Southern United States
The Southern United States, commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States and New Mexico, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia, which separated from Virginia in 1863, commonly is. Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries, while the states of Delaware and Maryland, as well as the District of Columbia permitted slavery prior to the start of the Civil War, they remained with the Union. However, the United States Census Bureau puts them in the South, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles, and cuisines, the Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European and some Native American components.
Since the late 1960s, black people have many offices in Southern states, especially in the coastal states of Virginia. Historically, the South relied heavily on agriculture, and was rural until after 1945. It has since become more industrialized and urban and has attracted national and international migrants, the American South is now among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. Houston is the largest city in the Southern United States, sociological research indicates that Southern collective identity stems from political and cultural distinctiveness from the rest of the United States. The region contains almost all of the Bible Belt, an area of high Protestant church attendance and predominantly conservative, studies have shown that Southerners are more conservative than non-Southerners in several areas, including religion, international relations and race relations. Apart from its climate, the experience in the South increasingly resembles the rest of the nation. The arrival of millions of Northerners and millions of Hispanics meant the introduction of cultural values, the process has worked both ways, with aspects of Southern culture spreading throughout a greater portion of the rest of the United States in a process termed Southernization.
The question of how to define the subregions in the South has been the focus of research for nearly a century, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, the Southern region of the United States includes sixteen states. As of 2010, an estimated 114,555,744 people, or thirty-seven percent of all U. S. residents, lived in the South, the nations most populous region. Other terms related to the South include, The Old South, the New South, usually including the South Atlantic States. The Solid South, region largely controlled by the Democratic Party from 1877 to 1964, before that, blacks were elected to national office and many to local office through the 1880s, Populist-Republican coalitions gained victories for Fusionist candidates for governors in the 1890s. Includes at least all the 11 former Confederate States, Southeastern United States, usually including the Carolinas, the Virginias, Kentucky, Alabama and Florida. The Deep South, various definitions, usually including Louisiana, Mississippi, occasionally, parts of adjoining states are included
Illinois College is a private, liberal arts college, affiliated with the United Church of Christ and the Presbyterian Church, and located in Jacksonville, Illinois. It was the college founded in Illinois, but the first to grant a degree. It was founded in 1829 by the Illinois Band, students from Yale University who traveled westward to new colleges. It briefly served as the states first medical school from 1843–1848, the Rev. John M. Ellis, a Presbyterian missionary in the East, saw the need for a “seminary of learning” in the new state of Illinois. His plans drew the attention of Congregational students at Yale University and his sister, Harriet Beecher Stowe, was author of the influential anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin and a visitor to the campus. His brother, Henry Ward Beecher and lectured at the college as well, Beecher Hall, named in honor of president Beecher, was the first building constructed on the Illinois College campus, and remains the oldest college building in the state of Illinois.
The first two graduates in the state of Illinois, Richard Yates and Jonathan E. Spilman. Yates became the Civil War governor of Illinois and a U. S. senator, a program at Illinois College for first generation college students was named The Yates Fellowship Program in his honor. Jonathan Edwards Spilman composed the music to Robert Burns’ poem “Flow Gently, Sweet Afton. ”William Jennings Bryan. He was a United States Congressman from Nebraska, the US Secretary of State, and the Democratic Partys presidential nominee in 1896,1900, many Illinois College graduates have gone on to have influential careers in public service. Two graduates became U. S. senators,20 became congressmen, six were state governors, among the visitors and lecturers on campus during the early years were Abraham Lincoln, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Bronson Alcott, Mark Twain, Horace Greeley, Oscar Wilde and Wendell Phillips. Many speakers, including Lincoln, were sponsored by the literary societies which still exist today. In the mid 1800s, a group of students at the college were indicted by a jury for harboring runaway slaves.
The College became co-educational in 1903 by incorporating the Jacksonville Female Academy, Illinois Conservatory of Music was absorbed in 1903. In 1932 the Phi Beta Kappa Society established a chapter at Illinois College, Illinois College is a nationally ranked liberal arts college with an enrollment of 1010 students. The most popular programs among students tend to be education, the student to faculty ratio is often around 11,1, with a current average class size of 16 students. Illinois College has been accredited by The Higher Learning Commission since 1913, the College’s Epsilon Chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa national honor society is one of only eleven in the state, and was established in 1932. All degrees awarded by Illinois College are undergraduate degrees with the exception of a newer Master of Arts in Education
Secession is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but any organization, union or military alliance. Threats of secession can be a strategy for achieving more limited goals, theories of secession relate to a fundamental question of political philosophy, the basis of the states authority. Ramet, Rights of Secession by Daniel Kofman, The Very Idea of Secession by Donald Livingston and Secession, Autonomy, in 2007 the University of South Carolina sponsored a conference called Secession As an International Phenomenon which produced a number of papers on the topic. Some theories of secession emphasize a general right of secession for any reason while others emphasize that secession should be considered only to rectify grave injustices, if it can not live in the affections of the people, it must one day perish. Congress possesses many means of preserving it by conciliation, but the sword was not placed in their hand to preserve it by force, former President of the United States Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to William H.
If any State in the Union will declare that it prefers separation with the first alternative, to a continuance in union without it, I have no hesitation in saying, let us separate. I would rather the States should withdraw, which are for unlimited commerce and war, economic enfranchisement of an economically oppressed class that is regionally concentrated within the scope of a larger national territory. e. Tax schemes, regulatory policies, economic programs, cultural Secessionism, any group which was previously in a minority has a right to protect and develop its own culture and distinct national identity through seceding into an independent state. Institutional empowerment - The growing inability of empires and ethnic federations to maintain colonies, relative strength - Increasingly powerful secessionist movements are more likely to achieve statehood. Negotiated consent - Home states and the international community increasingly consent to secessionist demands, during the 19th century, the single British colony in eastern mainland Australia, New South Wales was progressively divided up by the British government as new settlements were formed and spread.
Victoria in 1851 and Queensland in 1859, settlers agitated to divide the colonies throughout the part of the century, particularly in central Queensland in the 1860s and 1890s, and in North Queensland in the 1870s. Western Australia Secession movements have surfaced several times in Western Australia, the referendum had to be ratified by the British Parliament, which declined to act, on the grounds that it would contravene the Australian Constitution. The Principality of Hutt River claims to have seceded from Australia in 1970, according to a lexicon on nationalist movements across the world, Macau happened to recognise that Principality. Austria successfully seceded from Nazi Germany on April 27,1945 and this took place after seven years of Austria being part of Adolf Hitlers Third Reich due to the Anschluss annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in March 1938. On August 25,1830, during the reign of William I, soon after, the Belgian Revolt occurred, which resulted in the Belgian secession from the Netherlands.
The peace treaty accepted Uruguay independence, reasserted the rule of both nations over their land and some important points like free navigation in the Silver River, three rather disorganized secessionist rebellions happened in Grão-Pará, Bahia and Maranhão, where the people were unhappy with the Empire. The Malê Revolt, in Bahia, was an Islamic slave revolt and these three rebellions were bloodily crushed by the Empire of Brazil. In the attempts the rebels were crushed, the shot and its territory divided
Reserve Officers' Training Corps
The Reserve Officers Training Corps are a group of college-based officer training programs for training commissioned officers of the United States Armed Forces. ROTC officers serve in all branches of the U. S. armed forces, under ROTC, a student may receive a competitive, merit-based scholarship, covering all or part of college tuition, in return for an obligation of active military service after graduation. The U. S. Coast Guard offers a program to ROTC under a different name. The students participate in regular drills during the year. Some of the training that is offered to cadets in the Army ROTC program are, Air Assault, Mountain Warfare, WHINSEC. Army ROTC units are organized as brigades and companies, Air Force ROTC units are detachments with the students organized into wings, groups and flights. Army and Air Force ROTC students are referred to as cadets, Navy ROTC units are organized as battalions, and include NROTC students under Marine Option who will eventually be commissioned as officers in the Marine Corps.
Marine NROTC students may be formed in a company when the program includes sufficient numbers. All Navy ROTC students are referred to as midshipmen, the term of obligatory service varies based on the type of commission the cadet or midshipman receives, as well as any scholarship contract signed. They can serve as duty or in a reserve status. Additionally, a cadet on active duty can receive either a regular appointment or a reserve appointment and this affects the required years, as well as how many must be completed on active duty, in an active reserve capacity, or in the Individual Ready Reserve. Under federal law, graduates of an ROTC scholarship program incur an active duty service obligation. Recipients incur an eight-year MSO if they accept a commission and serve in a reserve component, recipients incur at least a six-year MSO and up to an eight-year ADSO if they accept a commission and serve in a reserve component with at least two years of active duty. Army ROTC students who receive an Army ROTC scholarship or enter the Army ROTC Advanced Course must agree to complete a period of service.
This can include three active duty, with the balance in the IRR. The service obligation for a Navy ROTC student is five years in the Navy, the active-duty service obligation for an Air Force ROTC student is four years, or eight years for Combat Systems Officers, or six years Air Battle Management officers, or ten years for pilots. The concept of ROTC in the United States began with the Morrill Act of 1862 which established the land-grant colleges, part of the federal governments requirement for these schools was that they include military tactics as part of their curriculum, forming what became known as ROTC. The college from which ROTC originated is Norwich University in Northfield, Norwich was founded in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont, as the American Literary and Military Academy
Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union.
Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents father
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Wisconsin is the 23rd largest state by total area and the 20th most populous. The state capital is Madison, and its largest city is Milwaukee, the state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline, Wisconsin is known as Americas Dairyland because it is one of the nations leading dairy producers, particularly famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, especially paper products, information technology, and tourism are major contributors to the states economy. The word Wisconsin originates from the given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673, subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, and over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands.
English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in numbers during the early 19th century. The legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845, the Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure. Interpretations vary, but most implicate the river and the red sandstone that lines its banks, other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning red stone place, where the waters gather, or great rock. Wisconsin has been home to a variety of cultures over the past 12,000 years. The first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation and these early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting, agricultural societies emerged gradually over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE.
Toward the end of period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the Effigy Mound culture. Later, between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact, the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was probably the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien
United States Statutes at Large
Each act and resolution of Congress is called a slip law, which is classified as either public law or private law, and designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congress session, slip laws are compiled into Statutes at Large and they are part of a three-part model for publication of federal statutes consisting of slip laws, session laws, and codification. Today, large portions of slip laws denominated as public laws are now drafted as amendments to the United States Code. Once enacted into law, an Act will be published in the Statutes at Large and will add to, provisions of a public law that contains only enacting clauses, effective dates, and similar matters are not generally codified. Private laws are not generally codified, some portions of the United States Code have been enacted as positive law and other portions have not been so enacted. Publication of the United States Statutes at Large began in 1845 by the firm of Little, Brown. During Little and Companys time as publisher, Richard Peters, George Minot, in 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office under the direction of the Secretary of State.
633, was enacted July 30,1947 and directed the Secretary of State to compile, index,980, was enacted September 23,1950 and directed the Administrator of General Services to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large. Since 1985 the Statutes at Large have been prepared and published by the Office of the Federal Register of the National Archives, sometimes very large or long Acts of Congress are published as their own volume of the Statutes at Large. For example, the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 was published as volume 68A of the Statutes at Large. Volumes 1 to 18 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Library of Congress Volumes 1 to 64 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Congressional Data Coalition via LEGISWORKS
The Beaumont Tower is a structure on the campus of Michigan State University, designed by the architectural firm of Donaldson and Meier and completed in 1928. The 104-foot-tall tower marks the site of College Hall, the first building constructed on the campus, due to poor construction, College Hall collapsed in 1918. John W. Beaumont, an 1882 alumni of MSU, proposed the construction of the monument to conserve the Campus Circle, the tower was to serve as a time piece for the university, directing students daily activities by sounding hourly. The tower, designed in the Collegiate Gothic architectural style, features The Sower and this serves as a tribute both to MSUs origins as an agricultural college and to the seminal nature of knowledge. Beaumont houses a carillon, with 49 bells. Originally the tower had only ten bells but over time additional bells were added until a full range of music could be played from these, the bells now play frequently throughout the day activated by a computer. The Campus Circle where the tower is located often serves as a place for students where free concerts on the lawn are available in the summer.
The Beaumont Tower is one of the most recognizable and most photographed landmarks on the MSU campus and its likeness as a line drawing is used on MSU letterhead. Special performances using the carillon are provided for specific occasions, the northeast finial is higher than the other three. The missing finials represent the need for higher education, the tower is the meeting place for the executive board of the Michigan State University Tower Guard. The Tower Guard, founded in 1934 by May Shaw, the wife of former MSU president Robert Shaw, is MSU’s oldest and it was originally a female honor society that was a service-oriented organization which would help to serve the needs of visually impaired students at Michigan State University. In 1977, membership was opened to the young men on campus in addition to women. Each year, the top sophomores are chosen to carry on the based on their academic excellence, outstanding character. The most popular traditions surrounding Beaumont Tower involve kissing, either in the shadow of the tower during the day, or at midnight in the Beaumont courtyard and it is said that a Spartan is destined to marry a sweetheart if they kiss under the Beaumont Tower.
Hendry, Fay, L. Balthazar Korab, Outdoor Sculpture of Lansing, Iota Press, Michigan Kuhn, Michigan State, The First Hundred Years, 1855-1955. East Lansing, Michigan State University Press, east Lansing, Michigan State University Press. The Greater Lansing Convention & Visitors Bureau Beaumont Tower - a short CNN article Beaumont Tower, At the Crossroads of Past, - College Hall MSU Tower Guard Michigan State, A Virtual Tour Beaumont Tower, At the Crossroads of Past, Present & Future
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Lyman Trumbull was a United States Senator from Illinois during the American Civil War, and co-author of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Lyman Trumbull was born in Colchester, the grandson of the historian Benjamin Trumbull, after graduating from Bacon Academy, he taught school from 1829 to 1833. At 20, he was hired as head of an academy in Georgia and he studied as a legal apprentice, and was admitted to the bar in Georgia. He practiced law in Greenville, Georgia until 1837, when he moved west to Alton and his house in Alton, the Lyman Trumbull House, is a National Historic Monument. By 1840, Trumbull was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives and he was appointed as Illinois Secretary of State, serving from 1841-1843. In 1848, he was appointed as a justice on the Supreme Court of Illinois, although elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1854, he was elected by the state legislature to serve in the United States Senate before he could take his seat.
He served for two decades, from 1855 through 1873. During this time, he claimed party affiliations with the Democrats, the Republicans, the Liberal Republicans, Senator James Dixon said of the resolution that it seems to me calculated to produce nothing but mischief. It was the constitutional loophole by which southern states abused convict lease labor, all seven Senators, resisting the pressure imposed on them, broke party ranks and defied public opinion, voting for acquittal, although they knew their decision would be unpopular. After the trial, Representative Ben Butler of Massachusetts conducted hearings in the House on widespread reports that Republican senators had been bribed to vote for Johnsons acquittal, butlers hearings and subsequent inquiries revealed evidence that some acquittal votes were acquired by promises of patronage jobs and cash cards. He may place an obstruction there and toll may be gathered from every person who goes to see these wonders of creation, after leaving the Senate in 1873, Trumbull set up a law practice in Chicago.
He worked in practice except for a brief period when he ran an unsuccessful campaign for governor in 1880. In January 1883, Trumbull was given a seat of honor at the dedication of the Pullman Arcade Theatre in George Pullmans company town and he became a Populist in 1894. Trumbull was part of the legal team, which included Clarence Darrow. Debs et al. was heard by the US Supreme Court in 1895, during his explorations in the west John Wesley Powell named Mt. Trumbull in northwestern Arizona after the senator. The Lyman Trumbull House is a National Historic Landmark, Trumbull has a street named after him in the city of Chicago, Lyman Trumbull Elementary School in Chicago is named after the senator. Trumbull Park and adjacent Trumbull Park Homes in Chicago are named after the Senator White, Horace. The Life of Lyman Trumbull, biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Lyman Trumbull at Find a Grave Trumbull at OurCampaigns. com
Constitution of Michigan
The Constitution of the State of Michigan is the governing document of the U. S. state of Michigan. It describes the structure and function of the states government, there have been four constitutions approved by the people of Michigan. The first was approved on October 5 and 6,1835, written as Michigan was preparing to become a state of the Union, subsequent constitutions were ratified in 1850 and 1908. The current constitution was approved by voters in 1963, on January 26,1835, Acting Territorial Governor Stevens T. Mason issued an enabling act authorizing the people of Michigan to form a constitution and state government. The Michigan Territorial Council, the governing body of the Michigan Territory called a constitutional convention in anticipation of statehood. The convention lasted until June 24, and the constitution was adopted by the voters on October 5,1835. A bill of rights was included in constitution, though suffrage was granted only to white males over age 21. The Constitution of 1850 was adopted November 5,1850, after a convention lasting two and a half months and it added the provision that the question of a general revision of the constitution be submitted at the general election every 16 years.
The Constitution of 1908 was adopted on November 3 of that year, after a convention of 96 delegates lasting four and it is similar to the declaration of rights in many other state constitutions and mirrors many of the provisions found in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Section one spells out how “All political power is inherent in the people. ”Section two establishes the rule of law, equality before the law, and principles of non-discrimination. Section three describes the rights of assembly, consultation and petition, the rights of association and protest can be derived from this section. Section four establishes the freedom of religion by saying, “Every person shall be at liberty to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience. ”Section five protects the freedom of speech, section six consists of the right to bear arms. Section nine prohibits slavery and involuntary servitude, but specifically allows for criminal punishments that amount to community service. Section ten says, “No bill of attainder, ex post facto law or law impairing the obligation of contract shall be enacted.
”Section eleven protects against unreasonable searches and seizures and creates the necessity for law enforcement to obtain warrants to conduct either one. ”It could be interpreted as the right of access to the courts. Section fourteen preserve the right to trial by jury, in civil and criminal cases. Section sixteen protects against excessive punishments, including cruel or unusual punishment, excessive bail and it prohibits the unreasonable detention of witnesses. Section seventeen protects a person against forced self-incrimination and provides for treatment during investigations. Section eighteen prohibits witnesses from being dismissed because of religious beliefs, section nineteen provides the right to truth as a defense against defamation accusations
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders the other U. S. states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Lake Champlain forms half of Vermonts western border with the state of New York, Vermont is the 2nd-least populous of the U. S. states, with nearly 50,000 more residents than Wyoming. The capital is Montpelier, the least populous state capital in the U. S, the most populous municipality, Burlington, is the least populous city in the U. S. to be the most populous within a state. As of 2015, Vermont continued to be the producer of maple syrup in the U. S. It was ranked as the safest state in the country in January 2016, for thousands of years inhabited by indigenous peoples, including the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki and Mohawk, much of the territory that is now Vermont was claimed by Frances colony of New France. France ceded the territory to Great Britain after being defeated in 1763 in the Seven Years War, for many years, the nearby colonies, especially the provinces of New Hampshire and New York, disputed control of the area.
Settlers who held land titles granted by New York were opposed by the Green Mountain Boys militia, those settlers prevailed in creating an independent state, the Vermont Republic. Founded in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War, the republic lasted for 14 years, aside from the original 13 states that were formerly colonies, Vermont is one of only four U. S. states that were previously sovereign states. Vermont was the first state to join the U. S. as its 14th member state after the original 13, while still an independent republic, Vermont was the first of any future U. S. state to partially abolish slavery. It played an important geographic role in the Underground Railroad, sights in Vermont Vermont is located in the New England region of the northeastern United States and comprises 9,614 square miles, making it the 45th-largest state. It is the state that does not have any buildings taller than 124 feet. Land comprises 9,250 square miles and water comprises 365 square miles, making it the 43rd-largest in land area, in total area, it is larger than El Salvador and smaller than Haiti.
The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the eastern border with New Hampshire. 41% of Vermonts land area is part of the Connecticut Rivers watershed, Lake Champlain, the major lake in Vermont, is the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States and separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state. From north to south, Vermont is 159 miles long and its greatest width, from east to west, is 89 miles at the Canada–U. S. Border, the narrowest width is 37 miles at the Massachusetts line, the states geographic center is approximately three miles east of Roxbury, in Washington County. There are fifteen U. S. federal border crossings between Vermont and Canada, the origin of the name Vermont is uncertain, but likely comes from the French les Verts Monts, meaning the Green Mountains