New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Illinois College is a private liberal arts college in Jacksonville, Illinois. It is affiliated with the United Church of the Presbyterian Church, it was the second college the first to grant a degree. It was founded in 1829 by the Illinois Band, students from Yale University who traveled westward to found new colleges, it served as the state's first medical school, from 1843 to 1848, became co-educational in 1903. The Rev. John M. Ellis, a Presbyterian missionary in the East, saw the need for a “seminary of learning” in the new state of Illinois, his plans drew the attention of Congregational students at Yale University, seven of them, in one of the famous “Yale Bands,” came westward to help found the College. The first president of Illinois College was Edward Beecher who left his position at the Park Street Church in Boston and imbued the new College with New England traditions and academic foundations, his sister, Harriet Beecher Stowe, was the author of the influential anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin and a visitor to the campus.
His brother, Henry Ward Beecher and lectured at the college as well. Beecher Hall, named in honor of president Beecher, was the first building constructed on the Illinois College campus, remains the oldest college building in the state of Illinois; the first two college graduates in the state of Illinois, Richard Yates and Jonathan E. Spilman, received their degrees from Illinois College in 1835. Yates became the Civil War governor of Illinois and a U. S. senator. A program at Illinois College for first generation college students was named The Yates Fellowship Program in his honor. Jonathan Edwards Spilman composed the familiar music to Robert Burns’ poem “Flow Gently, Sweet Afton.” William Jennings Bryan, a member of the class of 1881, is one of the most prominent alumni of Illinois College. He was a United States Congressman from Nebraska, the US Secretary of State, the Democratic Party's presidential nominee in 1896, 1900, 1908. Many Illinois College graduates have gone on to have influential careers in public service.
Two graduates became U. S. senators, 20 became congressmen, six were state governors and two serve as federal judges. Among the visitors and lecturers on campus during the early years were Abraham Lincoln, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Amos Bronson Alcott, Mark Twain, Horace Greeley, Oscar Wilde and Wendell Phillips. Many speakers, including Lincoln, were sponsored by the college’s literary societies which still exist today. Illinois College was a center of the abolitionist movement due to its Northern location near the Mississippi River and outspoken campus leaders such as President Edward Beecher and Professor Jonathan Baldwin Turner. In the mid 1800s, a group of students at the college were indicted by a grand jury for harboring runaway slaves. Two campus buildings have ties to the abolitionist movement; the College became co-educational in 1903 by incorporating the Jacksonville Female Academy, in 1906 IC awarded degrees to its first four female graduates. Illinois Conservatory of Music was absorbed in 1903.
In 1932 the Phi Beta Kappa Society established a chapter at Illinois College, it remains one of only 11 chapters in the state. Illinois College is a nationally ranked liberal arts college with an enrollment of 1010 students. Over 80 different programs and majors are offered at the school, including Combined Degree Programs in Biology with Medical Technology, Biology with Occupational Therapy and Physics with Engineering; the most popular programs among students tend to be science, or business related. The student to faculty ratio is around 11:1, with a current average class size of 16 students. Illinois College has been accredited by The Higher Learning Commission since 1913; the College’s Epsilon Chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa national honor society is one of only eleven in the state, was established in 1932. All degrees awarded by Illinois College are undergraduate bachelor's degrees with the exception of a newer Master of Arts in Education; the M. A. Ed. is a 32 credit hour on-campus degree program, designed to accommodate the professional development needs of in-service teachers Starhill Forest Arboretum is located 45 miles northeast of the Illinois College campus in the town of Petersburg.
In 2008, Illinois College entered into a partnership with the arboretum. Since the partnership, Starhill has been a location for Illinois College students to visit and participate in internships; the Whipple Hall on the college campus houses the Paul Findley Congressional Office Museum, dedicated to former congressman and alumni, Paul Findley. Findley graduated from Illinois College in 1943 and served as a member of the House of Representatives from 1961 to 1983, it contains artifacts related to Findley's political career, his interest in Abraham Lincoln, his involvement in human rights and Middle East issues. Items on display include Lincoln's 1837 law office sofa, Findley's congressional desk, WWI and campaign memorabilia, gifts from seven U. S. presidents and international leaders. The museum is open to visits by appointment, it was renovated in 2007 thanks to a donation by Mohammed Al Habtoor. The college is home to the Khalaf Al Habtoor Archives, located in Schewe Library; the collection is home to many documents and artifacts associated with Illinois College and its long history.
The Beaumont Tower is a structure on the campus of Michigan State University, designed by the architectural firm of Donaldson and Meier and completed in 1928. The 104-foot-tall tower marks the site of College Hall, the first building constructed on the campus, as well as the first building in America erected for instruction in scientific agriculture. Due to poor construction, College Hall collapsed in 1918. John W. Beaumont, an 1882 alumni of MSU, proposed the construction of the monument to conserve the Campus Circle and serve as a monument to teaching. During its dedication ceremony, the president of the college described the Beaumont Tower as "a meeting or trysting place of the students, student groups or organizations, the center of all the activities of this institution"; the tower was to serve as a time piece for the university, directing students' daily activities by sounding hourly. The tower, designed in the Collegiate Gothic architectural style, features The Sower, an Art Deco bas-relief by sculptor Lee Lawrie, with the inscription "Whatsoever a Man Soweth".
This serves as a tribute both to MSU's origins as an agricultural college and to the seminal nature of knowledge. Beaumont houses a full carillon, with 49 bells; the tower had only ten bells but over time additional bells were added until a full range of music could be played from these. The bells now play throughout the day activated by a computer; the Campus Circle where the tower is located serves as a gathering place for students where free concerts on the lawn are available in the summer. The Beaumont Tower is one of the most recognizable and most photographed landmarks on the MSU campus, its likeness as a line drawing is used on MSU letterhead. Special performances using the carillon are provided for specific occasions; the northeast finial is higher than the other three. The missing finials represent the need for higher education; the tower is the meeting place for the executive board of the Michigan State University Tower Guard. The Tower Guard, founded in 1934 by May Shaw, the wife of former MSU president Robert Shaw, is MSU’s oldest and one of the most respected student organizations on campus.
It was a female honor society, a service-oriented organization which would help to serve the needs of visually impaired students at Michigan State University. In 1977, membership was opened to the outstanding young men on campus in addition to women; each year, the top sophomores are chosen to carry on the tradition based on their academic excellence, outstanding character, commitment to service. Hendry, Fay, L. Balthazar Korab, Outdoor Sculpture of Lansing, Iota Press, Michigan Kuhn, Madison.. Michigan State: The First Hundred Years, 1855-1955. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-222-9. Miller, Whitney. East Lansing: Collegeville Revisited. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-2045-4. Stanford, Linda O.. Kurt Dewhurst. MSU Campus: Buildings, Spaces. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-631-3; the Greater Lansing Convention & Visitors Bureau Beaumont Tower - a short CNN article Beaumont Tower: At the Crossroads of Past, Present & Future - MSU Alumni Association article M.
A. C. - College Hall MSU Tower Guard Michigan State:A Virtual Tour Beaumont Tower: At the Crossroads of Past, Present & Future
Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral and political crisis, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, modernized the U. S. economy. Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became Whig Party leader, state legislator and Congressman, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating and losing to national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in a Senate campaign, he ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the Constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery.
They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U. S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to restore the Union; as the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by distributing political patronage, by appealing to the American people, his Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, equal rights and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade; as the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign, he sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists.
A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero, he is ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky, he was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky, in the 1780s. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786, his children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack.
Thomas worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s. Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, they produced three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807. Thomas Lincoln leased farms in Kentucky. Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, lost all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana, where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a "free" territory, they settled in an "unbroken forest" in Hurricane Township, Perry County. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but due to land title difficulties. In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer and carpenter, he owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, guarded prisoners.
Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol and slavery. Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin; those who knew Lincoln recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn son. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred t
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, from the theoretical to the applied; these ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City and Cornell Tech, a graduate program that incorporates technology and creative thinking; the program moved from Google's Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.
Cornell is one of ten private land grant universities in the United States and the only one in New York. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York system, including its agricultural and human ecology colleges as well as its industrial labor relations school. Of Cornell's graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported; as a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered; as of October 2018, 58 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell University. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race.
Cornell counts more than 245,000 living alumni, its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 14 living billionaires. The student body consists of more than 14,000 undergraduate and 8,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 116 countries. Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty; the university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, 412 men were enrolled the next day. Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds.
Since 1894, Cornell fulfill statutory requirements. Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes, it was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues, civil rights, opposition to the Vietnam War. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor. Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, it has partnerships with institutions in India and the People's Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a "transnational university". On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new'Bridging the Rift Center' to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.
Cornell's main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking Cayuga Lake. Since the university was founded, it has expanded to about 2,300 acres, encompassing both the hill and much of the surrounding areas. Central Campus has laboratories, administrative buildings, all of the campus' academic buildings, athletic facilities and museums. North Campus is composed of ten residence halls that house first-year students, although the Townhouse Community houses transfer students; the five main residence halls on West Campus make up the West Campus House System, along with several Gothic-style buildings, referred to as "the Gothics". Collegetown contains two upper-level residence halls and the Schwartz Performing Arts Center amid a mixed-use neighborhood of apartments and businesses; the main campus is marked by an irregular layout and eclectic architectural styles, including ornate Collegiate Gothic and Neoclassical buildings, the more spare international and modernist structures. The more ornat
A scrip is any substitute for legal tender. It is a form of credit. Scrips have been created for payment of employees under truck systems, for use in local commerce at times when regular currency was unavailable, for example in remote coal towns, military bases, ships on long voyages, or occupied countries in wartime. Besides company scrip, other forms of scrip include land scrip, token coins such as subway tokens, IOUs, arcade tokens and tickets, points on some credit cards. Scrips have gained historical importance and become a subject of study in numismatics and exonumia due to their wide variety and recurring use. Scrip behaves to a currency, as such can be used to study monetary economics. A variety of forms of scrip were used at various times in the 20th centuries. Company scrip was a credit against the accrued wages of employees. In United States mining or logging camps where everything was owned and operated by a single company, scrip provided the workers with credit when their wages had been depleted.
These remote locations were cash poor. Workers had little choice but to purchase food and other goods at a company store. In this way, the company could charge enormous markups on goods in a company store, making workers dependent on the company, thus enforcing their "loyalty" to the company. Additionally, while employees could exchange scrip for cash, this could be done at face value; this kind of scrip was valid only within the settlement. While store owners in neighboring communities could accept the scrip as money, they did so at face value, as it was worth less than that; when U. S. President Andrew Jackson issued his Specie Circular of 1836 due to credit shortages, Virginia Scrip was accepted as payment for federal lands. In 19th-century Western Canada, the federal government devised. Notes in the form of money scrip or land scrip, valued at 160 acres or 240 acres, were offered to Métis people in exchange for their Aboriginal rights. During the Great Depression, at the height of the crisis, many local governments paid employees in scrip.
Vermilion, Alberta was just one example. In the U. S. payment of wages in scrip became illegal under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. The expression "scrip" is used in the stock market where companies can sometimes pay dividends in the form of additional shares/stock rather than in money, it is a written document that acknowledges debt. After World War I and World War II, scrip was used as "emergency money" or Notgeld in Germany and Austria. Scrip was used extensively in prisoner-of-war camps during World War II, at least in countries that complied with the Third Geneva Convention. Under the Geneva Conventions, enlisted POWs could be made to work, but had to be paid for their labor, but not in cash. Since ordinary money could be used in escape attempts, they were given scrip that could only be used with the approval of camp authorities only within the camps. Poker chips referred to as casino tokens, are used as money with which to gamble; the use of chips as company money in the early 19th century in Devon, England, in the Wheal Friendship copper mine gave its name to a local village: Chipshop.
Stamp scrip was a type of local money designed not to be hoarded. One type of this worked this way: Each scrip certificate had printed boxes, it was used in Germany and Austria in the early 1930s, after national currencies collapsed. National governments considered themselves threatened by the success of stamp scrip projects, shut them down; the Alberta Social Credit Party government in 1937 issued "prosperity certificates," a form of provincial currency, in an effort to encourage spending. This scrip had boxes. Thus, the value of the certificate was covered by the cost of the stamps at year's end when it matured, it is said there were literal showers of dried out stamps cascading to the ground when these certificates were pulled out of pockets in payment for something. But they did give a boost to the provincial economy. Scrip survives in modern times in various forms; the use of locally issued scrip accepted by multiple businesses within a community has increased during the Late-2000s recession.
Community-wide scrip usage is on the rise in Ithaca, New York. Thailand's township Amphoe Kut Chum once issued its own local scrip called Bia Kut Chum: Bia is Thai for cowry shell, once used as small change, still so used in metaphorical expressions. To side-step implications that the community intended their scrip as an unlawful substitute for currency, it now issues exchange coupons called Boon Kut Chum; some companies still issue token coin, good for use at company points of sale. Among these are the Canadian Tire money for the Canadian Tire stores and gasbars in Canada, the Disney dollars, used at Disney resorts. In the retail and fundraising industries, scrip is now issued in the form of gift cards, eCards, or less paper gift certificates. Physical gift cards have a magnetic strip or optically readable bar code to facilitate redemption at the point of sale. In the late 1980s, the term scrip evolved to includ