Francesco Morosini was the Doge of Venice from 1688 to 1694, at the height of the Great Turkish War. He was a member of a famous noble Venetian family which produced several generals, he "dressed always in red from top to toe and never went into action without his cat beside him on the poop." Morosini first rose to prominence as Captain-General of the Venetian forces on Crete during the siege of Candia by the Ottoman Empire. He was forced to surrender the city, was accused of cowardice and treason on his return to Venice. In 1685, at the outbreak of the Morean War, Morosini took command of a fleet against the Ottomans. Over the next several years, he captured the Morea with the help of Otto Wilhelm Königsmarck, as well as Lefkada and parts of western Greece, he briefly captured Athens but was unable to hold it, attempted a failed siege of the former Venetian fortress of Negroponte. His fame reached such heights that he was given the victory title Peloponnesiacus, was the first Venetian citizen to have a bronze bust placed during his own lifetime in the Great Hall, with the inscription Francisco Morosini Peloponnesiaco, adhuc vivendi, Senatus.
During the siege of Athens in 1687 at the Morean War, his artillery turned the Parthenon from a functioning building to a simple ruin, he oversaw the looting of some of the surviving sculptures. The Parthenon was used as a powder magazine by the Ottomans when on September 26, 1687, Morosini's cannon scored a direct hit on the edifice. An attaché of the Swedish field commander General Otto Wilhelm Königsmarck wrote later: "How it dismayed His Excellency to destroy the beautiful temple which had existed three thousand years!". By contrast Morosini, the commander in chief of the operation, described it in his report to the Venetian government as a "fortunate shot"; when he conquered Acropolis in early 1688, Morosini tried to loot Athena's and Poseidon's horses and chariots from the west pediment of the Parthenon but the sculptures fell on the ground and smashed. This was the first documented attempt; the Ottoman Empire regained possession of the monument in the following year and having noticed the demand began to sell souvenirs to Westerners.
Morosini looted from the port of Piraeus the famous Piraeus Lion, on display at the Venetian Arsenal. In the summer of 1688, now having been proclaimed Doge of Venice, attacked Negropont but was unable to capture it and was forced to return to Venice when plague broke out among his troops, he embarked on a final campaign in 1693, but was again unsuccessful in taking Negropont, returned to Venice after sacking some minor coastal towns. After his death in 1694, a large marble arch was placed in his honor at the Doge's Palace, his cat, of which Morosini was notably fond, was embalmed and taken to the Museo Correr; the Scuola Navale Militare Francesco Morosini is named for him. The Ruggiero di Lauria-class ironclad Francesco Morosini, launched on 30 July 1885, completed in 1889, stricken in 1909, was named for him; the Francesco Caracciolo-class battleship Francesco Morosini, laid down in 1915 but scrapped in 1921 prior to launching, was named for him. Parthenon Elgin Marbles
Dogaressa was the official title of the spouse of the Doge of Venice. The position of the dogaressa was regulated by the laws of the Republic, which specified which duties and rights she had, what was prohibited for the title holder; these rights changed several times during the history of the Republic. The first bearer of the title was Dogaressa Carola in the 800s, the last was Elisabetta Grimani in the 1790s. Just like the Doge, the dogaressa crowned, made a Solemn Entry, gave a vow of loyalty to the republic upon her coronation; the symbols of her rank was a crown in a similar shape as that of the doge. Similar to a queen, the dogaressa was provided with a household of ladies-in-waiting; the coronation of the dogaressa was abolished during certain periods. Formally, the dogaressa had not political rights whatsoever, her task was to participate in the representational life of the republic and official ceremonies and rituals designed to personify the glory of the state, had as such a visible public role.
She was expected to act as the formal protector of certain guilds and trades, could as such play in important part in the role of this trades within the state, something several dogaressas are known to have done. Alicia Giustiniani, for example, played an important part in Venetian commerce business because of this role. Though law refused any influence over state affairs from the dogaressa, there were dogaressas who wielded a great deal of influence over the affairs of state in practice, notably Felicia Cornaro; when the dogaressa became a widow, she was expected to become a nun. However, there was no actual law to require this, some widowed dogaressas refused to follow this custom, though it was considered scandalous. During the centuries, the regulations around the dogaressa introduced laws to restrict her rights: in the 13th-century, the dogaressa was banned from receiving dignitaries and make public donations on her own, in 1342, a law banned her from conducting business affairs of her own.
The coronation ceremony of the dogaressa did not occur between that of Taddea Michiel in 1478 and Zilia Dandolo in 1556. The last dogaressa to be crowned was Elisabetta Querini in 1694, after which the ceremony was permanently abolished. After the tenure of Elisabetta Querini, most other ceremonial privileges of the dogaressa was abolished as well: in 1700, she was refused to wear a crown and receive gifts from dignitaries. In 1763, the Solemn Entry was revived by the wish of the Doge for Pisana Conaro, who were the last dogaressa to perform it. 804-811: Carola, wife of Obelerio degli Antenori 811-827: Elena 827-830: Felicita 888-912: Angela Sanudo 942–959: Arcielda Candiano 959–966: Giovanniccia Candiano 966–976: Waldrada of Tuscany 976–978: Felicia Malipiero 979-991: Marina Candiano 991-1009: Maria Candiano 1009–1026: Grimelda of Hungary 1075–1083: Theodora Anna Doukaina Selvo 1084-1096: Cornella Bembo 1096–1102: Felicia Cornaro 1102–1116: Matelda Faliero 1116–1130: Alicia Michele 1148-1156: Sofia 1156–1172: Felicita Maria di Boemondo 1172-1178: Cecilia 1192-1205: Felicita Bembo 1205–1229: Constance of Sicily, Dogaressa of Venice 1229–1249: Valdrada of Sicily 1252-1268: Loicia da Prata 1268-1271: Agnese Ghisi 1272-1275: Marchesina di Brienne 1275-1280: Jacobina 1280-1289: Caterina 1289-1310: Tommasina Morosini 1310-1312: Agnese 1312-1329: Franchesina 1329-1339: Elisabetta 1339-1342: Giustina Cappello 1342-1354: Isabella de Fieschi 1354–1355: Aluycia Gradenigo 1355-1356: Marina Cappello 1361-1365: Marchesina Ghisi 1365-1367: Caterina Corner 1382-1382: Cristina Condulmiero 1382-1400: Agnese 1400–1413: Marina Galina 1423–1457: Marina Nani 1457–1462: Giovanna Dandolo 1462–1471: Cristina Sanudo 1471-1472: Aliodea Morosini 1473-1474: Contarina Contarini Morosini 1474-1476: Laura Zorzi 1476-1478: Regina Gradenico 1478-1485: Taddea Michiel 1485-1486: Lucia Ruzzini 1486-1501: Elisabetta Soranzo 1501-1521: Giustina Guistiniani 1521-1523: Caterina Loredan 1523-1538: Benedetta Vendramin 1538-1545: Maria Pasqualigo 1545–1553: Alicia Giustiniani 1556–1559: Zilia Dandolo 1559-1567: Elena Diedo 1567-1570: Maria Cappello 1570–1577: Loredana Marcello 1577-1578: Cecilia Contarini 1578-1585: Arcangela Canali 1585-1595: Laura Morosini 1595–1606: Morosina Morosini 1618-1623: Elena Barbarigo 1625-1629: Chiara Delfino 1655-1656: Paolina Loredano 1656-1656: Andreana Priuli 1656-1658: Elisabetta Pisano 1658-1659: Lucia Barbarigo 1694–1700: Elisabetta Querini 1709-1722: Laura Cornaro 1735-1741: Elena Badoero 1763–1769: Pisana Conaro 1771–1779: Polissena Contarini Da Mula 1779–1789: Margherita Dalmet 1789–1792: Elisabetta Grimani Staley, Edgcumbe: The dogaressas of Venice (The wives of the doges, London: T. W. Laurie, 1910
Istria Histria, Ίστρια, is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. The peninsula is located at the head of the Adriatic between the Gulf of Trieste and the Kvarner Gulf, it is shared by three countries: Croatia and Italy. Croatia encapsulates most of the Istrian peninsula with its Istria County; the geographical features of Istria include the Učka mountain ridge, the highest portion of the Ćićarija mountain range. Istria lies in three countries: Croatia and Italy. By far the largest portion lies in Croatia. "Croatian Istria" is divided into the larger being Istria County in western Croatia. Important towns in Istria County include Pula/Pola, Poreč/Parenzo, Rovinj/Rovigno, Pazin/Pisino, Labin/Albona, Umag/Umago, Motovun/Montona, Buzet/Pinguente, Buje/Buie. Smaller towns in Istria County include Višnjan, Roč, Hum; the northwestern part of Istria lies in Slovenia: it is known as Slovenian Istria, includes the coastal municipalities of Piran/Pirano, Izola/Isola and Koper/Capodistria, the Karstic municipality of Hrpelje-Kozina.
Northwards of Slovenian Istria, there is a tiny portion of the peninsula. This smallest portion of Istria consists of the comunes of Muggia and San Dorligo della Valle, with Santa Croce lying farthest to the north; the ancient region of Histria extended over a much wider area, including the whole Kras plateau until the southern edges of the Vipava Valley, the southwestern portions of modern Inner Carniola with Postojna and Ilirska Bistrica, the Italian Province of Trieste, but not the Liburnian coast, part of Illyricum. Central Istria has a continental climate; the northern coast of Istria has a sub-Mediterranean climate. The western and southern coast has a Mediterranean climate; the eastern coast has a sub-Mediterranean climate with oceanic influences. The warmest places are Rovinj, while the coldest is Pazin. Precipitation is moderate, with between 640 and 1,020 mm falling in the coastal areas, up to 1,500 mm in the hills; the name is derived from the Histri tribes, which Strabo refers to as living in the region and who are credited as being the builders of the hillfort settlements.
The Histri are classified in some sources as a "Venetic" Illyrian tribe, with certain linguistic differences from other Illyrians. The Romans described the Histri as a fierce tribe of pirates, protected by the difficult navigation of their rocky coasts, it took two military campaigns for the Romans to subdue them in 177 BC. The region was called together with the Venetian part the X. Roman Region of "Venetia et Histria", the ancient definition of the northeastern border of Italy. Dante Alighieri refers to it as well, the eastern border of Italy per ancient definition is the river Arsia; the eastern side of this river was settled by people. Earlier influence of the Iapodes was attested there, while at some time between the 4th and 1st century BC, the Liburnians extended their territory and it became a part of Liburnia. On the northern side, Histria included the Italian city of Trieste; some scholars speculate that the names Histri and Istria are related to the Latin name Hister, or Danube. Ancient folktales reported—inaccurately—that the Danube split in two or "bifurcated" and came to the sea near Trieste as well as at the Black Sea.
The story of the "bifurcation of the Danube" is part of the Argonaut legend. There is a suspected link to the commune of Istria in Constanţa, named after the ancient city Histria, named after River Hister. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was pillaged by the Goths, the Eastern Roman Empire, the Avars, it was subsequently annexed to the Lombard Kingdom in 751, annexed to the Frankish kingdom by Pepin of Italy in 789. In 804, the Placitum of Riziano was held in the Parish of Rižan, a meeting between the representatives of Istrian towns and castles and the deputies of Charlemagne and his son Pepin; the report about this judicial diet illustrates the changes accompanying the transfer of power from the Eastern Roman Empire to the Carolingian Empire and the discontent of the local residents. Afterwards it was successively controlled by the dukes of Carantania, Bavaria and by the patriarch of Aquileia, before it became the territory of the Republic of Venice in 1267; the medieval Croatian kingdom held only the far eastern part of Istria, but they lost it to the Holy Roman Empire in the late 11th century.
The coastal areas and cities of Istria came under Venetian Influence in the 9th century. On 15 February 1267, Parenzo was formally incorporated with the Venetian state. Other coastal towns followed shortly thereafter. Bajamonte Tiepolo was sent away from Venice in 1310, to start a new life in Istria after his downfall. A description of the 16th-century Istria with a precise map was prepared by the Italian geographer Pietro Coppo. A copy of the map inscribed in stone can now be seen in the Pietro Coppo Park in the center of the town of Izola in southwestern Slovenia; the Inner part of Istria around Mitterburg had been part of the Holy Roman Empire for centuries, more part of the domains of the Austrian Ha
Resurrection is the concept of coming back to life after death. In a number of ancient religions, a dying-and-rising god is a deity which resurrects; the resurrection of the dead is a standard eschatological belief in the Abrahamic religions. As a religious concept, it is used in two distinct respects: a belief in the resurrection of individual souls, current and ongoing, or else a belief in a singular resurrection of the dead at the end of the world; some believe. The death and resurrection of Jesus, an example of resurrection, is the central focus of Christianity. Christian theological debate ensues with regard to what kind of resurrection is factual – either a spiritual resurrection with a spirit body into Heaven, or a material resurrection with a restored human body. While most Christians believe Jesus' resurrection from the dead and ascension to Heaven was in a material body, a small minority believes it was spiritual. There are documented rare cases of the return to life of the clinically dead which are classified scientifically as examples of the Lazarus syndrome, a term originating from the biblical story of the resurrection of Lazarus.
Resurrection, from the Latin noun resurrectio -onis, from the verb rego, "to make straight, rule" + preposition sub, "under", altered to subrigo and contracted to surgo, surrectum + preposition re-, "again", thus "a straightening from under again". The concept of resurrection is found in the writings of some ancient non-Abrahamic religions in the Middle East. A few extant Egyptian and Canaanite writings allude to dying and rising gods such as Osiris and Baal. Sir James Frazer in his book The Golden Bough relates to these dying and rising gods, but many of his examples, according to various scholars, distort the sources. Taking a more positive position, Tryggve Mettinger argues in his recent book that the category of rise and return to life is significant for the following deities: Ugaritic Baal, Adonis, Eshmun and Dumuzi. In ancient Greek religion a number of men and women were made physically immortal as they were resurrected from the dead. Asclepius was killed by Zeus, only to be transformed into a major deity.
Achilles, after being killed, was snatched from his funeral pyre by his divine mother Thetis and resurrected, brought to an immortal existence in either Leuce, Elysian plains or the Islands of the Blessed. Memnon, killed by Achilles, seems to have received a similar fate. Alcmene, Castor and Melicertes, were among the figures sometimes considered to have been resurrected to physical immortality. According to Herodotus's Histories, the seventh century BC sage Aristeas of Proconnesus was first found dead, after which his body disappeared from a locked room, he found not only to have been resurrected but to have gained immortality. Many other figures, like a great part of those who fought in the Trojan and Theban wars and the historical pugilist Cleomedes of Astupalaea, were believed to have been made physically immortal, but without having died in the first place. Indeed, in Greek religion, immortality always included an eternal union of body and soul; the philosophical idea of an immortal soul was a invention, although influential, never had a breakthrough in the Greek world.
As may be witnessed into the Christian era, not least by the complaints of various philosophers over popular beliefs, traditional Greek believers maintained the conviction that certain individuals were resurrected from the dead and made physically immortal and that for the rest of us, we could only look forward to an existence as disembodied and dead souls. This traditional religious belief in physical immortality was denied by the Greek philosophers. Writing his Lives of Illustrious Men in the first century, the Middle Platonic philosopher Plutarch's chapter on Romulus gave an account of the mysterious disappearance and subsequent deification of this first king of Rome, comparing it to traditional Greek beliefs such as the resurrection and physical immortalization of Alcmene and Aristeas the Proconnesian, "for they say Aristeas died in a fuller's work-shop, his friends coming to look for him, found his body vanished. Plutarch scorned such beliefs held in traditional ancient Greek religion, writing, "many such improbabilities do your fabulous writers relate, deifying creatures mortal."
The parallel between these traditional beliefs and the resurrection of Jesus was not lost on the early Christians, as Justin Martyr argued: "when we say... Jesus Christ, our teacher, was crucified and died, rose again, ascended into heaven, we propose nothing different from what you believe regarding those whom you consider sons of Zeus.". There is, however, no belief in a general resurrection in ancient Greek religion, as the Greeks held that not the gods were able to recreate flesh, lost to decay, fire or consumption; the notion of a general resurrection of the dead was therefore quite preposterous to the Greeks. This is made clear in Paul's Areopagus discourse. After having first told about the resurrection of Jesus, which makes the Athenians interested to hear more, Paul goes on, relating how this event relates to a general resurrection of the dead: "Therefore having overlooked the times of ignorance, God is now declaring to men that all everywhere should repent, because He has fixed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness through a Man whom He has appointed, having furnished proof to all
Tintoretto was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Venetian school. The speed with which he painted, the unprecedented boldness of his brushwork, were both admired and criticized by his contemporaries. For his phenomenal energy in painting he was termed Il Furioso, his work is characterised by his muscular figures, dramatic gestures and bold use of perspective, in the Mannerist style. In his youth, Tintoretto was known as Jacopo Robusti as his father had defended the gates of Padua in a way that others called robust, against the imperial troops during the War of the League of Cambrai, his real name "Comin" was discovered by Miguel Falomir of the Museo del Prado and was made public on the occasion of the retrospective of Tintoretto at the Prado in 2007. Comin translates to the spice cumin in the local language. Tintoretto was born in Venice as the eldest of 21 children, his father, was a dyer, or tintore. The family was believed to have originated from Brescia, in Lombardy part of the Republic of Venice.
Older studies gave the Tuscan town of Lucca as the origin of the family. In childhood Jacopo, a born painter, began daubing on the dyer's walls; this was around 1533, when Titian was over 40 years of age. Tintoretto had only been ten days in the studio when Titian sent him home for good, because the great master observed some spirited drawings, which he learned to be the production of Tintoretto. This, however, is mere conjecture. From this time forward the two always remained upon distant terms, though Tintoretto being indeed a professed and ardent admirer of Titian, but never a friend, Titian and his adherents turned a cold shoulder to him. There was active disparagement, but it passed unnoticed by Tintoretto; the latter studied on his own account with laborious zeal. His noble conception of art and his high personal ambition were both evidenced in the inscription which he placed over his studio Il disegno di Michelangelo ed il colorito di Tiziano, he studied more from models of Michelangelo's Dawn, Noon and Night, became expert in modelling in wax and clay method which afterwards stood him in good stead in working out the arrangement of his pictures.
The models were sometimes taken from dead subjects studied in anatomy schools. Now and afterwards he frequently worked by night as well as by day; the young painter Andrea Schiavone, four years Tintoretto's junior, was much in his company. Tintoretto helped Schiavone at no charge with wall-paintings; the two earliest mural paintings of Tintoretto—done, like others, for next to no pay—are said to have been Belshazzar's Feast and a Cavalry Fight. These have both long since perished, as have all his frescoes, later; the first work of his to attract some considerable notice was a portrait-group of himself and his brother—the latter playing a guitar—with a nocturnal effect. It was followed by some historical subject. One of Tintoretto's early pictures still extant is in the church of the Carmine in Venice, the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple. For the Scuola della Trinità he painted four subjects from Genesis. Two of these, now in the Gallerie dell'Accademia in Venice, are Adam and Eve and the Death of Abel, both noble works of high mastery, which leave us in no doubt that Tintoretto was by this time a consummate painter—one of the few who have attained to the highest eminence in the absence of any recorded formal training.
Up till 2012, The Embarkation of St Helena in the Holy Land was attributed to his contemporary Andrea Schiavone. But new analysis of the work has revealed it as one of a series of three paintings by Tintoretto, depicting the legend of St Helena And The Holy Cross; the error was uncovered during work on a project to catalogue continental European oil paintings in the UK. The Embarkation of St Helena was acquired by the V&A in 1865, its sister paintings, The Discovery Of The True Cross and St Helen Testing The True Cross, are held in galleries in the US. Towards 1546 Tintoretto painted for the church of the Madonna dell'Orto three of his leading works: the Worship of the Golden Calf, the Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, the Last Judgment, he took the commission for two of the paintings, the Worship of the Golden Calf and the Last Judgment, on a cost only basis in order to make himself better known. He settled down in a house hard by the church, it is a Gothic building, looking over the Fondamenta de Mori, still standing.
In 1548 he was commissioned for four pictures
Siege of Candia
The Siege of Candia was a military conflict in which Ottoman forces besieged the Venetian-ruled city. Lasting from 1648 to 1669, or a total of 21 years, it is the second longest siege in history after the siege of Ceuta. In the 17th century, Venice's power in the Mediterranean was waning; the Republic of Venice believed that the Ottomans would use any excuse to pursue further hostilities. In 1644, the Knights of Malta attacked an Ottoman convoy on its way from Alexandria to Constantinople, they landed at Candia with the loot, which included the former Chief Black Eunuch of the Harem, the kadi of Cairo, among other pilgrims heading to Mecca. In response, 60,000 Ottoman troops led by Yussuf Pasha disembarked on Venetian Crete with no apparent target, with many suspecting them heading for Malta. Instead the Ottomans suprisingly struck against Crete in June 1645, besieging and occupying La Canea and Rettimo. Both of these cities took two months each to conquer. Between 1645 and 1648, the Ottomans occupied the rest of the island and prepared to take the capital, Candia.
The siege of Candia began in May 1648. The Ottomans spent three months laying siege to the city, cutting off the water supply, disrupting Venice's sea lanes to the city. For the next 16 years, they would bombard the city to little effect; the Venetians, in turn, sought to blockade the Ottoman-held Dardanelles to prevent the resupply of the Ottoman expeditionary force on Crete. This effort led to a series of naval actions. On 21 June 1655 and 26 August 1656, the Venetians were victorious, although the Venetian commander, Lorenzo Marcello, was killed in the latter engagement. However, on 17–19 July 1657, the Ottoman navy soundly defeated the Venetians and the Venetian captain, Lazzaro Mocenigo, was killed by a falling mast. Venice received more aid from other western European states after the 7 November 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees and the consequent peace between France and Spain. However, the Peace of Vasvár released additional Ottoman forces for action against the Venetians in Candia. In 1666, a Venetian attempt to recapture La Canea failed.
The following year, Colonel Andrea Barozzi, a Venetian military engineer, defected to the Ottomans and gave them information on weak spots in Candia's fortifications. On 24 July 1669, a French land/sea expedition under Mocenigo not only failed to lift the siege, but lost the fleet's vice-flagship, La Thérèse a 900-ton French warship armed with 58 cannons, to an accidental explosion; this dual disaster was devastating to the morale of the city's defenders. Chastened by their failed relief effort and the loss of so valuable a warship, the French abandoned Candia in August 1669 leaving Captain General Francesco Morosini, the commander of Venetian forces, with only 3,600 fit men and scant supplies to defend the fortress. He, accepted terms and surrendered to Ahmed Köprülü, the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire of on 27 September 1669. However, his surrender without first receiving authorization to do so from the Venetian Senate made Morosini a controversial figure in Venice for some years afterward.
As part of the surrender terms, all Christians were allowed to leave Candia with whatever they could carry while Venice retained possession of Gramvousa and Spinalonga, fortified islands that shielded natural harbors where Venetian ships could stop during their voyages to the eastern Mediterranean. After Candia's fall, the Venetians somewhat offset their defeat by expanding their holdings in Dalmatia. Data obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, relating to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, describes a plan aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague. "Although the plan was organized, the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was never carried out." According to a scholar from the National Defense University, this attack was unknown to historians of biological warfare until published in December 2015. Knights of Malta fought at the Siege of Candia in 1668 Francois de Beaufort, who died there Philippe de Montaut-Bénac, marshal under the duke of Beaufort Philippe de Vendôme, the nephew of the duke of Beaufort Vincenzo Rospigliosi, admiral of the fleet and Pope Clement's nephew Charles de Sévigné The Siege of Candia is an important part of the background to the historical novel An Instance of the Fingerpost, where a major protagonist is a Venetian veteran of that siege and several plot developments become clear through extensive flashbacks to the Candia events.
Naval battles of the Cretan Wars History of the Republic of Venice Ottoman Navy Ottoman wars in Europe The War for Candia, by the VENIVA consortium. Venice Republic: Renaissance, 1645-69 The war of Candia, by Marco Antonio Bragadin; the Cretan War - 1645 - 1669 by Chrysoula Tzompanaki
Andrew the Apostle
Andrew the Apostle known as Saint Andrew, was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter. He is referred to in the Orthodox tradition as the First-Called. According to Orthodox tradition, the apostolic successor to Saint Andrew is the Patriarch of Constantinople; the name "Andrew", like other Greek names, appears to have been common among the Jews and other Hellenized people of Judea. No Hebrew or Aramaic name is recorded for him. Saint Andrew was born, in 6 BC in Galilee; the New Testament states that Andrew was the brother of Simon Peter, a son of John, or Jonah. He was born in the village of Bethsaida on the Sea of Galilee. "The first striking characteristic of Andrew is his name: it is not Hebrew, as might have been expected, but Greek, indicative of a certain cultural openness in his family that cannot be ignored. We are in Galilee, where the Greek language and culture are quite present."Both he and his brother Peter were fishermen by trade, hence the tradition that Jesus called them to be his disciples by saying that he will make them "fishers of men".
At the beginning of Jesus' public life, they were said to have occupied the same house at Capernaum. In the Gospel of Matthew and in the Gospel of Mark Simon Peter and Andrew were both called together to become disciples of Jesus and "fishers of men"; these narratives record that Jesus was walking along the shore of the Sea of Galilee, observed Simon and Andrew fishing, called them to discipleship. In the parallel incident in the Gospel of Luke Andrew is not named, nor is reference made to Simon having a brother. In this narrative, Jesus used a boat described as being Simon's, as a platform for preaching to the multitudes on the shore and as a means to achieving a huge trawl of fish on a night which had hitherto proved fruitless; the narrative indicates that Simon was not the only fisherman in the boat but it is not until the next chapter that Andrew is named as Simon's brother. However, it is understood that Andrew was fishing with Simon on the night in question. Matthew Poole, in his Annotations on the Holy Bible, stressed that'Luke denies not that Andrew was there'.
In contrast, the Gospel of John states that Andrew was a disciple of John the Baptist, whose testimony first led him, another unnamed disciple of John the Baptist, to follow Jesus. Andrew at once recognized Jesus as the Messiah, hastened to introduce him to his brother; the Byzantine Church honours him with the name Protokletos, which means "the first called". Thenceforth, the two brothers were disciples of Christ. On a subsequent occasion, prior to the final call to the apostolate, they were called to a closer companionship, they left all things to follow Jesus. Subsequently, in the gospels, Andrew is referred to as being present on some important occasions as one of the disciples more attached to Jesus. Andrew told Jesus about the boy with the loaves and fishes, when Philip wanted to tell Jesus about certain Greeks seeking Him, he told Andrew first. Andrew was present at the Last Supper. Andrew was one of the four disciples who came to Jesus on the Mount of Olives to ask about the signs of Jesus' return at the "end of the age".
Eusebius in his Church History 3.1 quoted Origen as saying. The Chronicle of Nestor adds that he preached along the Black Sea and the Dnieper river as far as Kiev, from there he traveled to Novgorod. Hence, he became a patron saint of Ukraine and Russia. According to tradition, he founded the See of Byzantium in AD 38. According to Hippolytus of Rome, Andrew preached in Thrace, his presence in Byzantium is mentioned in the apocryphal Acts of Andrew. Basil of Seleucia knew of Apostle Andrew's missions in Thrace and Achaea; this diocese would develop into the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Andrew, along with Saint Stachys, is recognized as the patron saint of the Patriarchate. Andrew is said to have been martyred by crucifixion at the city of Patras in Achaea. Early texts, such as the Acts of Andrew known to Gregory of Tours, describe Andrew as bound, not nailed, to a Latin cross of the kind on which Jesus is said to have been crucified; the iconography of the martyrdom of Andrew — showing him bound to an X-shaped cross — does not appear to have been standardized until the Middle Ages.
The apocryphal Acts of Andrew, mentioned by Eusebius and others, is among a disparate group of Acts of the Apostles that were traditionally attributed to Leucius Charinus. "These Acts belong to the third century: ca. A. D. 260," in the opinion of M. R. James, who edited them in 1924; the Acts, as well as a Gospel of St Andrew, appear among rejected books in the Decretum Gelasianum connected with the name of Pope Gelasius I. The Acts of Andrew was edited and published by Constantin von Tischendorf in the Acta Apostolorum apocrypha, putting it for the first time into the hands of a critical professional readership. Another version of the Andrew legend is found in the Passio Andreae, published by Max Bonnet (Supplement