Steven Patrick Morrissey, known mononymously as Morrissey, is an English singer and author. He came to prominence as the frontman of the rock band the Smiths, active from 1982 to 1987. Since he has pursued a commercially successful solo career. Morrissey's music is characterised by his baritone voice and distinctive lyrics with recurring themes of emotional isolation, sexual longing, self-deprecating and black humour, anti-establishment stances. Born to working-class Irish immigrants in Davyhulme, Morrissey grew up in nearby Manchester; as a child, he developed a love of literature, kitchen sink realism, pop music. In the late 1970s, he fronted punk rock band the Nosebleeds with little success before beginning a career in music journalism and writing several books on music and film in the early 1980s, he formed the Smiths with Johnny Marr in 1982 and the band soon attracted national recognition for their eponymous debut album. As the band's frontman, Morrissey attracted attention for his trademark quiff and witty and sardonic lyrics.

Deliberately avoiding rock machismo, he cultivated the image of a sexually ambiguous social outsider who embraced celibacy. The Smiths released three further studio albums—Meat Is Murder, The Queen Is Dead, Strangeways, Here We Come—and had a string of hit singles; the band attracted a cult following. Personal differences between Morrissey and Marr resulted in the separation of the Smiths in 1987. In 1988 Morrissey launched his solo career with Viva Hate; this album and its follow-ups—Kill Uncle, Your Arsenal, Vauxhall and I—all did well on the UK Albums Chart and spawned multiple hit singles. Replacing Marr, he took on Boz Boorer as his main co-writers. During this time, his image began to shift into that of a burlier figure who toyed with patriotic imagery and working-class masculinity. In the mid-to-late 1990s, his albums Southpaw Grammar and Maladjusted charted but were less well received. Relocating to Los Angeles, he took a musical hiatus from 1998 to 2003 before releasing a successful comeback album, You Are the Quarry, in 2004.

Ensuing years saw the release of albums Ringleader of the Tormentors, Years of Refusal, World Peace Is None of Your Business, Low in High School, California Son, as well as his autobiography and his debut novel, List of the Lost. Influential, Morrissey has been credited as a seminal figure in the emergence of indie rock and Britpop, he is regarded as one of the greatest lyricists in British history and his lyrics have been studied by academics. He has been a controversial figure throughout his music career due to his forthright opinions and outspoken nature—endorsing vegetarianism and animal rights, criticising royalty and prominent politicians, defending a particular vision of English national identity while critiquing the impact of immigration on the UK. In a 2006 poll for the BBC's Culture Show, Morrissey was voted the second-greatest living British cultural icon. Steven Patrick Morrissey was born on 22 May 1959 at Park Hospital in Lancashire, his parents and Peter Morrissey, were working-class Irish Catholics who had emigrated to Manchester from Dublin with his only sibling, elder sister Jacqueline, a year before his birth.

Morrissey claims he was named after American actor Steve Cochran, although he may instead have been named in honour of his father's brother who died in infancy, "Patrick Steven Morrissey". His earliest home was a council house at 17 Harper Street in the Hulme area of inner Manchester. Living in that area as a child, he was affected by the Moors murders, in which a number of local children were killed, he became aware of the anti-Irish sentiment in British society against Irish immigrants to Britain. In 1970, the family moved to another council house at 384 King's Road in Stretford. Following an early education at St. Wilfred's Primary School, Morrissey failed his 11-plus exam and proceeded to St. Mary's Technical Modern School, an experience he found unpleasant, he excelled at athletics. He has been critical of his formal education stating, "The education I received was so evil and brutal. All I learnt was to have no self-esteem and to feel ashamed without knowing why." He left school in 1975. He continued his education at Stretford Technical College, where he gained three O-Levels in English literature and the General Paper.

In 1975, he travelled to the U. S. to visit an aunt. The relationship between his parents was strained, they separated in December 1976, with his father moving out of the family home. Morrissey's librarian mother encouraged her son's interest in reading, he took an interest in feminist literature, liked the Irish author Oscar Wilde, whom he came to idolise. The young Morrissey was a keen fan of the television soap opera Coronation Street, which focused on working-class communities in Manchester, he was a fan of Shelagh Delaney's A Taste of Honey and its 1961 film adaptation, a drama focusing on working-class life in Salford. Many of his songs directly quoted A Taste of Honey. Of his youth, Morrissey has said, "Pop music was all I had, it was entwined with the image of the pop star. I remember feeling the person singing was with me and understood me and my predicament." He revealed that the first record he purchased was Marianne Faithf


Landscape-Portrait is a public digital artwork, touring around the UK since its launch in 2007. In 2007 public arts agency Forma commissioned the work as part of a series of public art works for the Dott Festival Newcastle, UK; the artwork was conceived by Kevin Carter and produced by in association with Forma, SCAN, web designer Pete McDonagh and d|Lab at the University of Teesside and features collaborations with artists and practitioners across the UK. These included: Tony White, Diane Humphries, Craig Gilbert, Richard Jeffery, Steve Lewis, Helen Sloan, Media19 and Karin Coetzee. Landscape-Portrait investigates how postcode demographics, as represented by the Acorn System might reinforce certain stereotypes of communities across the UK; the work hopes to promote a dialogue around the possible effects this practice entails, for example in around social service provision, types of commercial investment undertaken as well as personal decision making, all of which arguably exacerbates a reductive perception of person and place at odds with an experience on the ground.

In response to the reductive methodology of demographics the work makes use of public art practices in combination with digital technologies to author a complimentary dataset, with which to critique a purely statistical understanding of person and place. Participants are interviewed online and offline using a standard questionnaire, based on that used by the Census; the revised questionnaire employs a subjective reasoning as opposed to an objective one that used by the Census. For example, where the Census questionnaire asks how many people the recipient lives with, the Landscape-Portrait questionnaire asks “How do you get on living with the people in your house?”. The resulting data - video, meta data, image - will be made available under a creative commons license, allowing it to be reused by other practitioners, aligning it to ideas about public arts relationship with use and legacy value. Landscape-Portrait is an example of a digital public artwork which derives from a practice which makes use of digital technologies and community focused public art practices.

Landscape-Portrait is an example of a digital public artwork which derives from a mixing of digital technologies and community focused public art practices. This practice although derived from Digital art or more Digital Public arts, but might be better understood as digital community art; as such it is at an early stage of development, invites further definition. Other works and artists that might be included in this discipline are Graham Harwood; this approach to the use of digital technologies within a public art practice is differentiated from other digital public art works, such as UnderScan by Raphael Lorenzo Hemmer whereby the audiences relationship with the work is mediated via a formal spatial method of interaction rather than as a result of a dialogical practice familiar to community based arts The work and its practice have been presented at various conferences. These include Digital Engagement, Sheffield, 2010, Public Interfaces at Aarhus University, Denmark, 2011 and CCID 2011: The Second International Symposium on Culture and Interaction Design held in Newcastle.

An article about the work and the practice of digital public art has been published in a peer reviewed journal and Dr Ann Light for Sheffield and Hallam University has written about the work Landscape-Portrait in Interactions magazine

Carlowrie Castle

Carlowrie Castle was built in the Scottish Baronial style between 1852 and 1855 on the outskirts of Kirkliston, a town 10 miles from Edinburgh, Scotland. It has only belonged to two families: the Hutchison family, who built it, the Marshall family, who acquired it 130 years later; the castle was built to the designs of David Rhind the noted Scottish architect. However, Rhind is best known for his commercial and civic building designs and took on few domestic projects during his lifetime. Carlowrie Castle is therefore exceptional, both in its own right and as a rare example of Rhind's domestic work in the Scots baronial style. In 1873 Rhind was invited back to Carlowrie to design a gate lodge for the castle; the castle is situated within the grounds of a 32-acre estate with its own deer herd. Carlowrie Castle was commissioned by Thomas Hutchison, a prosperous wine merchant and the Provost of Leith, he intended it to be his new family home. Thomas was never to see the castle completed as he died in 1852, leaving his son Robert to complete the project.

The castle cost £33,000 to build, a considerable fortune at the time. The Hutchisons had long-standing and successful trade connections in the port town of Leith and had risen to prominence as a result of their success. Robert Hutchison, Thomas's heir responsible for completing the castle, was a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and an expert in arboriculture, leaving the wine trade behind. Two of his sons were knighted for their contributions to the realm: Sir Robert Hutchison, First Baronet of Thurle in Streatly in the County of Berkshire, a respected medical authority and the President of the Royal College of Physicians and Sir Thomas Hutchison, Lord Provost of Edinburgh, First Baronet of Hardiston in the County of Kinross, who held the office from 1921–1923. Robert's niece was botanist Isobel Wylie Hutchison. Unlike Robert Hutchison, his younger brother Thomas Hutchison devoted himself the wine trade in the family tradition. Having spent time in India where he set about expanding the business and amassed considerable wealth, he returned and married at the age of 40.

For the first few years of his marriage, he lived with his wife at his family's former home of Glendevon House where their eldest two children Nita and Walter were born. However, Thomas's elder brother's lifestyle and academic pursuits had exhausted the family's fortunes and they had fallen into debt. In 1888, to rescue the reputation of the family and the home where he had grown up, Thomas paid off his brother's debts and took over Carlowrie Castle. Isobel Wylie Hutchison was the first of his children to be born there on 30th May 1889. Two further children were born at the castle, Carlowrie remained with this branch of the Hutchison family until Isobel's death and subsequent sale of the property in 1982; the twentieth century was a tumultuous period for the castle. Thomas Hutchison passed away in 1900 after contracting a chill that developed into pneumonia, he was soon followed by his two sons, one to World War One and the other to a mountaineering accident. The tragedies left scars on the family that were never to heal but in their own way contributed to the burgeoning career of Isobel Wylie Hutchison, endowing her with the independent financial means to fund her expeditions and enabling her to defy convention, steadfastly refusing to marry and settle down.

Isobel was awarded the Mungo Park Medal by the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, for whom she acted as Vice President. The castle was used as a military base. By this point, Isobel was earning an independent income from the books and lectures she presented based on her adventures, for the botanical specimens that she provided to collectors and botanic gardens. Expeditions aside, Isobel tended to the grounds throughout her life, she remained at the castle until her death in 1982 at the age of 93. When Carlowrie Castle was put up for sale following Isobel Wylie Hutchison's death, the Marshall family acquired it. Following its extensive refurbishment, Carlowrie was voted one of the top three venues under 200 bedrooms in Europe