Boat building is the design and construction of boats and their systems. This includes at a minimum a hull, with propulsion, navigation and other systems as a craft requires. Wood is the traditional boat building material used for spar construction, it is buoyant available and worked. It is a popular material for small boats, its abrasion resistance varies according to the hardness and density of the wood and it can deteriorate if fresh water or marine organisms are allowed to penetrate the wood. Woods such as Teak and some cedars have natural chemicals which prevent rot whereas other woods, such as Pinus radiata, will rot quickly; the hull of a wooden boat consists of planking fastened to frames and a keel. Keel and frames are traditionally made of hardwoods such as oak while planking can be oak but is more softwood such as pine, larch or cedar. Plywood is popular for amateur construction but only marine ply using waterproof glues and laminates should be used. Cheap construction plywood has voids in the interior layers and is not suitable to boat building as the voids trap moisture and accelerate rot as well as physically weaken the plywood.
No plywood should be coated with epoxy resin and/or a good paint system. Varnish and Linseed oil should not be used on the exterior of a hull for waterproofing. Varnish has about 60% of the water resistance of a good paint system. Only boiled linseed oil should be used on a boat and only in the interior as it has little water resistance but it is easy to apply and has a pleasant smell. Note that used linseed rags should not be left in a pile as they can catch fire. A valuable 200-year-old waka caught fire in New Zealand in June 2014 when restorers left rags piled overnight. Raw linseed oil is not suited to boats as it stays oily for a long time. Mildew will grow well on raw linseed oil treated timber but not on boiled linseed oil. More introduced tropical woods as mahogany, okoumé, Keruing, azobé and merbau. are used. With tropical species, extra attention needs to be taken to ensure that the wood is indeed FSC-certified. Teak or iroko is used to create the deck and any superstructure. Glue, rivets and/or nails are used to join the wooden components.
Before teak is glued the natural oil must be wiped off with a chemical cleaner, otherwise the joint will fail. Some types of wood construction include: Carvel, in which a smooth hull is formed by edge joined planks attached to a frame; the planks may be curved in cross section like barrel staves. Carvel planks are caulked with oakum or cotton, driven into the seams between the planks and covered with some waterproof substance, it is believed to have originated in the Mediterranean. A number of boat building texts are available. Clinker is a technique identified with the Scandinavians and Ingveonic people in which wooden planks are fixed to each other with a slight overlap, beveled for a tight fit; the planks may be mechanically connected to each other with copper rivets, bent over iron nails, screws or in modern boats with adhesives. Steam bent wooden ribs are fitted inside the hull. Strip planking is yet another type of wooden boat construction similar to carvel, it is a glued construction method, popular with amateur boatbuilders as it is quick, avoids complex temporary jig work and does not require shaping of the planks.
Sheet plywood boat building uses sheets of plywood panels fixed to longitudinal long wood such the chines, inwhales or intermediate stringers which are all bent around a series of frames. By attaching the ply sheets to the longwood rather than directly to the frames this avoids hard spots or an unfair hull. Plywood may be used in single sheets; these hulls have one or more chines and the method is called Ply on Frame construction. A subdivision of the sheet plywood boat building method is known as the stitch-and-glue method, where pre-shaped panels of plywood are drawn together edge glued and reinforced with fibreglass without the use of a frame. Metal or plastic ties, nylon fishing line or copper wires pull curved flat panels into three-dimensional curved shapes; these hulls have one or more chines. Marine grade plywood of good quality is designated "WBP" or more BS 1088. Australian plywood manufacturers and suppliers have issued warnings that some Asian nations are selling ply stamped BS 1088 which does not meet international standards.
They say outer plies are too thin or are thin or high-grade surface ply such as Okoume is combined with a much heavier and wider inner cores. Most high-grade marine Okoume ply uses lightweight poplar inner cores; the 1088 stamp is blurred in the poor Asian ply so it is not clear. In Australia and New Zealand a higher-grade marine ply than BS1088 is AS2272, it requires. The most common plywood used for this grade is plantation-grown Hoop Pine, fine grained smooth, moderately light. Hoop pine has a high stress rating of F17, indicating high strength. Meranti ply has a stress rating of F14 and Okoume ply F8. Okoume ply is coated with epoxy to increase strength and impact resistance as well as to exclude water. B
Giza pyramid complex
The Giza pyramid complex called the Giza Necropolis, is an archaeological site on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. Consisting of a necropolis or mortuary complex of the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, it includes the three Great Pyramids, the Great Sphinx, several cemeteries, a workers' village and an industrial complex, it is located in the Western Desert 9 km west of the Nile river at the old town of Giza, about 13 km southwest of Cairo city centre. The pyramids of the complex have been common as emblems of ancient Egypt in the Western imagination, were popularised in Hellenistic times, when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World, it is by far the oldest of the only one still in existence. The Pyramids of Giza consist of the Great Pyramid of Giza, the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre a few hundred meters to the south-west, the modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure a few hundred meters farther south-west.
The Great Sphinx lies on the east side of the complex. Current consensus among Egyptologists is. Along with these major monuments are a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids and valley pyramids. Khufu’s pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, now buried beneath the village of Nazlet el-Samman; the valley temple was connected to a causeway, destroyed when the village was constructed. The causeway led to the Mortuary Temple of Khufu. From this temple the basalt pavement is the only thing; the mortuary temple was connected to the king's pyramid. The king's pyramid has three smaller queen's pyramids associated with five boat pits; the boat pits contained a ship, the 2 pits on the south side of the pyramid still contained intact ships. One of these ships is on display. Khufu's pyramid still has a limited collection of casing stones at its base; these casing stones were made of fine white limestone quarried from the nearby range. Khafre's pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, the Sphinx temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple and the king's pyramid.
The valley temple yielded several statues of Khafre. Several were found in a well in the floor of the temple by Mariette in 1860. Others were found during successive excavations by Sieglin, Junker and Hassan. Khafre's complex contained a subsidiary pyramid with a serdab. Khafre's pyramid appears larger than the adjacent Khufu Pyramid by virtue of its more elevated location, the steeper angle of inclination of its construction—it is, in fact, smaller in both height and volume. Khafre's pyramid retains a prominent display of casing stones at its apex. Menkaure's pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple, the king's pyramid; the valley temple once contained several statues of Menkaure. During the 5th dynasty, a smaller ante-temple was added on to the valley temple; the mortuary temple yielded several statues of Menkaure. The king's pyramid has queen's pyramids. Of the four major monuments, only Menkaure's pyramid is seen today without any of its original polished limestone casing.
The Sphinx dates from the reign of king Khafre. During the New Kingdom, Amenhotep II dedicated a new temple to Hauron-Haremakhet and this structure was added onto by rulers. Khentkaus I was buried in Giza, her tomb is known as LG 100 and G 8400 and is located in the Central Field, near the valley temple of Menkaure. The pyramid complex of Queen Khentkaus includes: her pyramid, a boat pit, a valley temple and a pyramid town. Most construction theories are based on the idea that the pyramids were built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place; the disagreements center on the method by which the stones were conveyed and placed and how possible the method was. In building the pyramids, the architects might have developed their techniques over time, they would select a site on a flat area of bedrock—not sand—which provided a stable foundation. After surveying the site and laying down the first level of stones, they constructed the pyramids in horizontal levels, one on top of the other.
For the Great Pyramid of Giza, most of the stone for the interior seems to have been quarried to the south of the construction site. The smooth exterior of the pyramid was made of a fine grade of white limestone, quarried across the Nile; these exterior blocks had to be cut, transported by river barge to Giza, dragged up ramps to the construction site. Only a few exterior blocks remain in place at the bottom of the Great Pyramid. During the Middle Ages, people may have taken the rest away for building projects in the city of Cairo. To ensure that the pyramid remained symmetrical, the exterior casing stones all had to be equal in height and width. Workers might have marked all the blocks to indicate the angle of the pyramid wall and trimmed the surfaces so that the blocks fit together. During construction, the outer surface of the stone was smooth limestone; the pyramids of Giza and others are thought to have been constructed to house the remains of the deceased Pharaohs who ruled over Ancient Egypt.
A portion of the Pharaoh's spirit called. Proper care of the remains was nec
Linear Pottery culture
The Linear Pottery culture is a major archaeological horizon of the European Neolithic, flourishing c. 5500–4500 BC. It is abbreviated as LBK, is known as the Linear Band Ware, Linear Ware, Linear Ceramics or Incised Ware culture, falls within the Danubian I culture of V. Gordon Childe; the densest evidence for the culture is on the middle Danube, the upper and middle Elbe, the upper and middle Rhine. It represents a major event in the initial spread of agriculture in Europe; the pottery after which it was named consists of simple cups, bowls and jugs, without handles, but in a phase with lugs or pierced lugs and necks. Important sites include Nitra in Slovakia. Two variants of the early Linear Pottery culture are recognized: The Early or Western Linear Pottery Culture developed on the middle Danube, including western Hungary, was carried down the Rhine, Elbe and Vistula; the Eastern Linear Pottery Culture flourished in eastern Hungary. Middle and late phases are defined. In the middle phase, the Early Linear Pottery culture intruded upon the Bug-Dniester culture and began to manufacture musical note pottery.
In the late phase, the Stroked Pottery culture moved down the Elbe. A number of cultures replaced the Linear Pottery culture over its range, but without a one-to-one correspondence between its variants and the replacing cultures; the culture map, instead, is complex. Some of the successor cultures are the Hinkelstein, Großgartach, Rössen, Cucuteni-Trypillian, Boian-Maritza cultures; the term "Linear Band Ware" derives from the pottery's decorative technique. The "Band Ware" or Bandkeramik part of it began as an innovation of the German archaeologist, Friedrich Klopfleisch; the earliest accepted name in English was the Danubian of V. Gordon Childe. Most names in English are attempts to translate Linearbandkeramik. Since Starčevo-Körös pottery was earlier than the LBK and was located in a contiguous food-producing region, the early investigators looked for precedents there. Much of the Starčevo-Körös pottery features decorative patterns composed of convolute bands of paint: spirals, converging bands, vertical bands, so on.
The LBK appears to imitate and improve these convolutions with incised lines. The LBK only reached it toward the end of its time, it began in regions of densest occupation on the middle Danube and spread over about 1,500 km along the rivers in 360 years. The rate of expansion was therefore about 4 km per year, which can hardly be called an invasion or a wave by the standard of current events, but over archaeological time seems rapid; the LBK was concentrated somewhat inland from the coastal areas. The northern coastal regions remained occupied by Mesolithic cultures exploiting the fabulously rich Atlantic salmon runs. There are lighter concentrations of LBK in the Netherlands, such as at Elsloo, with the sites of Darion, Fexhe, or Waremme-Longchamps and at the mouths of the Oder and Vistula. Evidently, the Neolithics and Mesolithics were not excluding each other; the LBK at maximum extent ranged from about the line of the Seine–Oise eastward to the line of the Dnieper, southward to the line of the upper Danube down to the big bend.
An extension ran through the Southern Bug valley, leaped to the valley of the Dniester, swerved southward from the middle Dniester to the lower Danube in eastern Romania, east of the Carpathians. A good many C-14 dates have been acquired on the LBK, making possible statistical analyses, which have been performed on different sample groups. One such analysis by Stadler and Lennais sets 68.2% confidence limits at about 5430–5040 BC. The 95.4% confidence interval is 5600–4750 BC. Data continue to be acquired and therefore any one analysis should be taken as a rough guideline only. Overall, it is safe to say that the Linear Pottery culture spanned several hundred years of continental European prehistory in the late sixth and early fifth millennia BC, with local variations. Data from Belgium indicate a late survival of LBK there, as late as 4100 BC; the Linear Pottery culture is not the only food-producing player on the stage of prehistoric Europe. It has been necessary, therefore, to distinguish between it and the Neolithic, most done by dividing the Neolithic of Europe into chronological phases.
These have varied a great deal. An approximation is: Early Neolithic, 6000–5500; the first appearance of food-producing cultures in the south of the future Linear Pottery culture range: the Körös of southern Hungary and the Bug-Dniester culture in Ukraine. Middle Neolithic, 5500–5000. Early and Middle Linear Pottery culture. Late Neolithic, 5000–4500. Late Linear Pottery and legacy cultures; the last phase is no longer the end of the Neolithic. A "Final Neolithic" has been added to the transition between the Bronze Age. All numbers depend to some extent on the geographic region; the pottery styles of the LBK allow some division of its window in time. Conceptual schemes have varied somewhat. One is: Early: The
A tie, tie rod, guy-wire, suspension cables, or wire ropes, are examples of linear structural components designed to resist tension. It is the opposite of a strut or column, designed to resist compression. Ties may be made of any tension resisting material. In wood frame construction they are made of galvanized steel. Wood framing ties have holes allowing them to be fastened to the wood structure by nails or screws; the number and type of nails are specific to its use. The manufacturer specifies information as to the connection method for each of their products. Among the most common wood framing ties used is the hurricane tie or seismic tie used in the framing of wooden structures where wind uplift or seismic overturning is a concern. A hurricane tie is used to help make a structure more resistant to high winds, resisting uplift, racking and sliding; each of the crucial connections in a structure, that would otherwise fail under the pressures of high winds, have a corresponding type of tie made of galvanized or stainless steel, intended to resist hurricane-force and other strong winds.
A connecting tie that provides a continuous structural load transfer path from the top of a building to its foundation, helping to protect buildings from damage resulting from high wind. These devices are used in areas affected by high winds including hurricanes and are suitable for any area that may be impacted by windstorm damage, they are known as hurricane clip or strips. Among the most common style used along the gulf coast area are plywood fasteners or oriented strand boards over the windows and openings of brick homes. Hurricane clips meet the minimum requirements for code approval and are only as strong as their weakest install point. A hurricane clip has two meanings in building construction: A connecting tie that provides a continuous structural load transfer path from the top of a building to its foundation, helping to protect buildings from damage resulting from high wind; these devices are used in areas affected by high winds including hurricanes and are suitable for any area that may be impacted by windstorm damage.
They are known as hurricane ties or strips. These devices are known as wind clips and hurricane side clips Seismic tie provides facility to securely fix cabinets, desks, machinery & equipment to walls and/or floors to constrain their movement during earthquakes. Top mount, face mount, sloped/skewed, variable pitch hangers for dimensional lumber, engineered wood I-joists, structural composite lumber and masonry wall. To give added strength in increase various load requirements over wood only; when building subfloor the joists must always bear on the ledge for all it support. The use of steel stap tie to connect opposite joist when the top of beam are flush. Twist straps provide a tension connection between two wood members, they resist uplift at the heel of a truss economically. When the strengthening is being done from the inside, the ideal connector to use is one that connects rafters or trusses directly to wall studs; this can only be done where the rafter or trusses are above or to the side of studs below.
In that case a twist strap connector can be used. A connector for connecting wall studs of two adjacent floors in a light frame building structure, the connector having a first attachment tab, a seat member, a diagonally slanted support leg, a second attachment tab, all planar; the connector is intended to be paired and the paired connectors joined by an elongated tie member that pierces the sill plates of the intervening floor structure. Sometimes referred to as an angle brace; the Angle tie is used to prevent displacement of building elements due to thrust. A brace/tie across an interior angle of a wooden frame, forming the hypotenuse and securing the two side pieces together. Similar to a French cleat, a Z-Clip allows for the installation of wall panels without screwing into the front of the panels; the clips provide a secure mount for wall panels, frames and more. Once installed, clips wedge together to lock panels in place. To disengage panels lift and remove. See Rafter ties are designed to tie together the bottoms of opposing rafters on a roof, to resist the outward thrust where the roof meets the house ceiling and walls.
This helps keep walls from spreading due to the weight of the roof and anything on it, notably wet snow. In many or most homes, the ceiling joists serve as the rafter ties; when the walls spread, the roof ridge will sag. A sagging ridge is one clue. Rafter ties form the bottom chord of a simple triangular roof truss, they resist the out-thrust of a triangle that's trying to flatten under the roof's own weight or snow load. They are placed in the bottom one-third of the roof height. Rafter ties are always required unless the roof has a structural ridge, or is built using engineered trusses. A lack of rafter ties is a serious structural issue in a conventionally framed roof. A wooden beam serving this purpose is known as a tie-beam and a roof incorporating tie-beams is known as a tie-beam roof. Framing Timber framing List of structural elements Tie rod
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 581,980 inhabitants as of 2017, it is Germany's tenth most populous city. Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster, Pleiße and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig has been a trade city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire; the city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and the Via Imperii, two important medieval trade routes. Leipzig was once one of the major European centers of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing. Leipzig became a major urban center within the German Democratic Republic after the Second World War, but its cultural and economic importance declined. Events in Leipzig in 1989 played a significant role in precipitating the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe through demonstrations starting from St. Nicholas Church. Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, the development of a modern transport infrastructure.
Leipzig today is an economic centre, the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution and has the second-best future prospects of all cities in Germany, according to HWWI and Berenberg Bank. Leipzig Zoo is one of the most modern zoos in Europe and ranks first in Germany and second in Europe according to Anthony Sheridan. Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centrepiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system. Leipzig is listed as a Gamma World City, Germany's "Boomtown" and as the European City of the Year 2019. Leipzig has long been a major center for music, both classical as well as modern "dark alternative music" or darkwave genres; the Oper Leipzig is one of the most prominent opera houses in Germany. It was founded in 1693, making it the third oldest opera venue in Europe after La Fenice and the Hamburg State Opera. Leipzig is home to the University of Music and Theatre "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy", it was during a stay in this city that Friedrich Schiller wrote his poem "Ode to Joy".
The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, established in 1743, is one of the oldest symphony orchestras in the world. Johann Sebastian Bach is one among many major composers who lived in Leipzig; the name Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means "settlement where the linden trees stand". An older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic; the Latin name Lipsia was used. The name is cognate with Lipetsk in Liepāja in Latvia. In 1937 the Nazi government renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig. Since 1989 Leipzig has been informally dubbed "Hero City", in recognition of the role that the Monday demonstrations there played in the fall of the East German regime – the name alludes to the honorary title awarded in the former Soviet Union to certain cities that played a key role in the victory of the Allies during the Second World War; the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt.de.
More the city has sometimes been nicknamed the "Boomtown of eastern Germany", "Hypezig" or "The better Berlin" for being celebrated by the media as a hip urban centre for the vital lifestyle and creative scene with many startups. Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city and market privileges in 1165 by Otto the Rich. Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, has become an event of international importance and is the oldest surviving trade fair in the world. There are records of commercial fishing operations on the river Pleiße in Leipzig dating back to 1305, when the Margrave Dietrich the Younger granted the fishing rights to the church and convent of St Thomas. There were a number of monasteries in and around the city, including a Franciscan monastery after which the Barfußgäßchen is named and a monastery of Irish monks near the present day Ranstädter Steinweg; the foundation of the University of Leipzig in 1409 initiated the city's development into a centre of German law and the publishing industry, towards being the location of the Reichsgericht and the German National Library.
During the Thirty Years' War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig city walls. The first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642. Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side. On 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced; the city employed light guards who had to follow a specific schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns. The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and an allied coalition of Prussia, Russia and Sweden, it was the largest battle in Europe before the First World War and the coalition victory ended Napoleon's presence in Germany and would lead to his first exile on Elba. The Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed in 1913. In addition to stimulating German nationalism, the war had a major impact in mobilizing a civic spirit in numerous volunteer activities. Many volunteer militi
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West. It was central to cultural interaction between the regions for many centuries; the Silk Road refers to the terrestrial routes connecting East Asia and Southeast Asia with East Africa, West Asia and Southern Europe. The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning in the Han dynasty; the Han dynasty expanded the Central Asian section of the trade routes around 114 BCE through the missions and explorations of the Chinese imperial envoy Zhang Qian. The Chinese took great interest in the safety of their trade products and extended the Great Wall of China to ensure the protection of the trade route. Trade on the Road played a significant role in the development of the civilizations of China, Japan, the Indian subcontinent, Iran/Persia, the Horn of Africa and Arabia, opening long-distance political and economic relations between the civilizations. Though silk was the major trade item exported from China, many other goods were traded, as well as religions, syncretic philosophies and technologies.
Diseases, most notably plague spread along the Silk Road. In addition to economic trade, the Silk Road was a route for cultural trade among the civilizations along its network. In June 2014, UNESCO designated the Chang'an-Tianshan corridor of the Silk Road as a World Heritage Site; the Indian portion is on the tentative site list. The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative Asian silk, a major reason for the connection of trade routes into an extensive transcontinental network; the German terms Seidenstraße and Seidenstraßen were coined by Ferdinand von Richthofen, who made seven expeditions to China from 1868 to 1872. The term Silk Route is used. Although the term was coined in the 19th century, it did not gain widespread acceptance in academia or popularity among the public until the 20th century; the first book entitled The Silk Road was by Swedish geographer Sven Hedin in 1938. Use of the term'Silk Road' is not without its detractors. For instance, Warwick Ball contends that the maritime spice trade with India and Arabia was far more consequential for the economy of the Roman Empire than the silk trade with China, which at sea was conducted through India and on land was handled by numerous intermediaries such as the Sogdians.
Going as far as to call the whole thing a "myth" of modern academia, Ball argues that there was no coherent overland trade system and no free movement of goods from East Asia to the West until the period of the Mongol Empire. He notes that traditional authors discussing East-West trade such as Marco Polo and Edward Gibbon never labelled any route a "silk" one in particular; the southern stretches of the Silk Road, from Khotan to China, were first used for jade and not silk, as long as 5000 BCE, is still in use for this purpose. The term "Jade Road" would have been more appropriate than "Silk Road" had it not been for the far larger and geographically wider nature of the silk trade. Central Eurasia has been known from ancient times for its horse riding and horse breeding communities, the overland Steppe Route across the northern steppes of Central Eurasia was in use long before that of the Silk Road. Archeological sites such as the Berel burial ground in Kazakhstan, confirmed that the nomadic Arimaspians were not only breeding horses for trade but great craftsmen able to propagate exquisite art pieces along the Silk Road.
From the 2nd millennium BCE, nephrite jade was being traded from mines in the region of Yarkand and Khotan to China. These mines were not far from the lapis lazuli and spinel mines in Badakhshan, although separated by the formidable Pamir Mountains, routes across them were in use from early times; some remnants of what was Chinese silk dating from 1070 BCE have been found in Ancient Egypt. The Great Oasis cities of Central Asia played a crucial role in the effective functioning of the Silk Road trade; the originating source seems sufficiently reliable, but silk degrades rapidly, so it cannot be verified whether it was cultivated silk or a type of wild silk, which might have come from the Mediterranean or Middle East. Following contacts between Metropolitan China and nomadic western border territories in the 8th century BCE, gold was introduced from Central Asia, Chinese jade carvers began to make imitation designs of the steppes, adopting the Scythian-style animal art of the steppes; this style is reflected in the rectangular belt plaques made of gold and bronze, with other versions in jade and steatite.
An elite burial near Stuttgart, dated to the 6th century BCE, was excavated and found to have not only Greek bronzes but Chinese silks. Similar animal-shaped pieces of art and wrestler motifs on belts have been found in Scythian grave sites stretching from the Black Sea region all the way to Warring States era archaeological sites in Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi in China; the expansion of Scythian cultures, stretching from the Hungarian plain and the Carpathian Mountains to the Chinese Kansu Corridor, linking the Middle East with Northern India and the Punjab, undoubtedly played an important role in the development of the Silk Road. Scythians accompanied the Assyrian Esarhaddon on his invasion of Egypt, their distinctive triangular arrowheads have been found as far south as Aswan; these nomadic peoples were dependent upon neighbouring settled populations for a number of important technologies, in addition to raiding vulnerable settlements for these commod
Bush carpentry is an expression used in Australia and New Zealand that refers to improvised methods of building or repair, using available materials and an ad hoc design in a pioneering or rural context. The phrase'bush carpentry' is a familiar Australian usage, but finding an exact description of its practice is rare; the Macquarie Dictionary for example, defines a bush carpenter as a rough amateur carpenter, G. A. Wilkes says he is a rough and ready carpenter; the Macquarie in turn defines rough-and-ready as rough, rude or crude, but good enough for the purpose. Wannan says that a bush carpenter is'a rough, unorthodox artisan indeed', includes a sardonic excerpt from Henry Lawson to exemplify it. In his Bushcraft series Ron Edwards describes hut and furniture building, and'stockcamp architecture', without once using the phrase'bush carpentry', though'rough and ready' recurs. Tocal Agricultural College offers a course in'Traditional bush timber construction'. Cox and Lucas, writing in 1978 of Australian pioneer buildings, remarked: "... because it has been the symbol of hardship and country toil.
There have been few books and articles written on the subject... The vernacular is a fragile architectural form, evolved for expedience and resulting—especially in the case of the more primitive examples—in early decay and disappearance... designed by an amateur, a builder with little training in design and who will be guided by a strict set of conventions developed within his own locality paying some attention to fashion, but local only and not international. Within the vernacular building, function is the dominant factor. A similar and familiar phrase is traditional bush carpentry. Like folk music, bush carpentry exists within an oral and demotic culture, is undocumented; the tradition of Australian inventiveness, has an extensive literature: "... vigorous attitudes to innovation prevailed in the Colonies in the nineteenth century and established for Australia some significant technological leads. Lessons from these attitudes both underline the continuing importance of the'lone inventor' and hold relevance for education and technology policies today."
Henry Lawson, "A Day on a Selection":'The dairy is built of rotten box bark—though there is plenty of good stringy-bark within easy distance—and the structure looks as if it wants to lie down and is only prevented by three crooked props on the leaning side. The milk is set in dishes made of kerosene-tins, cut in halves, which are placed on bark shelves fitted round against the walls; the shelves are not level and the dishes are brought to a comparatively horizontal position by means of chips and bits of bark, inserted under the lower side. The milk is covered by soiled sheets of old newspapers supported on sticks laid across the dishes; this protection is necessary, because the box bark in the roof has crumbled away and left fringed holes—also because the fowls roost up there. Sometimes the paper sags, the cream may have to be scraped off an article on dairy farming.' In Australian parlance,'the bush' includes not only all remote and rural areas, but ways of living there the limitations and hardships endured.
Though remote areas in contemporary Australia are reachable by air and modern communications, there remains a mythology of the tyranny of distance: tyranny over comfort, over civilization itself. The expression bush carpentry includes two criteria of'remoteness'; the first, that the builder is separated from regular methods of construction. The second, separation from regular resources such as milled timber, specialized tools, similar manufactured products; those in both ` remote' circumstances are forced to improvise. They produce a necessary structure or object via unorthodox procedures, it will be serviceable, if inelegant in appearance. Thus, in an Australian suburb today, a self-taught handyman might devise and erect a backyard structure using purchased timber, practising'bush carpentry'—a gazebo, a fernery, a children's playhouse for example—while at the same time, a skilled tradesperson, in a distant run of an outback cattle station, might be forced to use heavy tree-trunks, undressed stone and rusty fencing-wire to construct a stock race.
These two criteria allow the use of manufactured materials—e.g. Milled timber—in an irregular manner, materials other than wood, they exclude the fabrication of large structures like wharves and bridges, built by contracting tradesmen, which incorporate massive tree trunks when a manufactured item, e.g. a steel beam, is available. The Australian Aborigines were the first'bush carpenters'. From the Aborigines, European settlers learned how to strip bark in large sheets from particular tree species, use this for roofs and walls; the skills required are minimal. Bush carpenters may learn from observing the methods, or the evidence of, another person's work, or through their own invention; the scarcity of any reference books with any local applicability is another factor. Ron Edwards asserts; the requisites are'a calm mind, reasonable health, a willingness to learn'