (2006). The Handbook of Bilingualism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 860. ISBN 0631227350. Retrieved 18 July 2017. 
  23. ^ J. Desanges, "The proto-Berbers" 236-245, at 237, in General History of Africa, v.II Ancient Civilizations of Africa (UNESCO 1990).
  24. ^ Mário Curtis Giordani, História da África. Anterior aos descobrimentos (Petrópolis, Brasil: Editora Vozes 1985) at 42-43, 77-78. Giordani references Bousquet, Les Berbères (Paris 1961).
  25. ^ Abdallah Laroui, The History of the Maghrib (Paris 1970; Princeton 1977) at 17, 60 (re S.W.Asians, referencing the earlier work of Gsell).
  26. ^ Camps, Gabriel (1996), Les Berbères, Edisud, pp. 11–14, 65 
  27. ^ J. Desanges, "The proto-Berbers" 236–245, at 237, in General History of Africa, v.II Ancient Civilizations of Africa (UNESCO 1990).
  28. ^ Mário Curtis Giordani, História da África. Anterior aos descobrimentos (Petrópolis, Brasil: Editora Vozes 1985) at 42–43, 77–78. Giordani references Bousquet, Les Berbères (Paris 1961).
  29. ^ a b "Ibn Khaldun, laudateur et contempteur des Arabes". Persee.fr. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  30. ^ Semino, Ornella; Magri, Chiara; Benuzzi, Giorgia; Lin, Alice A.; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Maccioni, Liliana; Triantaphyllidis, Costas; Shen, Peidong (2004-05-01). "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area". American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (5): 1023–1034. doi:10.1086/386295. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1181965Freely accessible. PMID 15069642. 
  31. ^ Semino, O.; Passarino, G; Oefner, PJ; Lin, AA; Arbuzova, S; Beckman, LE; De Benedictis, G; Francalacci, P; Kouvatsi, A (2000). "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective". Science. 290 (5494): 1155–9. Bibcode:2000Sci...290.1155S. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453. 
  32. ^ Cruciani, F; La Fratta, R; Santolamazza, P; et al. (May 2004). "Phylogeographic analysis of haplogroup E3b (E-M215) y chromosomes reveals multiple migratory events within and out of Africa". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74 (5): 1014–22. doi:10.1086/386294. PMC 1181964Freely accessible. PMID 15042509. 
  33. ^ Ahmed, Reguig,; Nourdin, Harich,; Abdelhamid, Barakat,; Hassan, Rouba, (2014-01-01). "Phylogeography of E1b1b1b-M81 Haplogroup and Analysis of its Subclades in Morocco". 86 (2). 
  34. ^ Alvarez, Luis; Santos, Cristina; Montiel, Rafael; Caeiro, Blazquez; Baali, Abdellatif; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Aluja, Maria Pilar (2009). "Y-chromosome variation in South Iberia: Insights into the North African contribution". American Journal of Human Biology. 21 (3): 407–409. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20888. PMID 19213004. 
  35. ^ a b J.-M. Dugoujon and G. Philippson (2005) The Berbers. Linguistic and genetic diversity. CNRS.