Far Rockaway Branch
The Far Rockaway Branch is an electrified rail line and service owned and operated by the Long Island Rail Road in the U. S. state of New York. The branch begins at Valley Interlocking, just east of Valley Stream station. From Valley Stream, the line heads south and southwest through southwestern Nassau County, ending at Far Rockaway in Queens, thus reentering New York City. LIRR maps and schedules indicate that the Far Rockaway Branch service continues west along the Atlantic Branch to Jamaica; this two-track branch provides all day service in both directions to the Atlantic Terminal in Brooklyn, with limited weekday peak service to/from Penn Station in Midtown Manhattan. During peak hours, express service may bypass Jamaica station; the South Side Railroad built the branch in 1869 under a subsidiary called the Far Rockaway Branch Railroad. While constructing it in summer 1869, the company installed about 700 feet of tracks across William B. McManus's farmland near Lawrence. However, the transaction had not been completed, McManus and some friends tore up the track the next night.
The same year, the South Side established a subsidiary named the Hempstead and Rockaway Railroad designed to connect the line to the up-and-coming Southern Hempstead Branch. The H&R was dissolved in 1871. Due to the success of the branch, the South Side built the 200-foot South Side Pavilion, a restaurant on the beach at what is today Beach 30th Street. With an additional subsidiary known as the Rockaway Railway, the line was extended west to the Seaside House in 1872 and Neptune House in 1875; the Far Rockaway Branch, along with the rest of the South Side Railroad, was acquired by the Long Island Rail Road in 1876. Two stations on the branch were built as Arverne; the first of, in 1888 at Gaston Avenue. It had a large tower, was shaped like a Victorian hotel and had a connection to the Ocean Electric Railway, as did much of the Rockaway Beach and Far Rockaway branches. Due to a quarrel between the LIRR and Vernam, another Arverne Station was built at Straiton Avenue in 1892. From on, the original Arverne station was known as Arverne-Gaston Avenue to distinguish it from the Arverne-Straiton Avenue.
In 1908, the line between Cedarhurst and Far Rockaway was triple-tracked. During the early 1940s, the right-of-way was relocated from a ground-level routing to a concrete trestle; the ROW crossed Mott Avenue in Far Rockaway and returned to ground level, passing over Nameoke Street, continuing to Gibson Station and ascending back on a trestle to Valley Stream. Until 1950 trains from Penn Station could leave the Main Line at Whitepot Junction and head south past the Atlantic Branch connection at Woodhaven Junction to the Hammels Wye at 40.5913°N 73.8088°W / 40.5913. Frequent fires and maintenance problems, notably a May 23, 1950 fire between Broad Channel and The Raunt, led the LIRR to abandon the Queens portion of the route on October 3, 1955, acquired by the city to become the IND Rockaway Line, with service provided by the A train. Most Queens stations along the former Far Rockaway and Rockaway Beach Branches reopened as subway stations on June 28, 1956, the exception being Far Rockaway–Mott Avenue station, split between the NYCTA and LIRR on January 16, 1958.
Between the late 1960s and 1990s, various stations along the Far Rockaway Branch were given high-level platforms in order to accommodate modern M1, M3, M7 railcars. The Far Rockaway Branch has the distinction of containing the oldest surviving railroad station on Long Island, the only existing building constructed by an LIRR predecessor Hewlett. In 2003, the LIRR closed that station replacing it with a new one diagonally across the railroad crossing on Franklin Avenue. Vincent F. Seyfried, The Long Island Rail Road: A Comprehensive History, Part One: South Side R. R. of L. I. © 1961 MTA Long Island Rail Road Far Rockaway Branch Stations NYCSubway.org Far Rockaway Line Far Rockaway Line.
Oyster Bay Branch
The Oyster Bay Branch is a rail line and service owned and operated by the Long Island Rail Road in the U. S. state of New York. The branch splits from the Main Line just east of Mineola station, runs north and east to Oyster Bay; the branch is electrified between East Mineola. The first phase of what is now known as the Oyster Bay Branch opened on January 23, 1865; the line was built by the Glen Cove Branch Rail Road, a subsidiary of the Long Island Rail Road, extended to Glen Head. On May 16, 1867 the railway was extended to Glen Cove. and on April 19, 1869 the line was extended further to Locust Valley. By the early 1880s, there had been pressure to expand rail service eastward. At this time another railroad, the Northern Railroad of Long Island threatened the Long island Rail Road's monopoly; the Northern Railroad was incorporated on March 23, 1881, it planned to build a road from Astoria to Northport via Flushing, Great Neck, Glen Cove, Oyster Bay and Huntington. By June 1881, construction plans were authorized and in mid-July the building contract was signed, with work set to begin in August.
The Long Island Rail Road attempted to undermine the Northern Railroad's project before it could sell stock and acquire a roadbed. It was going to link its north side branches together as a continuous railroad to Northport. Construction cost from Great Neck to Roslyn and from Locust Valley to Northport was $400,000. In February 1883, Austin Corbin, president of the Long Island Rail Road, offered to supply iron and rolling stock for the extension to Oyster Bay if local residents provided the right-of-way. While citizens considered the offer, the Northern Railroad folded. With the threat eliminated, the extension of rail service to Oyster Bay was temporarily delayed; the project was revived in 1886. In June 1886, a public meeting was held and a committee of fifteen was appointed to secure land. Although officials were still contemplating a through line to Northport, the LIRR organized the Oyster Bay Extension Railroad on August 31, 1886, which authorized a five-mile road from Locust Valley to Oyster Bay.
Ground was broken for the project on August 15, 1887. One phase of construction was the building of a bridge over what is now Tunnel Street in Locust Valley; the masonry project began in October 1888 and the arch was finished on April 13, 1889. The entire bridge was completed by September. On June 24, 1889, the extension opened with a huge celebration in Oyster Bay. A ceremonial train of ten cars left Long Island City about 9:30 a.m. and was met at Locust Valley by ten young ladies who decorated the locomotive with flags and wreaths. Upon arrival at Oyster Bay, an organized procession commenced, viewed by 5,000 residents and visitors. On Tuesday, June 25, the extension opened for regular passenger service with eight round trips daily to and from Long Island City; the line ended at Locust Valley for two decades until a final extension added four miles to Oyster Bay. One of the reasons for building to Oyster Bay was to create a connection to New England. A large pier, now owned by the Flowers Oyster Company, was built to facilitate the loading of passenger cars onto a ferry to the Danbury and Norwalk Railroad station and ferry pier in Wilson's Point section of Norwalk, Connecticut.
Service lasted only a few years as overland service from New York to Boston, once thought impossible, commenced. In early 1892, a second track was built between Albertson; the line was double-tracked to Roslyn, Glen Cove and Locust Valley in 1905, 1909 and 1911, respectively. The extension of the line's second track was done in anticipation of electrification; until 1928, a direct connection to the West Hempstead Branch existed just east of Mineola station. This spur crossed the Main Line terminated at the end of a wye at what was called the Garden City Branch; until passenger service was abandoned along this branch, passengers would transfer between the two lines at Mineola Station itself. In November 1928, LIRR officials surveyed the branch to evaluate the feasibility of electrifying the line; the Glen Cove Chamber of Commerce petitioned the LIRR. In response, the Vice President of the LIRR, in December, stated that the LIRR had to deal with the completion of multiple grade crossing elimination projects before electrifying the Oyster Bay Branch, estimated to cost $3,280,000.
By June 1934, the section of the line between East Williston and Mineola was electrified, with the remainder of the branch expected to be electrified soon after. However, the remainder of the work was not completed. Instead, the branch is served by diesel powered-locomotive trains. In 2009, the LIRR replaced the bridge over West Shore Road between Locust Valley and Oyster Bay Stations. Oyster Bay Branch Stations NYCSubways.org: Oyster Bay Branch Oyster Bay Branch
City Terminal Zone
The City Terminal Zone known as the City Zone Branch, is a collection of rail lines of the Long Island Rail Road in New York City. It includes to all stations that lie in fare zone 1, the set of stations west of Jamaica. There are three routes that are part of the City Terminal Zone: New York Penn Station – Trains that, from Jamaica, travel west along the Main Line to Penn Station in Manhattan via the East River Tunnels. Atlantic Terminal – Trains that travel along the Atlantic Branch to Brooklyn. Long Island City – Trains that serve Hunterspoint Avenue and Long Island City in Queens; these trains use the Main Line west of Jamaica, but skip Woodside, Forest Hills, Kew Gardens. This route is served only during weekday rush hours in the peak direction; the City Terminal Zone included the Lower Montauk Branch from Long Island City to Jamaica until passenger service on that route was discontinued in November 2012. This line included Penny Bridge, Fresh Pond and Richmond Hill stations until they were closed in March 1998.
The City Terminal Zone is slated to include a branch to a new station underneath Grand Central Terminal as part of the East Side Access project. A new station in Sunnyside, Queens, is scheduled to be built once the remainder of the project is complete. City Terminal Zone branch timetable
Metropolitan Transportation Authority
The Metropolitan Transportation Authority is a public benefit corporation responsible for public transportation in the U. S. state of New York, serving 12 counties in Downstate New York, along with two counties in southwestern Connecticut under contract to the Connecticut Department of Transportation, carrying over 11 million passengers on an average weekday systemwide, over 850,000 vehicles on its seven toll bridges and two tunnels per weekday. MTA is the largest public transit authority in the United States. In February 1965, New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller suggested that the New York State Legislature create an authority to purchase and modernize the Long Island Rail Road; the LIRR a subsidiary of the Pennsylvania Railroad, had been operating under bankruptcy protection since 1949. The proposed authority would have the power to make contracts or arrangements with other commuter-railroad operators in the New York City area. On May 21, 1965, the legislature chartered the Metropolitan Commuter Transportation Authority to take over the operations of the LIRR.
Governor Rockefeller appointed his top aide, Dr. William J. Ronan, as chairman and chief executive officer of the MCTA. In June 1965, the state finalized an agreement to buy the LIRR from the PRR for $65 million; the MCTA made a down payment of $10 million for the LIRR in December 1965, it had completed the rest of the payment by the next month. In February 1965, Rockefeller and Connecticut Governor John N. Dempsey jointly suggested that operations of the New Haven Line, the New Haven Railroad's struggling commuter rail operation, be transferred to the New York Central Railroad as part of a plan to prevent the New Haven Railroad from going bankrupt. If the operational merger occurred, the proposed MCTA and the existing Connecticut Transportation Authority would contract with New York Central to operate the New Haven Line to Grand Central Terminal. A joint report from both agencies, released in September of that year, recommended that the line be leased to New York Central for 99 years, with the MCTA and CTA acting as agents for both states.
In October, the MCTA found that the New Haven Line's stations and infrastructure were more decrepit than those of the LIRR. The New Haven Railroad's trustees opposed New York Central's takeover of the New Haven Line, as they felt that the $140 million offer for the New Haven Line was too low. After some discussion, the trustees decided to continue operating the New Haven Line, but only until June 1967. In January 1966, New York City Mayor John Lindsay proposed merging the New York City Transit Authority, which operated buses and subways in New York City, the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, which operated toll bridges and tunnels within the city. Rockefeller offered his "complete support" for Lindsay's proposed unified transit agency, while longtime city planner and TBTA chair Robert Moses called the proposed merger "absurd" and "grotesque" for its unwieldiness. In June 1966, Rockefeller announced his plans to expand the MCTA's scope to create a new regional transit authority; the new authority would encompass the existing MCTA, as well as the NYCTA and TBTA.
Lindsay disagreed, saying that the state and city should have operationally separate transit authorities that worked in tandem. On May 3, 1967, Rockefeller signed a bill that allowed the MCTA to oversee the mass transit policies of New York City-area transit systems; the unification agreement would take place the following March, upon which the MCTA would take over the operations of the LIRR, NYCTA, TBTA, New Haven commuter services, New York Central commuter services, the Staten Island Railway. The TBTA was resistant to the MCTA's efforts to acquire it. Moses was afraid that the enlarged MCTA would "undermine, destroy or tarnish" the integrity of the TBTA, One source of contention was Rockefeller's proposal to use TBTA tolls in order to subsidize the cheap fares of the NYCTA, since Moses opposed any use of TBTA tolls for use by outside agencies. In February 1968, Moses acquiesced to the MCTA's merger proposal. New York Central and the PRR merged in February 1968, forming the Penn Central Transportation Company.
On February 29, 1968, the MCTA published a 56-page report for Governor Rockefeller, in it, proposed several subway and railroad improvements under the name "Metropolitan Transportation, a Program for Action". The city had intended to build subway extensions in all four boroughs so that most riders would need at most one transfer to get to their destination; the Program for Action called for upgrades to the Penn Central railroads as well as to area airports. The Program for Action was put forward with other development and transportation plans under the administration of Mayor Lindsay; this included Lindsay's Linear City plan for housing and educational facilities, the projected construction of several Interstate Highways, many of which were proposed by Robert Moses. On March 1, 1968, the day after the release of the Program for Action, the MCTA dropped the word "Commuter" from its name and became the Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the MTA took over the operations of the other New York City-area transit systems.
Moses was let go from his job as chairman of the TBTA. The construction of two proposed bridges over the Long Island Sound was put under the jurisdiction of the MTA. Moses stated that TBTA construction projects would reduce the MTA's budget surplus through 1970. Chairman Ronan pushed for the MTA to pursue the Program for Action, saying, "We're making up for 30 years of do-nothingism". Ronan proposed that the MTA take over the Staten Island Railway fr
Dunton was a ground-level station on the Long Island Rail Road's Montauk Branch, Atlantic Branch in Dunton, New York City, United States. It was closed in 1939; the South Side Railroad of Long Island, which crossed the LIRR's Atlantic Branch at 130th Street, opened Van Wyck Avenue station on the south side of its line in June 1869 a year after the line opened. A depot was added in July 1870, in May 1871 the name was changed to Berlin; the LIRR leased the South Side on May 3, 1876, effective Sunday, June 25, 1876, the Berlin station was closed, with all South Side passenger trains from the west switching to the Atlantic Branch where they crossed. The depot was moved west to the Lefferts Boulevard crossing on the Atlantic Branch in 1878 and named Morris Grove. Frederick W. Dunton, developer of Dunton, donated a station building to the LIRR. Local Atlantic Avenue rapid transit trains began to stop there, at the same place as the old Berlin station, by mid-1890. In April or May 1897, the depot was moved to the north side of the Atlantic and Montauk tracks, a stop was established on the Main Line.
Prior to the nearby "Jamaica Improvement" project of 1912–13, the LIRR began the elevation of the tracks near Dunton, which included reconstruction of the station itself, completed by April 1914. With the sinking of the Atlantic Branch into a tunnel, the station closed on November 1, 1939, along with six other stations on the Atlantic Branch; the former staircase to the eastbound station platform can now be found at the southeast corner of the 130th Street Tunnel surrounded by a fence, while the staircase to the westbound platform can be found within the tunnel itself. Media related to Dunton at Wikimedia Commons Van Wyck Avenue Station, Berlin Station, Dunton Station, MP Tower
The volt is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, electromotive force. It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta. One volt is defined as the difference in electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points, it is equal to the potential difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb. Additionally, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it, it can be expressed in terms of SI base units as V = potential energy charge = J C = kg ⋅ m 2 A ⋅ s 3. It can be expressed as amperes times ohms, watts per ampere, or joules per coulomb, equivalent to electronvolts per elementary charge: V = A ⋅ Ω = W A = J C = eV e; the "conventional" volt, V90, defined in 1987 by the 18th General Conference on Weights and Measures and in use from 1990, is implemented using the Josephson effect for exact frequency-to-voltage conversion, combined with the caesium frequency standard.
For the Josephson constant, KJ = 2e/h, the "conventional" value KJ-90 is used: K J-90 = 0.4835979 GHz μ V. This standard is realized using a series-connected array of several thousand or tens of thousands of junctions, excited by microwave signals between 10 and 80 GHz. Empirically, several experiments have shown that the method is independent of device design, measurement setup, etc. and no correction terms are required in a practical implementation. In the water-flow analogy, sometimes used to explain electric circuits by comparing them with water-filled pipes, voltage is likened to difference in water pressure. Current is proportional to the amount of water flowing at that pressure. A resistor would be a reduced diameter somewhere in the piping and a capacitor/inductor could be likened to a "U" shaped pipe where a higher water level on one side could store energy temporarily; the relationship between voltage and current is defined by Ohm's law. Ohm's Law is analogous to the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, as both are linear models relating flux and potential in their respective systems.
The voltage produced by each electrochemical cell in a battery is determined by the chemistry of that cell. See Galvanic cell § Cell voltage. Cells can be combined in series for multiples of that voltage, or additional circuitry added to adjust the voltage to a different level. Mechanical generators can be constructed to any voltage in a range of feasibility. Nominal voltages of familiar sources: Nerve cell resting potential: ~75 mV Single-cell, rechargeable NiMH or NiCd battery: 1.2 V Single-cell, non-rechargeable: alkaline battery: 1.5 V. Some antique vehicles use 6.3 volts. Electric vehicle battery: 400 V when charged Household mains electricity AC: 100 V in Japan 120 V in North America, 230 V in Europe, Asia and Australia Rapid transit third rail: 600–750 V High-speed train overhead power lines: 25 kV at 50 Hz, but see the List of railway electrification systems and 25 kV at 60 Hz for exceptions. High-voltage electric power transmission lines: 110 kV and up Lightning: Varies often around 100 MV.
In 1800, as the result of a professional disagreement over the galvanic response advocated by Luigi Galvani, Alessandro Volta developed the so-called voltaic pile, a forerunner of the battery, which produced a steady electric current. Volta had determined that the most effective pair of dissimilar metals to produce electricity was zinc and silver. In 1861, Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright coined the name "volt" for the unit of resistance. By 1873, the British Association for the Advancement of Science had defined the volt and farad. In 1881, the International Electrical Congress, now the International Electrotechnical Commission, approved the volt as the unit for electromotive force, they made the volt equal to 108 cgs units of voltage
Atlantic Terminal is the westernmost stop on the Long Island Rail Road's Atlantic Branch, located at Flatbush Avenue and Atlantic Avenue in Downtown Brooklyn, New York City. It is the primary terminal for the Far Rockaway and West Hempstead Branches; the terminal is located in the City Terminal Zone, the LIRR's Zone 1, thus part of the CityTicket program. The station was named Brooklyn in 1852, twenty years after the line was established as the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad, wasn't a terminus; the original terminus was South Ferry. When LIRR subsidiary New York and Jamaica Railroad built a new line between Hunter's Point and Jamaica in 1861, the main line was relocated there, the line was abandoned west of East New York, in compliance with Brooklyn's ban on steam railroads. West of East New York, the tracks were taken over by horse car lines; the Brooklyn station designation was replaced by the Flatbush Avenue station on July 2, 1877. That same summer local Atlantic Avenue rapid transit trains began to stop there on August 13.
The old depot was renovated between July–August 1878, when it began serving the Brooklyn and Coney Island Railroad. It was rebuilt again in June 1880; the headquarters for the Long Island Express Company was installed there in 1882, gave the station a series of tracks that would be known as the "EX Yard." In 1888, the Union Elevated Railway built an elevated railway line and station that connected to the LIRR station, better known as the Atlantic Avenue. The Union Elevated became part of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation. Further rebuilding took place again in 1893. Between 1904 and 1906, the Carlton Avenue Freight Yards were replaced by the Vanderbilt Avenue Freight Yards; this was just a portion of a major improvement project that included the complete reconstruction of the station. The second depot opened on April 1, 1907 with the depot at street level and the tracks installed underground; the station had a lobby, larger than most LIRR stations, contained subway type entrances to the tracks.
It served as a post office building until 1925, contained a baggage depot, express buildings, some meat houses which were inherited from the previous version of the station, a merchandise terminal for "less than carload freight" added on in 1908. The Interborough Rapid Transit Company built a subway line called the Eastern Parkway Line and a station on Atlantic Avenue, that connected to the station on May 1, 1908; the BMT built two more subway lines on Pacific Street along the Fourth Avenue Line on June 22, 1915, Atlantic Avenue along the Brighton Line on August 1, 1920. The connection to the BMT Fifth Avenue Line was lost on May 31, 1940; the station was refurbished and the exterior was sandblasted in the early 1940s. The decline of rail service after World War II led to the station's gradual demise, however. Track #1 was out of service on April 10, 1959. Former express tracks numbers 9-14 were taken out of service on March 3, 1971. At some point, the express buildings became a parking garage.
Local businesses were still allowed to utilize the station, such as a barber shop, candy stores, a snack bar, a podiatrist's office, a dental office, a beauty school, a row of telephone booths. Those businesses were gone by 1978; the tracks that were numbered from south to north were renumbered from north to south on July 1, 1978. Despite efforts to repaint the lobby in the early-1980s, random vandalism plagued the station interior causing water damage, so severe, the street level depot was closed in 1988, portions were razed during the 1990s. On January 5, 2010, a new entry pavilion, designed by di Domenico + Partners, providing improved connections between the LIRR, buses. In March 2010, the station was renamed Atlantic Terminal after a six-year reconstruction project, during which trains continued to operate. In 2014, the LIRR announced that service from Babylon and Hicksville will go directly to Atlantic Terminal during New York Islanders games at Barclays Center. Passengers would have to transfer at Jamaica to go to Babylon or Hicksville.
However, in preparation for East Side Access project, most service to Atlantic Terminal will be provided by a high-frequency shuttle service to and from Jamaica. During the morning rush hour of January 4, 2017, a train overran the bumper block at the end of track 6, injuring 103, none seriously. There were 650 passengers on the train; the incident was compared to a September 2016 train crash at Hoboken Terminal in Hoboken, New Jersey, wherein a train overran a bumper block. The accident occurred at about 8:20 a.m. Two carriages of the six-carriage electric multiple unit involved were damaged when it collided with the buffer stop at a speed of 10 to 15 miles per hour; the National Transportation Safety Board and Federal Railway Administration opened investigations into the accident. The LIRR terminal, one floor below the ground level, has three high-level island platforms adjacent to six tracks. Platform A is ten cars long, but the two eastern-most cars on Track 1 are not accessible due to a large gap between the train and the platform.
Platform B is eight cars long. Platform C is six cars long, but Track 6 only has enough space for four cars to meet the platform as it is adjacent to the northbound local platform of the IRT Eastern Parkway Line. Atlantic Terminal is connected to the New York City Subway's Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center complex, served by the 2, 3, 4, 5, B, D, N, Q, R and W trains. Buses serving outside the complex include B41, B45, B63, B65, B67, B103; the rail termin