Morris worm

The Morris worm or Internet worm of November 2, 1988, was one of the first computer worms distributed via the Internet, the first to gain significant mainstream media attention. It resulted in the first felony conviction in the US under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, it was written by a graduate student at Cornell University, Robert Tappan Morris, launched on November 2, 1988, from the computer systems of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. According to its creator, Robert Tappan Morris, the Morris worm was not written to cause damage, but to highlight security flaws; the worm was released from MIT in the hope of suggesting that its creator studied there, which Morris did not. It worked by exploiting known vulnerabilities in Unix sendmail and rsh/rexec, as well as weak passwords. Due to reliance on rsh, fixes to sendmail, the widespread use of network filtering, improved awareness of the dangers of weak passwords, it should not succeed on a contemporary, properly configured system.

A unintended consequence of the code, caused it to be more damaging: a computer could be infected multiple times and each additional process would slow the machine down to the point of being unusable. This would crash the computer several times; the main body of the worm could only infect DEC VAX machines running 4BSD, Sun-3 systems. A portable C "grappling hook" component of the worm was used to pull over the main body parts, the grappling hook could run on other systems, loading them down and making them peripheral victims; the critical error that transformed the worm from a harmless intellectual exercise into a virulent service-denial attack was in the spreading mechanism. The worm could have determined whether to invade a new computer by asking whether there was a copy running, but just doing this would have made it trivially easy to stop, as administrators could just run a process that would answer "yes" when asked whether there was a copy, the worm would stay away. The defense against this was inspired by Michael Rabin's mantra "Randomization".

To compensate for this possibility, Morris directed the worm to copy itself if the response is "yes", 1 out of 7 times. This level of replication proved excessive, the worm spread infecting some computers multiple times. Rabin said that Morris "should have tried it on a simulator first"; the U. S. Government Accountability Office put the cost of the damage at $100,000–10,000,000. Clifford Stoll, who helped fight the worm, wrote in 1989, "I surveyed the network, found that two thousand computers were infected within fifteen hours; these machines were dead in the water—useless until disinfected. And removing the virus took two days." It is reported that around 6,000 major UNIX machines were infected by the Morris worm. Stoll wrote, "Rumors have it that worked with a friend or two at Harvard's computing department"; the Internet was partitioned for several days, as regional networks disconnected from the NSFNet backbone and from each other to prevent recontamination, as they cleaned their own networks.

The Morris worm prompted DARPA to fund the establishment of the CERT/CC at Carnegie Mellon University, to give experts a central point for coordinating responses to network emergencies. Gene Spafford created the Phage mailing list to coordinate a response to the emergency. Robert Morris was tried and convicted of violating United States Code: Title 18, the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act in United States v. Morris. After appeals, he was sentenced to three years' probation, 400 hours of community service, a fine of $10,050 plus the costs of his supervision; the Morris worm has sometimes been referred to as the "Great Worm", because of the devastating effect it had on the Internet at that time, both in overall system downtime and in psychological impact on the perception of security and reliability of the Internet. The name was derived from the "Great Worms" of Tolkien: Glaurung. Robert Tappan Morris, the creator of the worm, was the son of Robert Morris, a cryptographer who, at the time, was working for the NSA.

The 1995 film Hackers features a main character who releases a viral attack bearing several similarities to the Morris worm: the event takes place in 1988, infects over a thousand computers, causes a massive economic disruption, results in its propagator being fined and put on probation. In the visual novel Digital: A Love Story, the Morris worm is portrayed as a cover story for a large-scale attack on ARPANET and several bulletin board systems. In the epilogue of his book The Cuckoo's Egg, Stoll details his efforts battling the Morris worm. In Halt and Catch Fire, a virus that works in a similar way to the Morris worm is created to gauge the size of the network. In the webcomic "Internet Explorer" the Morris Worm is shown as a female character who wants to find out the size of the nascent Internet but inadvertently and wreaks havoc wherever she goes. Buffer overflow Timeline of computer viruses and worms Cornell commission findings – Archive of worm material, including papers and code RFC 1135 – "Helminthiasis of the Internet" – an analysis of the worm infestation A Report On The Int


Mandasa is a village in Srikakulam district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Mandasa is known by the name Manjusha. Mandasa is located at 18.8667°N 84.4667°E / 18.8667. It has an average elevation of 31 meters. Mandasa mandal is bordered by Sompeta mandal to the northeast, Palasa mandal to the southwest, Vajrapu Kotturu mandal to the south, Patrapur block of Ganjam district, Odisha to the north, Rayagada block of Gajapati district, Odisha to the west and Bay of Bengal to the east. According to Indian census, 2001, the demographic details of Mandasa mandal is as follows: Total Population: 76,402 in 17,814 Households Male Population: 37,368 and Female Population: 39,034 Children Under 6-years of age: 10,823 Total Literates: 38,425 38,425 Mandasa is connected with'Mandasa Road' railway station on Howrah-Chennai mainline in East Coast Railway, Indian Railways

Our Father Who Art in the Tree

Our Father Who Art in the Tree is a 2002 debut novel by Australian writer Judy Pascoe. It is written from the perspective of 10-year-old Simone who believes her late father is living in the tree in her backyard; the novel was reissued as Our Father. Japanese: Papa no Ki. Translated by Ayako Komatsu. Artist House Publishers. 2002. Traditional Chinese: Shu Shang de Fuqin. Translated by Hsueh Hui-yi. Wisdom Books. 2003. German: Erzähl mir, großer Baum... Translated by Holger Wolandt. Droemer Knaur. 2003. French: L'arbre du père. Translated by Anne Berton. Autrement. 2003. Swedish: Fader vår som bor i trädet. Translated by Eva Sjöstrand. Forum. 2004. Czech: Strom: v koruně naděje, v kořenech smutek. Translated by Jan Kozák. Jota. 2011. Italian: L'albero: una favola vera. Translated by Andrea Silvestri. Bompiani. 2011. Simplified Chinese: Shu Shang de Shouhu Tianshi. Translated by Jiang Kunyang. Volumes Publishing Company. 2015. Our Father Who Art in the Tree has been adapted into a 2010 feature film entitled The Tree by writer/director Julie Bertuccelli and stars Charlotte Gainsbourg.

It was filmed in Boonah, Queensland and is an official French/Australian co-production between Les Films du Poisson and Taylor Media, with Yaël Fogiel and Sue Taylor as co-producers. The film was shown at the 2010 New Zealand International Film Festival as well as the Chicago International Film Festival. Reading Group Guides Goodreads Read first chapter at Book interview with Judy Pascoe Long interview with Judy Pascoe Book review American publisher's page of the book ISBN 978-0-375-75987-1 French publisher's page of the book Inside Film and Television Film adaptation