Elmhurst is a city in DuPage County and overlapping into Cook County in the U. S. state of Illinois, a western suburb of Chicago. As of the 2017 census, the city has a population of 46,662. Members of the Potawatomi Native American people, who settled along Salt Creek just south of where the city would develop, are the earliest known settlers of the Elmhurst area. Around 1836, European-American immigrants settled on tracts of land along the same creek. At what would become Elmhurst City Centre, a native of Ohio named Gerry Bates established a community on a tract of "treeless land" in 1842; the following year, Hill Cottage Tavern opened where St. Charles Road and Cottage Hill Avenue presently intersect. In 1845, the community was named Cottage Hill when a post office was established. Four years the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad was given right-of-way through Cottage Hill giving farmers easier access to Chicago; the community changed its name to Elmhurst in 1869. In 1871, Elmhurst College was organized and has 3,500 undergraduates and about 300 graduate students.
Elmhurst was incorporated as a village in 1882, with a population between 723 and 1,050, legal boundaries of St. Charles Road to North Avenue, one half mile west and one quarter mile east of York Street. Elmhurst Memorial Hospital was founded in 1926 as the first hospital in DuPage County; the Memorial Parade has run every Memorial Day since 1918. The annual Elmhurst St. Patrick's Day Parade continues to be the third largest parade of that sort in the Chicago area, following the more famous parades downtown and on the city's South Side. Since 1964, it has been home to Elmhurst CRC, one of the largest congregations of the Christian Reformed Church in North America; the Keebler Company's corporate headquarters was in Elmhurst until 2001, when the Kellogg Company purchased the company. The city is home to the headquarters of McMaster-Carr Supply Co.. Famous Amos cookies are distributed from Elmhurst. In 2014, Family Circle magazine ranked Elmhurst as one of the "Ten Best U. S. Towns for Families". According to the 2010 census, Elmhurst has a total area of 10.306 square miles, of which 10.25 square miles is land and 0.056 square miles is water.
The town has a tendency to flood, the city has tried preventing or suppressing future floods. As of the 2000 census, there were 42,762 people, 15,627 households, 11,235 families residing in the city; the population density was 4,165.9 people per square mile. There were 16,147 housing units at an average density of 1,573.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.40% White, 0.94% African American, 0.06% Native American, 3.67% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.97% from other races, 0.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.02% of the population. There were 15,627 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.0% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.1% were non-families. 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.19. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.4 males. According to a 2016 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $104,854 Males had a median income of $57,193 versus $37,087 for females; the per capita income for the city was $44,601. About 1.9% of families and 2.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.6% of those under age 18 and 3.3% of those age 65 or over. According to Elmhurst's 2017 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: The Theatre Historical Society of America is focused on the preservation of dance and movie theaters and includes a collection of objects from many theaters that are no longer in existence. Among the items on display is a scale model of the 1927 Avalon Theater. Wilder Park Conservatory A 150-foot-deep limestone quarry covering about 59 acres is located half a mile west of downtown along West Avenue and 1st Street.
A tunnel from Salt Creek diverts water into the quarry in case of a flood. The quarry is an important piece of DuPage County's stormwater management system, can hold up to 8,300 acre-feet of stormwater; each spring, the company RGL Marketing for the Arts runs Art in Wilder Park. The event takes place in centrally located Wilder Park, home to the Wilder Mansion, the Elmhurst Public Library, the Wilder Park Conservatory and the Lizzadro Museum of Lapidary Arts; the event "features of a juried show of fine arts and original creations of over 100 artists, including jewelry, ceramics, wood, sculpture and mixed media." The event hosts live music and entertainment and over 40 food vendors. Timeline for Elmhurst's leadership: 1882 - Incorporated as a village in June. 1882 - Henry Glos elected as first village president. 1887 - Peter Wolf elected as village president. 1902 - Edwin Heidemann elected as village president. 1905 - Henry C. Schumacher elected as village president. 1908 - C. J. Albert elected as village president.
1910 - Adopted city form of government. 1910 - Henry C. Schumacher elected as first city mayor. 1912 - F. W. M. Hammerschmidt elected as mayor. 1919 - Otto Balgemann elected as mayor. 1931 - Edward Blatter
An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy is incorporated into plant tissue. By feeding on plants and on one-another, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system, they influence the quantity of plant and microbial biomass present. By breaking down dead organic matter, decomposers release carbon back to the atmosphere and facilitate nutrient cycling by converting nutrients stored in dead biomass back to a form that can be used by plants and other microbes. Ecosystems are controlled by internal factors. External factors such as climate, the parent material which forms the soil and topography, control the overall structure of an ecosystem, but are not themselves influenced by the ecosystem. Ecosystems are dynamic entities—they are subject to periodic disturbances and are in the process of recovering from some past disturbance.
Ecosystems in similar environments that are located in different parts of the world can end up doing things differently because they have different pools of species present. Internal factors not only control ecosystem processes but are controlled by them and are subject to feedback loops. Resource inputs are controlled by external processes like climate and parent material. Resource availability within the ecosystem is controlled by internal factors like decomposition, root competition or shading. Although humans operate within ecosystems, their cumulative effects are large enough to influence external factors like climate. Biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning, as do the processes of disturbance and succession. Ecosystems provide a variety of services upon which people depend; the term ecosystem was first used in 1935 in a publication by British ecologist Arthur Tansley. Tansley devised the concept to draw attention to the importance of transfers of materials between organisms and their environment.
He refined the term, describing it as "The whole system... including not only the organism-complex, but the whole complex of physical factors forming what we call the environment". Tansley regarded ecosystems not as natural units, but as "mental isolates". Tansley defined the spatial extent of ecosystems using the term ecotope. G. Evelyn Hutchinson, a limnologist, a contemporary of Tansley's, combined Charles Elton's ideas about trophic ecology with those of Russian geochemist Vladimir Vernadsky; as a result, he suggested. This would, in turn, limit the abundance of animals. Raymond Lindeman took these ideas further to suggest that the flow of energy through a lake was the primary driver of the ecosystem. Hutchinson's students, brothers Howard T. Odum and Eugene P. Odum, further developed a "systems approach" to the study of ecosystems; this allowed them to study the flow of material through ecological systems. Ecosystems are controlled both by internal factors. External factors called state factors, control the overall structure of an ecosystem and the way things work within it, but are not themselves influenced by the ecosystem.
The most important of these is climate. Climate determines the biome. Rainfall patterns and seasonal temperatures influence photosynthesis and thereby determine the amount of water and energy available to the ecosystem. Parent material determines the nature of the soil in an ecosystem, influences the supply of mineral nutrients. Topography controls ecosystem processes by affecting things like microclimate, soil development and the movement of water through a system. For example, ecosystems can be quite different if situated in a small depression on the landscape, versus one present on an adjacent steep hillside. Other external factors that play an important role in ecosystem functioning include time and potential biota; the set of organisms that can be present in an area can significantly affect ecosystems. Ecosystems in similar environments that are located in different parts of the world can end up doing things differently because they have different pools of species present; the introduction of non-native species can cause substantial shifts in ecosystem function.
Unlike external factors, internal factors in ecosystems not only control ecosystem processes but are controlled by them. They are subject to feedback loops. While the resource inputs are controlled by external processes like climate and parent material, the availability of these resources within the ecosystem is controlled by internal factors like decomposition, root competition or shading. Other factors like disturbance, succession or the types of species present are internal factors. Primary production is the production of organic matter from inorganic carbon sources; this occurs through photosynthesis. The energy incorporated through this process supports life on earth, while the carbon makes up much of the organic matter in living and dead biomass, soil carbon and fossil fuels, it drives the carbon cycle, which influences global climate via the greenhouse effect. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants capture energy from light and use it to combine carbon dioxide and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen.
The photosynthesis carried out by all the plants in an ecosystem is called the gross primary production. About half of the GPP is consumed in plant respiration; the remainder, that portion of GPP, not used up by respirati
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Warrenville is a city in DuPage County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 13,140, estimated to have increased to 13,316 by July 2012, it is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor. Warrenville was founded in 1833 when Julius Warren and his family moved west from New York seeking a fresh start from a failing gristmill and distillery. Daniel Warren, Julius' father, claimed land at what is now McDowell Woods, Julius claimed land at what is now the Warrenville Grove Forest Preserve; the first major establishment, an inn and tavern, was built in 1838 by Julius Warren himself, as the family was skilled in timber and grain. The inn still stands today, was renovated in 2002; the town blossomed with two mills and a plank road connecting it with Naperville and Winfield, on which Julius operated a stagecoach line. The town failed at its bid to have the railroad come through the town. However, in 1902, the Chicago Aurora and Elgin Railroad came through town, which lasted until the late 1950s.
With a population of 4,000, Warrenville was incorporated as a city in 1967, following six unsuccessful attempts. The 1970s and 1980s brought westward expansion from the city of Chicago, causing the small farming community's population to nearly double to 7,800. Warrenville is located at 41°49′35″N 88°11′22″W. According to the 2010 census, Warrenville has a total area of 5.618 square miles, of which 5.46 square miles is land and 0.158 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,363 people, 4,931 households, 3,476 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,430.6 people per square mile. There were 5,067 housing units at an average density of 921.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.13% White, 2.39% African American, 0.29% Native American, 3.43% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.46% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.10% of the population. There were 4,931 households out of which 39.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.2% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.5% were non-families.
23.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.26. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.7% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 36.1% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 6.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $62,430, the median income for a family was $72,233. Males had a median income of $50,144 versus $35,487 for females; the per capita income for the city was $28,922. About 0.9% of families and 1.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.0% of those under age 18 and 1.7% of those age 65 or over. There is an "old neighborhood", with mixed housing styles near Galusha Avenue. There is a Forest Preserve neighborhood, with wooded-lot expensive multi-acre homes close to Cantigny War Museum, Cantigny Golf Course, Mckee Marsh.
In the mid-1970s two large subdivisions were developed in the west, next to Fermilab, a scientific research center where the world's largest superconducting particle accelerator ring was located. The subdivisions are called Fox Hollow. Other notable subdivisions of Warrenville include Warrenville Lakes, Saddle Ridge, Thornwilde and River Oaks. Cantera was built from a TIF district on the former grounds 650-acre limestone quarry. Located on the new district is a 30-screen AMC movie theater, several restaurants, a Super Target retail store, three hotels, three banks, a 100,000-square-foot fitness club, numerous corporate offices, two residential complexes. Major companies that have office space and research facilities at Cantera include: BP America, the corporate office for EN Engineering, the corporate headquarters for Symbria, a corporate office for Exelon Nuclear; the headquarters of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Local 701 of DuPage County is in Cantera. Downtown Warrenville is located at the intersection of Batavia Road.
The addition of another TIF district, a new police station was built in 1998, a new City Hall in 2001, a new Public Works Building in 2002, additions were made to the library in 2003. Durham School Services is a company based in Warrenville. Navistar left Warrenville in 2011, moved to neighboring Lisle due to tax incentives. According to the City's 2018 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top ten non-city employers in the city are: Warrenville is a part of Community Unit School District 200, shares 20 schools with Wheaton. Residents of Warrenville attend Bower or Johnson elementary school, Hubble Middle School, St. Irene Catholic School, Wheaton Warrenville South High School. Wheaton Warrenville South High School is located in Wheaton; until 2009, Hubble was located in Wheaton. Some children from all over DuPage County attend Four Winds Waldorf School, a private PreK-8 school in Warrenville. Warrenvil
Printmaking is the process of creating artworks by printing on paper. Printmaking covers only the process of creating prints that have an element of originality, rather than just being a photographic reproduction of a painting. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, called a print; each print produced is not considered a "copy" but rather is considered an "original". This is because each print varies to an extent due to variables intrinsic to the printmaking process, because the imagery of a print is not a reproduction of another work but rather is a unique image designed from the start to be expressed in a particular printmaking technique. A print may be known as an impression. Printmaking is not chosen only for its ability to produce multiple impressions, but rather for the unique qualities that each of the printmaking processes lends itself to. Prints are created by transferring ink from a matrix or through a prepared screen to a sheet of paper or other material.
Common types of matrices include: metal plates copper or zinc, or polymer plates for engraving or etching. Screens made of silk or synthetic fabrics are used for the screenprinting process. Other types of matrix substrates and related processes are discussed below. Multiple impressions printed from the same matrix form an edition. Since the late 19th century, artists have signed individual impressions from an edition and number the impressions to form a limited edition. Prints may be printed in book form, such as illustrated books or artist's books. Printmaking techniques are divided into the following basic categories: Relief, where ink is applied to the original surface of the matrix. Relief techniques include woodcut or woodblock as the Asian forms are known, wood engraving and metalcut. Intaglio, where ink is applied beneath the original surface of the matrix. Intaglio techniques include engraving, mezzotint, aquatint. Planographic, where the matrix retains its original surface, but is specially prepared and/or inked to allow for the transfer of the image.
Planographic techniques include lithography and digital techniques. Stencil, where ink or paint is pressed through a prepared screen, including screenprinting and pochoir. Other types of printmaking techniques outside these groups include collagraphy and viscosity printing. Collagraphy is a printmaking technique; this texture is transferred to the paper during the printing process. Contemporary printmaking may include digital printing, photographic mediums, or a combination of digital and traditional processes. Many of these techniques can be combined within the same family. For example, Rembrandt's prints are referred to as "etchings" for convenience, but often include work in engraving and drypoint as well, sometimes have no etching at all. Woodcut, a type of relief print, is the earliest printmaking technique, the only one traditionally used in the Far East, it was first developed as a means of printing patterns on cloth, by the 5th century was used in China for printing text and images on paper.
Woodcuts of images on paper developed around 1400 in Japan, later in Europe. These are the two areas where woodcut has been most extensively used purely as a process for making images without text; the artist draws a design on a plank of wood, or on paper, transferred to the wood. Traditionally the artist handed the work to a specialist cutter, who uses sharp tools to carve away the parts of the block that will not receive ink; the surface of the block is inked with the use of a brayer, a sheet of paper slightly damp, is placed over the block. The block is rubbed with a baren or spoon, or is run through a printing press. If in color, separate blocks can be used for each color, or a technique called reduction printing can be used. Reduction printing is a name used to describe the process of using one block to print several layers of color on one print; this involves cutting a small amount of the block away, printing the block many times over on different sheets before washing the block, cutting more away and printing the next color on top.
This allows the previous color to show through. This process can be repeated many times over; the advantages of this process is that only one block is needed, that different components of an intricate design will line up perfectly. The disadvantage is. Another variation of woodcut printmaking is the cukil technique, made famous by the Taring Padi underground community in Java, Indonesia. Taring Padi Posters resemble intricately printed cartoon posters embedded with political messages. Images—usually resembling a visually complex scenario—are carved unto a wooden surface called cukilan smothered with printer's ink before pressing it unto media such as paper or canvas; the process was developed in Germany in the 1430s from the engraving used by goldsmiths to decorate metalwork. Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin to cut the design into the surface of a metal plate, traditionally made of copper. Engraving using a burin is a difficult skill to learn. Gravers come in a variety of sizes that yield different line types.
The burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line, characterized by
DuPage County, Illinois
DuPage County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois, one of the collar counties of the Chicago metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 916,924, its county seat is Wheaton. DuPage County has become developed and suburbanized, although some pockets of farmland remain in the county's western and northern parts; the county has a high socioeconomic profile and residents of Hinsdale and Oak Brook include some of the wealthiest people in the Midwest. On the whole, the county enjoys above average median household income levels and low overall poverty levels when compared to the national average. In 2018 Niche ranked two DuPage municipalities amongst the top 20 best places to live in America. DuPage County was formed on February 1839 out of Cook County; the county took its name from the DuPage River, which was, in turn, named after a French fur trapper, DuPage. The first written history to address the name, the 1882 History of DuPage County, Illinois, by Rufus Blanchard, relates: The DuPage River had, from time immemorial, been a stream well known.
It took its name from a French trader who settled on this stream below the fork previous to 1800. Hon. H. W. Blodgett, of Waukegan, informs the writer that J. B. Beaubien had spoken to him of the old Frenchman, Du Page, whose station was on the bank of the river, down toward its mouth, stated that the river took its name from him; the county name must have the same origin. Col Gurden S. Hubbard, who came into the country in 1818, informs the writer that the name DuPage, as applied to the river was universally known, but the trader for whom it was named lived there before his time. Mr. Beaubien says; this was in reply to Mr. Blodgett’s inquiry of him concerning the matter; the first white settler in DuPage County was Bailey Hobson, with Lewis Stewart, built a house in 1831 for the Hobson family at a site about 2 miles south of present-day downtown Naperville. Hobson built a mill to serve surrounding farmers. Today, the Hobson house still stands on Hobson Road in Naperville, the location of the mill is commemorated with a millstone and monument in today’s Pioneer Park.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 336 square miles, of which 327 square miles is land and 8.9 square miles is water. The DuPage River and the Salt Creek flow through DuPage County. According to the Forest Preserve District of DuPage County, the highest point in the county is located at the Mallard Lake Landfill, which at its highest point is 982 feet above mean sea level. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Wheaton have ranged from a low of 14 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −26 °F was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1995. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.56 inches in February to 4.60 inches in August. Counties that are adjacent to DuPage include: Cook County Will County Kendall County Kane County I-55 I-88 I-290 I-294 I-355 US 20 US 34 IL 19 IL 38 IL 53 IL 56 IL 59 IL 64 IL 83 IL 390 DuPage County's population's distribution by race and ethnicity in the 2010 census was as follows: DuPage County has become more diverse.
The population of foreign-born residents increased from about 71,300 in 1990 to 171,000 by 2009 estimates. There were 325,601 households, out of which 37.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.90% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present and 28.00% were non-families. 22.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.27. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.70% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 32.40% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64 and 9.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.20 males. For every 100 females, age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $98,441 and the median income for a family was $113,086. Males had a median income of $60,909 versus $41,346 for females.
The mean or average income for a family in DuPage County is $121,009, according to the 2005 census. The per capita income for the county was $38,458. About 2.40% of families and 3.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.90% of those under age 18 and 4.30% of those age 65 or over. DuPage County has several hundred Christian churches. Well-known churches include Community Christian Church of Naperville, College Church of Wheaton, Wheaton Bible Church, First Baptist Church of Wheaton. There is a large Catholic contingency, part of the Diocese of Joliet, a Ukrainian Orthodox Church in Glendale Heights; the Theosophical Society in America in Wheaton, the North American headquarters of the Theosophical Society Adyar, provides lectures and classes on theosophy, yoga and New Age spirituality. Islamic mosques are located in Villa Park, Glendale Heights, Westmont, Bolingbrook, Woodale, West Chicago, unincorporated Glen Ellyn. There are Hindu temples in Bartlett, Bloomingdale, Carol Stream and Medinah, an Arya Samaj center in West Chicago.
There is a Nichiren Shōshū Zen Buddhist temple in West Chicago and a Theravada Buddhist Temple, called the Budd
Prairie restoration is a conservation effort to restore prairie lands that were destroyed due to industrial, commercial, or residential development. For example, the U. S. state of Illinois alone once held over 35,000 square miles of prairie land and now just 3 square miles of that original prairie land is left. Ecologically, prairie restoration aids in conservation of earth's topsoil, exposed to erosion from wind and rain when prairies are plowed under to make way for new commerce. Conversely, much more of the prairie lands have become the fertile fields on which cereal crops of corn and wheat are grown. Many prairie plants are highly resistant to drought, temperature extremes and native insect pests, they are used for xeriscaping projects in arid regions of the American West. A restoration project of prairie lands can be small. A backyard prairie restoration will enrich soil, help with erosion and take up extra water in excessive rainfalls. Prairie flowers are attractive to other pollinators.
On a larger scale and corporations are creating areas of restored prairies which in turn will store organic carbon in the soil and help maintain the biodiversity of the 3000 plus species that count on the grasslands for food and shelter. Some prominent tallgrass prairie grasses include big bluestem and switchgrass. Midgrass and shortgrass species include little bluestem, side oats grama, buffalograss. Many of the diverse prairie forbs are structurally specialized to resist herbaceous grazers such as American bison; some have hairy leaves that may help prevent excessive evaporation. Many of forbs contain secondary compounds that were discovered by indigenous peoples and are still used today. For example, purple coneflower is used as an herbal remedy for colds. Early prairie restoration efforts tended to focus on a few dominant species grasses, with little attention to seed source. With experience restorers have realized the importance of obtaining a broad mix of species and using local ecotype seed.
Fire is a big component to the success of grasslands, small. Controlled burns, with a permit, are recommended every 4–8 years to burn away dead plants. A much more wildlife habitat friendly alternative to burning every 4–8 years is to burn 1/4 to 1/8 of a tract every year; this will still accomplish the task of burning. The Native Americans may have used the burns to control pests such as ticks. If controlled burns are not possible, rotational mowing is recommended as a substitute. One of the newer methods available is holistic management, which uses livestock as a substitute for the keystone species such as bison; this allows the rotational mowing to be done by animals. Holistic management can use fire as a tool, but in a more limited way and in combination with the mowing done by animals; some popular prairie restoration projects have been completed and maintained by conservation departments, such as Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, located in Wilmington, Illinois. This restoration project is administered by the U.
S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, it sits on part of the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant on an area once contaminated from TNT manufacturing. Since 1997, the project has opened some 15,000 acres of restored prairie to the public. Another large restoration project finds its home on the ample area of Fermilab. S. governmental atomic accelerator laboratory located in Illinois. Fermilab's 6,800 acres sit a top fertile farmland and the prairie restoration project consists of 1,000 acres of that; this project began in 1971 and continues today with the help of Fermilab employees and many community teachers and volunteers. Buffalo Commons Holistic management Land rehabilitation Restoration ecology The Prairie Enthusiasts Grassland protection and restoration in the upper Midwest. Prairie Plains Resource Institute Prairie Parcel Restoration Prairies Forever Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie Fermilab Prairie Prairie at the Fermilab Accelerator at Batavia, IL Prairie Restorations, Inc.
Citizens for Conservation A non-profit centered in Barrington, IL restoring prairie and wetland habitats. Sauk Prairie Conservation Alliance, located in central Wisconsin. Youcanchangetheplanet.org - A non-profit organization dedicated to sustainable conservation and the rehabilitation of prairies and wetlands. American Prairie Foundation - A non-profit organization devoted to creating a prairie-based wildlife reserve in northeastern Montana. Missouri Prairie Foundation - A non-profit organization protecting native grasslands throughout the state of Missouri. Grand Prairie Friends - A non-profit organization dedicated to preserving and restoring prairies and forests in east-central Illinois, promoting an understanding and appreciation of natural resources