Stamford is a city in Fairfield County, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 122,643; as of 2017, according to the Census Bureau, the population of Stamford had risen to 131,000, making it the third-largest city in the state and the seventh-largest city in New England. 30 miles from Manhattan, Stamford is in the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk Metro area, a part of the Greater New York metropolitan area. Stamford is home to four Fortune 500 Companies, nine Fortune 1000 Companies, 13 current 100 Companies, as well as numerous divisions of large corporations; this gives Stamford the largest financial district in the New York metropolitan region outside New York City itself and one of the largest concentrations of corporations in the United States. Stamford was known as Rippowam by the Native American inhabitants to the region, the first European settlers to the area referred to it as such; the present name is after the town of Stamford, England. The deed to Stamford was signed on July 1, 1640 between Captain Turner of the New Haven Colony and Chief Ponus.
By the 18th century, one of the primary industries of the town was merchandising by water, possible due to Stamford's proximity to New York. In 1692, Stamford was home to a less famous witch trial than the well-known Salem witch trials, which occurred in 1692; the accusations were less fanatical and smaller-scale but grew to prominence through gossip and hysterics. New Canaan separated from Stamford when it incorporated as a town in 1801, followed by Darien in 1820. Starting in the late 19th century, New York residents built summer homes on the shoreline, back there were some who moved to Stamford permanently and started commuting to Manhattan by train, although the practice became more popular later. Stamford incorporated as a city in 1893. In 1950, the Census Bureau reported the city's population as 94.6 % 5.2 % black. In the 1960s and 1970s, Stamford's commercial real estate boomed as corporations relocated from New York City to peripheral areas. A massive urban redevelopment campaign during that time resulted in a downtown with many tall office buildings.
The F. D. Rich Co. was the city-designated urban renewal developer of the downtown in an ongoing redevelopment project, contentious, beginning in the 1960s and continuing through the 1970s. The company put up what was the city's tallest structure, One Landmark Square, at 21 floors high, the GTE building, along with the Marriott Hotel, the Stamford Town Center and many of the other downtown office buildings. One Landmark Square has since been dwarfed by the new 34-story Trump Parc Stamford condominium tower, again by the Atlantic Station development, another project by the Rich Company in partnership with Cappelli Enterprises. Over the years, other developers have joined in building up the downtown, a process that continued, with breaks during downturns in the economy, through the 1980s, 1990s and into the new century. Since 2008, an 80-acre mixed-use redevelopment project for the Stamford's Harbor Point neighborhood has added additional growth south of the city's Downtown area. Once complete, the redevelopment will include 6,000,000 square feet of new residential, retail and hotel space, a marina.
As of July 2012 900 of the projected 4,000 Harbor Point residential units had been constructed. New restaurants and recreational activities have come up in the Harbor Point area, considered as New Stamford. Stamford is situated on the Long Island Sound, it comprises a number of neighborhoods and villages including Cove, East Side, North Stamford, West Side, Turn Of River, Springdale, Ridgeway, South End, Shippan and Palmers Hill. North of the Merritt Parkway is considered the North Stamford section of the city. North Stamford encompasses the largest land mass in Stamford, however it is the least densely populated area of the city. North Stamford functionally and acts as one municipality with the City of Stamford. Towns surrounding Stamford include Pound Ridge, New York to the north, Greenwich to the west, both Darien and New Canaan to the east; the city has an area of 52.09 square miles, making it the largest city by area in the state. Under the Köppen climate classification, Stamford has a temperate climate, with long, hot summers, cool to cold winters.
Stamford, like the rest of coastal Connecticut, lies in the broad transition zone between the continental climates of New England and southeast Canada to the north, the milder temperate and subtropical climates to the south. The warm/hot season in Stamford is from mid-April through early November. Late day thundershowers are common in the hottest months, despite the sunny skies; the cool/cold season is from late November though mid March. Winter weather is far more variable than summer weather along the Connecticut coast, ranging from sunny days with higher temperatures to cold and blustery conditions with occasional snow. Like much of the Connecticut coast and nearby Long Island, NY, some of the winter precipitation is rain or a mix and rain and wet snow in Stamford. Stamford averages about 30 inches of snow annually, compared to inland areas like Hartford and Albany which average 45–60 inches of snow annually. Although infrequent, tropical cyclones have struck the Stamford metropolitan area.
Hurricane landfalls have occurred along the Connecticut coast in 1903, 1938, 1944, 1954, 1
King Features Syndicate
King Features Syndicate, Inc. is a print syndication company owned by Hearst Communications that distributes about 150 comic strips, newspaper columns, editorial cartoons and games to nearly 5,000 newspapers worldwide. King Features Syndicate is a unit of Hearst Holdings, Inc. which combines the Hearst Corporation's cable-network partnerships, television programming and distribution activities, syndication companies. King Features' affiliate syndicates are Cowles Syndicate; each week, Reed Brennan Media Associates, a unit of Hearst and distributes more than 200 features for King Features. William Randolph Hearst's newspapers began syndicating material in 1895 after receiving requests from other newspapers; the first official Hearst syndicate was called Newspaper Feature Service, Inc. established in 1913. In 1914, Hearst and his manager Moses Koenigsberg consolidated all of Hearst's syndication enterprises under one banner. Koenigsberg gave it his own name when he launched King Features Syndicate on November 16, 1915.
Production escalated in 1916 with King Features buying and selling its own staff-created feature material. A trade publication — Circulation — was published by King Features between 1916 and 1933. Syndication peaked in the mid-1930s with 130 syndicates offering 1,600 features to more than 13,700 newspapers. In 1986, King Features acquired the Tribune Syndicate for $4.3 million. That year, Hearst bought News America Syndicate. By this point, with both King Features and News America, Hearst led all syndication services with 316 features. In 2007, King Features donated its collection of comic-strip proof sheets to the Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum and the Michigan State University Comic Art Collection while retaining the collection in electronic form for reference purposes; as of 2016, with 62 strips being syndicated, Hearst was considered the second-largest comics service, second only to Uclick. In 1941, King Features manager Moses Koenigsberg wrote an autobiographical history of the company entitled King News.
William Randolph Hearst paid close attention to the comic strips in the last years of his life, as is evident in these 1945–46 correspondence excerpts in Editor & Publisher, about the creation of Dick's Adventures in Dreamland — a strip that made its debut on Sunday, January 12, 1947. The difficulty is to find something that will sufficiently interest the kids… Perhaps a title — "Trained by Fate" — would be general enough. Take Paul Revere and show him as a boy making as much of his boyhood life as possible, culminate, of course, with his ride. Take Betsy Ross for a heroine, or Barbara Fritchie… for the girls."King Features editor Ward Greene to Hearst: "There is another way to do it, somewhat fantastic, but which I submit for your consideration. That is to devise a new comic… a dream idea revolving around a boy we might call Dick. Dick, or his equivalent, would go in his dream with Mad Anthony Wayne at the storming of Stony Point or with Decatur at Tripoli… provide a constant character… who would become known to the kids."Hearst to Greene: "The dream idea for the American history series is splendid.
It gives continuity and personal interest, you can make more than one page of each series… You are right about the importance of the artist."Greene to Hearst: "We employed the dream device, building the comic around a small boy."Hearst: "I think the drawing of Dick and His Dad is amazingly good. It is splendid. I am afraid, that similar beginning and conclusion of each page might give a deadly sameness to the series… Perhaps we could get the dream idea over by having only the conclusion on each page. I mean, do not show the boy going to sleep every time and show him waking up, but let the waking up come as a termination to each page… Can you develop anything out of the idea of having Dick the son of the keeper of the Liberty Statue in New York Harbor? I do not suggest this, as it would add further complications, but it might give a spiritual tie to all the dreams; the main thing, however, is to get more realism." Greene: "We do not have to show the dream at the beginning and end of every page… If we call the comic something like Dreamer Dick, we would have more freedom… Some device other than the dream might be used… A simple method would be to have him curl up with a history book."Hearst: "If we find is not a success, of course we can brief it, but if it is a success it should be a long series."Greene: "I am sending you two sample pages of Dick's Adventures in Dreamland which start a series about Christopher Columbus."Hearst: "In January, I am told, we are going to 16 pages on Puck, the Comic Weekly.
That would be a good time to introduce the Columbus series, don't you think so?"The last strips Hearst selected for syndication were Elliot Caplin & John Cullen Murphy's Big Ben Bolt and Mort Walker's Beetle Bailey. In the 1940s, Ward Greene was King Features' editor, he was a reporter and war correspondent for the Atlanta Jour
New York Comic Con
The New York Comic Con is an annual New York City fan convention dedicated to Western comics, graphic novels, manga, video games, toys and television. It was first held in 2006; the New York Comic Con is a for-profit event produced and managed by ReedPOP, a division of Reed Exhibitions and Reed Elsevier, is not affiliated with the long running non-profit San Diego Comic-Con, nor the Big Apple Convention known as the Big Apple Comic-Con, owned by Wizard Entertainment. ReedPOP is involved with other events, including Chicago Comic & Entertainment Expo and PAX Dev/PAX East/PAX Prime. ReedPop and New York Comic Con were founded by Greg Topalian, former senior vice president of Reed Exhibitions; the first con was held in 2006 at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center. Due to Reed Exhibitions' lack of experience with comic conventions, attendance was far more than anticipated, the main exhibition hall could only hold 10,000. Despite crowding on Friday afternoon, tickets continued to be sold due to low pre-reg numbers, the non-counting of professionals and exhibitors.
The main exhibition hall hit capacity Saturday morning and was locked by the fire marshals until people left, with the lockdown ending in the afternoon. Major guests, including Kevin Smith and Frank Miller, could not enter the main hall; the line to enter the convention wrapped around the building with waits of two hours to enter, many were turned away. Ticket sales for Sunday were suspended. Reed announced; the second con was held in 2007, with the convention organizer booking double the floor space than the previous year's space, moving to the upper level of the Javits Center. The show on Friday was again only open to industry and press until 4 p.m. when it opened to the public. Due to better planning, advance ticket sales were controlled, the convention sold out for Saturday. Lines started forming at midnight Saturday to enter the convention, by Saturday morning, there was a 2-hour wait in 20 degree temperatures to enter. Crowding was a problem in the Artists Alley, off the main convention floor, causing it to be moved to the main floor for 2008.
The American Anime Awards, hosted by New York Comic Con, was held on February 24 at the New Yorker Hotel, during the Comic Con. The third con held in 2008 moved to April, continued to grow, occupied most of the main level in the Javits Center. Stan Lee was awarded the inaugural New York Comics Legend Award at the Times Square Virgin Megastore before the Comic Con. Kids' Day programming was added to the convention on Sunday with the help of Kids's Comic Con; the fourth con held in 2009 returned to February and featured a charity art auction to support The Hero Initiative. Due to scheduling conflicts with the Javits Center for spring dates and the creation of the Chicago Comic & Entertainment Expo by Reed, New York Comic Con was moved to October for Halloween starting in 2010; the New York Anime Festival a separate event created by Reed, was merged into Comic Con. Registration for the combined events was 190 percent ahead of 2009's numbers, convention space was increased by an additional 40 percent, the anime festival was moved to the lower level of the Javits.
The main floor of the convention center was split by a large construction area due to repairs to the Javits Center. Intel Extreme Masters Global Challenge – New York took place in Comic Con 2011, it featured eSport tournaments for games such as StarCraft II, League of Legends, Counter-Strike. In 2011, the convention was expanded to four days; the first day of the convention was limited to press and fans that purchased a four-day pass. This changed in 2013. With this addition, attendance at New York Comic Con grew to over 130,000, which placed the attendance of the convention on par with San Diego Comic-Con for the first time ever. In 2014, NYCC's attendance reached 151,000, surpassing SDCC to become the largest comic book convention in North America. In 2016, it was announced that everyone attending NYCC 2016 would be required to complete a "Fan Verification" profile; the event organizers explained that this step was implemented in an attempt to reduce the amount of scalpers and resellers who purchase tickets.
Fan Verification would only be open from May 20 - June 14, tickets purchased could only be assigned to someone with a profile. It was announced that NYCC would no longer be selling VIP tickets, that show tickets would not be sold at any retailers or events leading up to NYCC 2016. In 2017, the sale of 3-day and 4-day passes to the event were discontinued. Only single day Thursday, Saturday and Sunday kids tickets would be sold for the event. In 2018, the event organizers announced a partnership with Anime Expo for show called Anime Fest @ NYCC X Anime Expo; the four-day event would be held at Pier 94 in New York City, concurrent with the NYCC convention dates. The New York Anime Festival was an anime and manga convention held annually from 2007 to 2011 at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center on the West Side of Manhattan in New York City. Produced by Reed Exhibitions, the people behind New York Comic Con, the inaugural event was held from December 7 through December 9, 2007. Starting in 2010 the New York Anime Festival has been held with the New York Comic Con, bringing the two cultures together.
In 2012, the New York Anime festival was absorbed into Comic Con. The Eastern Championships of Cosplay have been held at New York Comic Con since 2014. They
Lithography is a method of printing based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a metal plate with a smooth surface, it was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print artwork onto paper or other suitable material. Lithography used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate; the stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, etching the portions of the stone that were not protected by the grease-based image. When the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water; the ink would be transferred to a blank paper sheet, producing a printed page. This traditional technique is still used in some fine art printmaking applications. In modern lithography, the image is made of a polymer coating applied to a flexible plastic or metal plate; the image can be printed directly from the plate, or it can be offset, by transferring the image onto a flexible sheet for printing and publication.
As a printing technology, lithography is different from intaglio printing, wherein a plate is either engraved, etched, or stippled to score cavities to contain the printing ink. Today, most types of high-volume books and magazines when illustrated in colour, are printed with offset lithography, which has become the most common form of printing technology since the 1960s; the related term "photolithography" refers to when photographic images are used in lithographic printing, whether these images are printed directly from a stone or from a metal plate, as in offset printing. "Photolithography" is used synonymously with "offset printing". The technique as well as the term were introduced in Europe in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the fabrication and mass production of integrated circuits in the microelectronics industry. Lithography uses simple chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the positive part of an image is a water-repelling substance, while the negative image would be water-retaining.
Thus, when the plate is introduced to a compatible printing ink and water mixture, the ink will adhere to the positive image and the water will clean the negative image. This allows a flat print plate to be used, enabling much longer and more detailed print runs than the older physical methods of printing. Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1796. In the early days of lithography, a smooth piece of limestone was used. After the oil-based image was put on the surface, a solution of gum arabic in water was applied, the gum sticking only to the non-oily surface. During printing, water adhered to the gum arabic surfaces and was repelled by the oily parts, while the oily ink used for printing did the opposite. Lithography works because of the mutual repulsion of water; the image is drawn on the surface of the print plate with a fat or oil-based medium such as a wax crayon, which may be pigmented to make the drawing visible. A wide range of oil-based media is available, but the durability of the image on the stone depends on the lipid content of the material being used, its ability to withstand water and acid.
After the drawing of the image, an aqueous solution of gum arabic, weakly acidified with nitric acid HNO3 is applied to the stone. The function of this solution is to create a hydrophilic layer of calcium nitrate salt, Ca2, gum arabic on all non-image surfaces; the gum solution penetrates into the pores of the stone surrounding the original image with a hydrophilic layer that will not accept the printing ink. Using lithographic turpentine, the printer removes any excess of the greasy drawing material, but a hydrophobic molecular film of it remains bonded to the surface of the stone, rejecting the gum arabic and water, but ready to accept the oily ink; when printing, the stone is kept wet with water. The water is attracted to the layer of gum and salt created by the acid wash. Printing ink based on drying oils such as linseed oil and varnish loaded with pigment is rolled over the surface; the water repels the greasy ink but the hydrophobic areas left by the original drawing material accept it.
When the hydrophobic image is loaded with ink, the stone and paper are run through a press that applies pressure over the surface, transferring the ink to the paper and off the stone. Senefelder had experimented during the early 19th century with multicolor lithography. Multi-color printing was introduced by a new process developed by Godefroy Engelmann in 1837 known as chromolithography. A separate stone was used for each color, a print went through the press separately for each stone; the main challenge was to keep the images aligned. This method lent itself to images consisting of large areas of flat color, resulted in the characteristic poster designs of this period. "Lithography, or printing from soft stone took the place of engraving in the production of English
Metropolitan Community College (Missouri)
Metropolitan Community College is a community college system in Missouri, United States. The system consists of five separate campuses located in Kansas City and Lee's Summit; the campuses have a total enrollment of over 21,000 students per semester. MCC is the oldest public college in greater Kansas City, having been established in 1915 as Kansas City Polytechnic Institute with is campus at 11th Street and Locust offering a junior college, a teacher training school, a high school, a mechanic arts school, a trade school, a business training school; the school website says it was one of the first schools in the country to issue a two-year associate degree it was the third school in the country to be accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools in 1918. It changed its name to Junior College of Kansas City in 1919. In 1964 the suburban schools of Belton, Grandview, Hickman Mills, Lee's Summit, North Kansas City and Raytown joined the Kansas City school district to form the Metropolitan Community College District and took over management of the school from the Kansas City School District to form the College Board of Trustees.
The Blue Springs, Park Hill and Fort Osage school districts joined the network in the 1980s and 1990s. The Longview, Maple Woods, Penn Valley campuses were formed in 1969; the Blue River campus opened in 1997 and the Business & Technology campus opened in 2002 with entire institution formally being called Metropolitan Community College in 2005. Prior to the consolidation of the Metropolitan name the campuses had their own local name. MCC-Blue River campus is located in Missouri; the college joined the MCC system in 1997. As of 2010, the campus serves over 3,500 students per semester. In addition to a host of general education programs, MCC-Blue River is home to stellar music and theatre programs; the Metropolitan Chorale of Kansas City performs both locally and nationally throughout the year. Blue River's Public Safety Institute includes firefighter and EMT-paramedic training. Campus sports consists of a women's soccer team - the Trailblazers. MCC-Business & Technology is located in Missouri, it was formed in 1995 as the Business & Technology Center when MCC centralized its business services and technical training into one facility.
The center expanded and became a full-fledged campus in 2002. Certificate and degree programs are offered in computer networking, engineering technology, drafting & design technology, environmental health & safety, precision machining, welding technology, industrial technologies and heating, cooling & refrigeration; the electric utility line technician program, which began in 2007, is the only training program of its kind in the region. In fall 2010 1,000 students attended classes at this location. MCC-Longview is located in Missouri, it opened in 1969. In 2001, Longview was selected as a TIME magazine/The Princeton Review "College of the Year". Frank White is the school's most notable alumnus, its baseball team won the 2007 NJCAA Division II Baseball Championship. By 2016 the campus was serving nearly 3,000 students. MCC-Maple Woods was founded in 1969. Located in northern Kansas City, the campus is known for its liberal arts offerings and its veterinary technology program; this northernmost MCC campus serves around 5,400 students every year.
In 2007, the school mascot was changed from the Centaurs to the Monarchs, in recognition of the Kansas City Negro League baseball team of the same name. Maple Woods sports teams include women's soccer. Albert Pujols played baseball for Maple Woods before being drafted by the St. Louis Cardinals in 1999. MCC-Penn Valley, in Penn Valley Park, was founded in 1969. Located in midtown Kansas City, the campus features general education courses as well as many health career programs; the campus is home to the Francis Child Development Institute and the Carter Arts Center. Around 6,000 students attend Penn Valley every fall, its basketball team, the Scouts, won the 1996 NJCAA Men's Division II Basketball Championship and was runner-up in 1997 and 2002. In 1991, Penn Valley hosted the seventh Science Olympiad National Tournament, won by Grandville Junior High School from Michigan and La Jolla High School from California. MCC Institute for Workforce Innovation - Since 1985, MCC has worked with local companies to provide training, recruitment and other professional services, contracting with employers such as Harley-Davidson, Ford, GM, Smith Electric Vehicles.
Services expanded to include database management, quality control, human resource services and contract training, including OSHA and safety management. In 2009, MCC combined its workforce development efforts with economic development, resource development, community development to create the MCC Institute for Workforce Innovation. IWI targets incumbent and displaced workers and disadvantaged populations such as minorities and rural residents, providing short-term career training, job placement and basic skills development for over 4,000 students a year. IWI contracts with over 80 companies in the region, for two years in a row, has been ranked in the Kansas City Business Journal's Top 25 Area Consulting Firms. Edward F. Arn, Kansas governor William M. Boyle, Democratic National Committee chairman George H. Clay, president of Kansas City Federal Reserve
El Dorado, Kansas
El Dorado is city and county seat of Butler County, United States. It is situated along the Walnut River in the central part of Butler County and located in south-central Kansas; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 13,021. El Dorado was laid out and platted in 1868; the name is of Spanish origin meaning "golden land". El Dorado was incorporated in 1870. In 1877, the Florence, El Dorado, Walnut Valley Railroad Company built a branch line from Florence to El Dorado; the line was leased and operated by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway. The line from Florence to El Dorado was abandoned in 1942; the original branch line connected Florence, Burns, De Graff, El Dorado, Douglass, Akron and Arkansas City. In 1915, the El Dorado Oil Field was the first oil field, found using science/geologic mapping, part of the Mid-Continent oil province. By 1918, the El Dorado Oil Field was the largest single field producer in the USA, was responsible for 12.8% of national oil production and 9% of the world production.
It was deemed by some as "the oil field that won World War I". In 1943, German and Italian prisoners of World War II were brought to Kansas and other Midwest states as a means of solving the labor shortage caused by American men serving in the war effort. Large internment camps were established in Kansas: Camp Funston, Camp Phillips. Fort Riley established 12 smaller branch camps, including El Dorado. Prisoners volunteered to help work on local farms. In some cases, smaller structures constructed by the work details still stand. On June 10, 1958, a tornado killed 13 people. In 2008, the city built a memorial at Graham Park in remembrance of the dead. El Dorado is located at 37°49′16″N 96°51′30″W; the city is situated along the western bank of southwest of El Dorado Lake. It is located 30 miles east-northeast of Wichita at the junction of U. S. Routes 54 and 77 and K-254; the Kansas Turnpike, designated as Interstate 35, bypasses northwest of the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.92 square miles, of which 8.86 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, El Dorado has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. El Dorado is part of the Wichita Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the census of 2010, there were 13,021 people, 5,227 households, 3,277 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,469.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,797 housing units at an average density of 654.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.8% White, 2.3% African American, 1.1% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.7% of the population. There were 5,227 households of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.8% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.3% were non-families.
31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age in the city was 34 years. 24.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.2% male and 51.8% female. As of the U. S. Census in 2000, there were 12,057 people, 5,068 households, 3,182 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,894.1 people per square mile. There were 5,460 housing units at an average density of 857.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.32% White, 1.37% Black or African American, 1.07% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.06% from other races, 1.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.93% of the population. There were 5,068 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.2% were non-families.
31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 17.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,098, the median income for a family was $40,461. Males had a median income of $31,648 versus $21,806 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,458. About 10.4% of families and 13.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.7% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. The El Dorado Refinery is owned and operated by HollyFrontier, is situated on the southwest edge of El Dorado, it was constructed and owned by what would become Skelly