Interstate 40 is a major east-west Interstate Highway running through the south-central portion of the United States north of I-10, I-20 and I-30 but south of I-70. The western end is at I-15 in California. S. Route 117 and North Carolina Highway 132 in Wilmington, North Carolina, it is the third-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, behind I-80 and I-90. Much of the western part of I-40, from Oklahoma City to Barstow parallels or overlays the historic US 66, east of Oklahoma City the route parallels US 64 and US 70. I-40 runs through many major cities including New Mexico. Though I-40 is a cross-country east-west interstate, it does not nearly touch both oceans or coasts like I-10, I-80 and I-90 does; the eastern terminus touches near the Atlantic Ocean, but the western terminus doesn't touch the Pacific Ocean. Interstate 40 is a major east–west route of the Interstate Highway System, its western end is in California. Known as the Needles Freeway, it heads east from Barstow across the Mojave Desert in San Bernardino County to Needles, before it crosses into Arizona southwest of Kingman.
I-40 covers 155 miles in California. A sign in California showing the distance to Wilmington, North Carolina has been stolen several times. Interstate 40 is a main route to the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, with the exits leading into Grand Canyon National Park in Williams and Flagstaff. I-40 covers 359 mi in Arizona. Just west of exit 190, west of Flagstaff, is its highest elevation along I-40 in the U. S. as the road crosses just over 7,320 ft. I-40 passes through the Navajo Nation, the largest Indian reservation in the U. S. I-40 covers 374 miles in New Mexico. Notable cities along I-40 include Gallup, Albuquerque, Santa Rosa, Tucumcari. I-40 travels through several different Indian reservations in the western half of the state, it reaches its highest point of 7,275 feet at the Continental Divide in western New Mexico between Gallup and Grants. Arizona, New Mexico, Texas are the only three states where I-40 has a speed limit of 75 mph instead of 70 mph which happens in California, Arkansas and North Carolina.
In the west Texas panhandle area, there are several ranch roads connected directly to the interstate. One of the marked at-grade crossings is shown to the right; the only major city in Texas, directly served by I-40 is Amarillo, which connects with Interstate 27 that runs south toward Lubbock. I-40 has only one welcome center in the state, located in Amarillo at the exit for Rick Husband Amarillo International Airport, serving both sides of the interstate. Interstate 40 goes through the heart of the state, passing through many Oklahoma cities and towns, including Erick, Elk City, Weatherford, El Reno, Oklahoma City, Del City, Midwest City, Okemah, Checotah and Roland. I-40 covers 331 miles in Oklahoma. In Downtown Oklahoma City, Interstate 40 was rerouted a mile south of its former alignment and a 10–lane facility replaced the former I-40 Crosstown Bridge. Interstate 40 runs for 284 miles in Arkansas; the route passes through Van Buren, where it intersects the southbound Interstate 540/US 71 to Fort Smith.
The route continues east to Alma to intersect Interstate 49 north to Arkansas. Running through the Ozark Mountains, I-40 serves Ozark, Russellville and Conway; the route turns south after Conway and enters North Little Rock, which brings high volume interchanges with Interstate 430, I-30/US 65/US 67/US 167, I-440/AR 440. The interstate continues east through Lonoke and West Memphis on the eastern side. Interstate 40 overlaps Interstate 55 in West Memphis before it crosses the Mississippi River on the Hernando de Soto Bridge and enters Memphis, Tennessee. More of Interstate 40 passes through 455 miles, than any other state; the interstate goes through all of the three Grand Divisions of Tennessee and its three largest cities, Memphis and Knoxville. Jackson, Cookeville and Newport are other notable cities and/or towns through which I-40 passes. Before leaving the state, I-40 enters the Great Smoky Mountains towards North Carolina; the section of Interstate 40 which runs between Memphis and Nashville is referred to as the Music Highway.
During reconstruction, a long section of I-40 through downtown Knoxville near the central Malfunction Junction was closed to traffic from May 1, 2008 and not reopened until June 12, 2009 with all traffic redirected via Interstate 640, the northern bypass route. The redesigned section now has additional lanes in each direction, is less congested, has fewer accidents. In North Carolina, I-40 travels 421 miles, it enters the state as a winding mountain freeway through the Great Smoky Mountains which closes due to landslides and weather conditions. It enters the state on a north-south alignment, turning to a more east-west alignment upon merging with U. S. Route 74 at the eastern terminus of the Great Smoky Mountains Expressway. From there the highway passes through Asheville and Statesville before reaching the Piedmont Triad. Just east of the Triad city of Greensboro, North Carolina it merges with I-85 and the two roads split again
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Alluvial fans are triangular-shaped deposits of water-transported material referred to as alluvium. They are an example of an unconsolidated sedimentary deposit and tend to be larger and more prominent in arid to semi-arid regions; these alluvial fans form in elevated or mountainous regions where there is a rapid change in slope from a high to low gradient. The river or stream carrying the sediment flows at a high velocity due to the high slope angle, why coarse material is able to remain in the flow; when the slope decreases into a plain or plateau, the stream loses the energy it needs to move its sediment. Deposition subsequently occurs and the sediment spreads out, creating an alluvial fan. Three primary zones occur within an alluvial fan which includes the proximal fan, medial fan, the distal fan. Alluvial fans can exist on a wide spectrum of size scale. For example, alluvial fans can be on the order of only a few meters at its base and can be as large as 150 kilometers with a slope of 1.5-25 degrees.
When numerous rivers/streams converge into a single plain, the fans can combine to form a continuous apron. In arid to semi-arid environments, this is referred to as a bajada and in humid climates the continuous fan apron is called piedmont alluvial fans; as a stream's gradient decreases, it drops coarse-grained material. It makes swagger of the channel and forces it to change direction and build up a mounded or shallow conical fan shape; the deposits are poorly sorted. This fan shape can be explained with a thermodynamic justification: the system of sediment introduced at the apex of the fan will tend to a state which minimizes the sum of the transport energy involved in moving the sediment and the gravitational potential of material in the fan. There will be iso-transport energy lines forming concentric arcs about the discharge point at the apex of the fan, thus the material will tend to be deposited about these lines, forming the characteristic fan shape. The sediment that results from erosion in elevated or mountainous regions flows into the primary streams in the region where the streams act as a drainage system and carries the sediment to the alluvial plain.
Due to the high degree of slope, the river/streams are classified as straight channels. Directly at the mouth of the feeder stream in the alluvial plain, the fan is narrow and is still subjected to high energy from the high degree of slope. Once the sediment exits the feeder stream, the sediment is no longer confined to the channel walls. With this unconfinement, the sediments begin to fan out; the alluvial fan becomes wider with increasing distance from the mouth of the canyon. When there is enough space in the alluvial plain for all of the sediment deposits to fan out without contacting other valleys walls or rivers, an unconfined alluvial fan develops. Unconfined alluvial fans allow sediments to fan out and the shape of the fan is not influenced by other topological features; when the alluvial plain is narrow or short parallel to depositional flow, the fan shape is affected. The biggest natural hazard on alluvial fans are floods and debris flows. Floods on alluvial fans are flash floods: they occur with little to no warning have high velocities and sediment-transporting capability, are of short duration.
Debris flows are a type of landslide, defined as a spatially continuous moving mass of water and material, composed of coarse debris. A modern occurrence of an alluvial fan is photographed in Figure 1 in the semi-arid region between the Kunlun and Altun mountain ranges that form the southern border of the Taklamakan Desert in northwest China; this particular fan is 60 kilometers in total length and is of significance because one part of the alluvial fan is still considered active. An alluvial fan is considered active when there is still a sediment source continually feeding the fan sediment. One portion of the fan has flowing streams that are continually depositing sediment and the fan is still prograding into the alluvial plain; the feeder channels consist of straight channels as well as instances of braided channels because of the large volume of sediment sourced from the local uplands. Various environmental and geologic factors exhibit control on the deposition of alluvial fan deposits; the primary factor in alluvial fan environments is sediment supply.
The sediment that comprise the bedload and suspended load of the regional streams is sourced from the erosion of the associated highlands in the area. Therefore, a high erosion rate corresponds to an increase in sediment in the streams which affects stream morphology. For example, a high sediment load is associated with braided streams entering and within the alluvial plain. Medium to low sediment loads in the feeder stream results in straight channels.4 Alluvial fans are built in response to erosion induced by tectonic uplift to create nearby mountain ranges/highlands. This uplift is necessary for a source of erosion where the sediments are deposited in an alluvial fan regime in the alluvial plain. Tectonics can affect the degree of stream gradients and cause changes in base level which may lead to incision into fan surfaces in the distal zone of the deposit. An increase in precipitation would allow a higher water level in the streams which would allow for a greater amount of sediment to be carried along with it to be deposited in the alluvial plain.
There are three primary zones, or facies, that exist within an alluvial fan deposit which include the proximal fan, medial fan, distal fan with an overal
Joshua Tree National Park
Joshua Tree National Park is an American national park in southeastern California, east of Los Angeles, near San Bernardino and Palm Springs. The park is named for the Joshua trees native to the Mojave Desert. Declared a national monument in 1936, Joshua Tree was redesignated as a national park in 1994 when the U. S. Congress passed the California Desert Protection Act. Encompassing a total of 790,636 acres —an area larger than the state of Rhode Island—the park includes 429,690 acres of designated wilderness. Straddling the border between San Bernardino County and Riverside County, the park includes parts of two deserts, each an ecosystem whose characteristics are determined by elevation: the higher Mojave Desert and the lower Colorado Desert; the Little San Bernardino Mountains traverse the southwest edge of the park. The earliest known residents of the land in and around what became Joshua Tree National Park were the people of the Pinto Culture, who lived and hunted here between 8000 and 4000 BCE.
Their stone tools and spear points, discovered in the Pinto Basin in the 1930s, suggest that they hunted game and gathered seasonal plants, but little else is known about them. Residents included the Serrano, the Cahuilla, the Chemehuevi peoples. All three lived at times in small villages in or near water the Oasis of Mara in what non-aboriginals called Twentynine Palms, they were hunter-gatherers who subsisted on plant foods supplemented by small game and reptiles while using other plants for making medicines and arrows, other articles of daily life. A fourth group, the Mojaves, used the local resources as they traveled along trails between the Colorado River and the Pacific coast. In the 21st century, small numbers of all four peoples live in the region near the park. In 1772, a group of Spaniards led by Pedro Fages, made the first European sightings of Joshua trees while pursuing native converts to Christianity who had run away from a mission in San Diego. By 1823, the year Mexico achieved independence from Spain, a Mexican expedition from Los Angeles, in what was Alta California, is thought to have explored as far east as the Eagle Mountains in what became the park.
Three years Jedediah Smith led a group of American fur trappers and explorers along the nearby Mojave Trail, others soon followed. Two decades after that, the United States defeated Mexico in the Mexican–American War and took over about half of Mexico's original territory, including California and the future parkland. In 1870, white settlers began grazing cattle on the tall grasses. In 1888, a gang of cattle rustlers moved into the region near the Oasis of Mara. Led by brothers James. B. and William S. McHaney, they hid stolen cattle in a box canyon at Cow Camp. Throughout the region, ranchers dug wells and built rainwater catchments called "tanks", such as White Tank and Barker Dam. In 1900, C. O. Barker, a miner and cattleman, built the original Barker Dam improved by William "Bill" Keys, a rancher. Grazing continued in the park through 1945. Barker Dam was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. Between the 1860s and the 1940s, miners worked about 300 pit mines small, in what became the park.
The most successful, the Lost Horse Mine, produced gold and silver worth about $5 million in today's currency. Johnny Lang and others, the original owners of the Lost Horse Mine, installed a two-stamp mill to process ore at the site, the next owner, J. D. Ryan, replaced it with a 10-stamp steam-powered mill. Ryan pumped water from his ranch to the mill and cut timber from the nearby hills to heat water to make steam. Most of the structures associated with the mine fell apart, for safety reasons the National Park Service plugged the mine, which had collapsed; the Desert Queen Mine on Keys' Desert Queen Ranch was another productive gold mine. In the early 1930s, Keys bought a gasoline-powered two-stamp mill, the Wall Street Mill, moved it to his ranch to process ore; the ranch and mill were added to the NRHP in 1975 and the mine in 1976. Some of the mines in the park yielded copper and iron. On August 10, 1936, after Minerva Hoyt and others persuaded the state and federal governments to protect the area, president Franklin D. Roosevelt used the power of the 1906 Antiquities Act to establish Joshua Tree National Monument, protecting about 825,000 acres.
In 1950, the size of the park was reduced by about 290,000 acres to open the land to more mining. The monument was redesignated as a national park on October 31, 1994, by the Desert Protection Act, which added 234,000 acres. In 2019, the park expanded by 4,518 acres under a bill included in the John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation and Recreation Act; the higher and cooler Mojave Desert is the special habitat of Yucca brevifolia, the Joshua tree for which the park is named. It occurs in patterns from dense forests to distantly spaced specimens. In addition to Joshua tree forests, the western part of the park includes some of the most interesting geologic displays found in California's deserts; the dominant geologic features of this landscape are hills of bare rock broken up into loose boulders. These hills are popular among rock scrambling enthusiasts; the flatland between these hills is sparsely forested with Joshua trees. Together with the boulder piles and Skull Rock, the trees make the landscape otherworldly.
Temperatures are most comfortable
San Bernardino, California
San Bernardino is a city located in the Riverside–San Bernardino metropolitan area and that serves as the county seat of San Bernardino County, United States. As one of the Inland Empire's anchor cities, San Bernardino spans 81 square miles on the floor of the San Bernardino Valley and as of 2017 has a population of 216,995. San Bernardino is the 17th-largest city in California and the 102nd-largest city in the United States. San Bernardino is home to numerous diplomatic missions for the Inland Empire, being one of four cities in California with numerous consulates; the governments of Guatemala and Mexico have established their consulates in the downtown area of the city. California State University, San Bernardino is located in the northwestern part of the city; the university hosts the Coussoulis Arena. Other attractions in San Bernardino include ASU Fox Theatre, the McDonald's Museum, located on the original site of the world's first McDonald's, California Theatre, the San Bernardino Mountains, San Manuel Amphitheater, the largest outdoor amphitheater in the United States.
In addition, the city is home to the Inland Empire 66ers baseball team. In August 2012, San Bernardino became the largest city to file for protection under Chapter 9 of the U. S. Bankruptcy code. San Bernardino's case was filed on August 1. On December 2, 2015, a terrorist attack left 14 people dead and 22 injured; the city of San Bernardino, occupies much of the San Bernardino Valley, which indigenous tribespeople referred to as "The Valley of the Cupped Hand of God". The Tongva Indians called the San Bernardino area Wa'aach in their language. Upon seeing the immense geological arrowhead-shaped rock formation on the side of the San Bernardino Mountains, they found the hot and cold springs to which the "arrowhead" seemed to point. Politana was the first Spanish settlement in the San Bernardino Valley, named for Bernardino of Siena. Politana was established May 20, 1810, as a mission chapel and supply station by the Mission San Gabriel in the ranchería of the Guachama Indians that lived on the bluff, now known as Bunker Hill, near Lytle Creek.
Two years the settlement was destroyed by superstitious local tribesmen, following powerful earthquakes that shook the region. Several years the Serrano and Mountain Cahuilla rebuilt the Politana rancheria, in 1819 invited the missionaries to return to the valley, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia. Serrano and Cahuilla people inhabited Politana until long after the 1830s decree of secularization and the 1842 inclusion into the Rancho San Bernardino land grant of the José del Carmen Lugo family; the city of San Bernardino is one of the oldest communities in the state of California, in its present-day location, was not settled until 1851, after California became a state. The first Anglo-American colony was established by pioneers associated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or Mormons. Following the Mormon colonists purchase of Rancho San Bernardino, the establishment of the town of San Bernardino in 1851, San Bernardino County was formed in 1853 from parts of Los Angeles County.
Mormon colonists developed irrigated, commercial farming and lumbering, supplying agricultural produce and lumber throughout Southern California. The city was incorporated in 1857; that year, most of the colonists were recalled by Brigham Young in 1857 due to the Utah War. Once regarded in early California, news of the Mountain Meadows Massacre poisoned attitudes toward the Mormons; some Mormons would stay in San Bernardino and some returned from Utah, but a real estate consortium from El Monte and Los Angeles bought most of the lands of the old rancho and of the departing colonists. They sold these lands to new settlers who came to dominate the culture and politics in the county and San Bernardino became a typical American frontier town. Many of the new land owners disliked the sober Mormons, indulging in drinking at saloons now allowed in the town. Disorder and violence in the vicinity became common, reaching a climax in the 1859 Ainsworth - Gentry Affair. In 1860 a gold rush began in the mountains nearby with the discovery of gold by William F. Holcomb in Holcomb Valley early 1860.
Another strike followed in the upper reach of Lytle Creek. By the 1860s, San Bernardino had became an important trading hub in Southern California; the city on the Los Angeles – Salt Lake Road, became the starting point for the Mojave Road from 1858 and Bradshaw Trail from 1862 to the mines along the Colorado River and within the Arizona Territory in the gold rush of 1862-1864. Near San Bernardino is a formed arrowhead-shaped rock formation on the side of a mountain, it measures 1375 feet by 449 feet. According to the Native American legend regarding the landmark arrowhead, an arrow from Heaven burned the formation onto the mountainside in order to show tribes where they could be healed. During the mid-19th century, "Dr." David Noble Smith claimed that a saint-like being appeared before him and told of a far-off land with exceptional climate and curative waters, marked by a gigantic arrowhead. Smith's search for that unique arrowhead formation began in Texas, ended at Arrowhead Springs in California in 1857.
By 1889, word of the springs, along with the hotel on the site had grown considerably. H
California State University, San Bernardino
California State University, San Bernardino is a public university in San Bernardino, California. It is one of the 23 general campuses of the California State University system; the main campus sits on 441 acres in the University District of San Bernardino, with a branch campus of 40 acres in Palm Desert, opened in 1986. Founded in 1965, Cal State San Bernardino's Fall 2016 enrollment was 20,767. In Fall of 2013, it had 864 faculty; the university offers Bachelor's degrees in 138 programs, Master's degrees in 67 programs, the Doctor of Education, 23 teaching credentials. CSUSB's sports teams are known as the Coyotes and play in the California Collegiate Athletic Association in the Division II of the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the nickname was inspired by the coyotes that inhabit the area around the campus, which lies on the foothills of San Bernardino Mountains. The CSUSB women's volleyball team has won six three West Region titles; the men’s soccer team went to the NCAA Division II national semifinals, capturing the university’s first California Collegiate Athletic Association title.
California State University, San Bernardino was created by the state legislature on April 29, 1960, as the San Bernardino-Riverside State College. The California State College system's board of trustees chose a 440-acre site in the city of San Bernardino in 1963 and the official name was changed to California State College at San Bernardino, it opened in 1965 with 30 faculty members. CSUSB earned its university status in 1984 becoming California State University, San Bernardino. Today, the university has 84,000 alumni. Built atop 441 acres of bedrock on the city’s north side, CSUSB is framed to the north by the San Bernardino Mountains. More than 1,300,000 square feet of new facilities have been built to meet students' academic and social needs. Campus residential housing provides more than 1,500 beds. A new College of Education building opened in 2008; the Santos Manuel Student Union has doubled in size in recent years, a new 35,000-square-foot Student Recreation and Fitness Center was completed in 2007.
Other constructed facilities include the Social and Behavioral Sciences and Chemical Sciences buildings. The John M. Pfau Library, named after the university’s first president, sits at the center of the campus. Other distinctive university landmarks include: the clock tower above the Santos Manuel Student Union, the Robert V. Fullerton Art Museum, the James & Aerianthi Coussoulis Arena, a modern, 4,000-plus seat sports and events venue—one of the largest indoor arenas in the Inland Empire. In 2009, the university received a major donation from the Pauline Murillo family to construct a $2 million research observatory on the campus; the W. M. Keck Foundation and the California Portland Cement Co. made substantial contributions. The Robert and Frances Fullerton Museum of Art is among the 4 percent of museums in the United States accredited by the American Alliance of Museums; the RAFFMA's permanent collections consist of three distinct kinds of art: ancient and contemporary. A world-class collection of about 200 Egyptian artifacts and a smaller selection of Italian pottery are part of the museum's permanent holdings.
Rotating shows feature artists from throughout the country. One gallery of the museum is dedicated to exhibiting the work of the school's own art students; the museum celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2016 and received accreditation by the American Alliance of Museums in 2008. Opened in 1986, the California State University, San Bernardino Palm Desert Campus in Palm Desert, California hosts upper-division and graduate students. Many of them come from the Coachella Joshua Tree areas. Since its inception, the Palm Desert Campus has maintained a close relationship with the nearby College of the Desert; the majority of Palm Desert Campus undergraduate students have transferred from College of the Desert through a dual admissions program. A health sciences building for the four-year nursing program opened on the Palm Desert Campus in October 2008; the Palm Desert Campus was built with private funds. This public-private partnership was featured in a front-page story in the Sunday, Aug. 3, 2003, edition of the New York Times.
The Murillo Family Observatory is a teaching and research observatory at CSUSB, located on Badger Hill on the northern portion of campus. It is the newest research observatory in the Inland Empire and in the California State University system; the observatory consists of two telescopes which are used for teaching. In addition to the research telescopes the observatory has an observation deck with piers where small telescopes may be set up for undergraduate laboratory classes or open house nights, it serves as both an academic and community resource, with public viewing nights and special astronomy events for the community. San Bernardino-Riverside State College became a part of the California College System in 1965 and became California State University, San Bernardino. It, along with 22 other campuses, now forms the California State University system, the largest senior system of higher education in the United States; the current president is Tomas Morales, chosen in 2013. A graduate of SUNY New Paltz, he serves on the boards of directors of the American Council on Education, the American Association of State Colleges and Univ
Riverside is a city in Riverside County, United States, located in the Inland Empire metropolitan area. Riverside is the county seat of the eponymous county and named for its location beside the Santa Ana River, it is the most populous city in the Inland Empire and in Riverside County, is located about 55 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. It is part of the Greater Los Angeles area. Riverside is the 59th most populous city in the United States and 12th most populous city in California; as of the 2010 Census, Riverside had a population of 303,871. Riverside was founded in the early 1870s, it is the birthplace of the California citrus industry and home of the Mission Inn, the largest Mission Revival Style building in the United States. It is home to the Riverside National Cemetery; the University of California, Riverside, is located in the northeastern part of the city. The university hosts the Riverside Sports Complex. Other attractions in Riverside include the Fox Performing Arts Center, Riverside Metropolitan Museum, which houses exhibits and artifacts of local history, the California Museum of Photography, the California Citrus State Historic Park, the Parent Washington Navel Orange Tree, the last of the two original navel orange trees in California.
In the late 1700s and early 1800s the area was inhabited by the Serrano people. Californios such as Bernardo Yorba and Juan Bandini established ranches during the first half of the 19th century. In the 1860s, Louis Prevost launched the California Silk Center Association, a short-lived experiment in sericulture. In the wake of its failure, John W. North purchased some of its land and formed the Southern California Colony Association to promote the area's development. In March 1870, North distributed posters announcing the formation of a colony in California. North, a staunch temperance-minded abolitionist from New York State, had founded Northfield, Minnesota. A few years some navel orange trees were planted and found to be such a success that full-scale planting began. Riverside was temperance minded, Republican. There were four saloons in Riverside; the license fees were raised. Investors from England and Canada transplanted traditions and activities adopted by prosperous citizens; as a result, the first golf course and polo field in southern California were built in Riverside.
The first orange trees were planted in 1871, with the citrus industry Riverside is famous for beginning three years when Eliza Tibbets received three Brazilian navel orange trees sent to her by a personal friend, William Saunders, a horticulturist at the United States Department of Agriculture in Washington, D. C; the trees came from Brazil. The Bahia orange did not thrive in Florida; the three trees were planted on the Tibbetts' property. One of them died. After the trampling, the two remaining trees were transplanted to property belonging to Sam McCoy to receive better care than L. C. Tibbetts, Eliza's husband, could provide; the trees were again transplanted, one at the Mission Inn property in 1903 by President Theodore Roosevelt, the other was placed at the intersection of Magnolia and Arlington Ave. Eliza Tibbets was honored with a stone marker placed with the tree; that tree still stands to this day inside a protective fence abutting what is now a major intersection. The trees thrived in the southern California climate and the navel orange industry grew rapidly.
Many growers purchased bud wood and grafted the cuttings to root stock. Within a few years, the successful cultivation of many thousands of the newly discovered Brazilian navel orange led to a California Gold Rush of a different kind: the establishment of the citrus industry, commemorated in the landscapes and exhibits of the California Citrus State Historic Park and the restored packing houses in the downtown's Marketplace district. By 1882, there were more than half a million citrus trees in California half of which were in Riverside; the development of refrigerated railroad cars and innovative irrigation systems established Riverside as the richest city in the United States by 1895. As the city grew, a small guest hotel designed in the popular Mission Revival style, known as the Glenwood Tavern grew to become the Mission Inn, favored by presidents and movie stars. Inside was housed a special chair made for the sizable President William Howard Taft; the hotel was modeled after the missions left along the California coast by Franciscan friars in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Postcards of lush orange groves, swimming pools and magnificent homes have attracted vacationers and entrepreneurs throughout the years. Many relocated to the dry climate for reasons of health and to escape Eastern winters. Victoria Avenue, with its scattering of elegant turn-of-the-century homes, citrus-lined paseo, serves as a reminder of European investors who settled here. Riverside is the 59th largest city in the United States, the 12th largest city in California, the largest city in California's Inland Empire metro area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 81.4 square miles, of which 81.1 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. The elevation of downtown Riverside is 860 feet. Hills within the city limits include Mount Rubidoux, a