Château-Chinon is a commune in the Nièvre department in France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department; the villages around the town are grouped in another commune named Château-Chinon. François Mitterrand, President of France from 1981 to 1995, was the mayor of Château-Chinon from 1959 to 1981, it is about 200 miles southeast of Paris. Cortona, Italy Timbuktu, Mali Villeréal, France Communes of the Nièvre department Parc naturel régional du Morvan INSEE commune file
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Nièvre is a department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in the centre of France named after the River Nièvre. Nièvre is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from the former province of Nivernais. Nièvre is part of the current region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, although it was not part of the province of Burgundy, it is surrounded by the departments of Yonne, Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Allier and Loiret. The department is crossed by the longest river in France. Nièvre is a rural department with about 33 inhabitants per km²; the main cities are Nevers, Cosne-sur-Loire, Varennes-Vauzelles, Decize, Clamecy and La Charité. Only two cities reach 10 000 inhabitants, it indicates the characteristic of the department, predominantly rural. Nièvre is well known for its white wine, Pouilly Fumé; the vineyards are scattered around villages including Pouilly-Sur-Loire, which lends its name to the appellation, Tracy sur Loire, Saint Andelain.
The word fumé is French for "smoky", it is said the name comes from the smoky or flinty quality of these wines. The only grape allowed in the Pouilly-Fumé AC is Sauvignon blanc, which produces wines that are crisp and somewhat grassy. In common with most French wine-producing departments, Nièvre is traditionally a left-wing department; the results of the second round of voting in presidential elections reflect this consistently: In the 2007 presidential election, Ségolène Royal received 52.91% of the department's votes, as against a national per centage of just 46.94%. In the 1995 presidential election, Lionel Jospin received 57.07% of the department's votes, as against a national per centage of just 47.36%. In the 1981 presidential election, François Mitterrand received 62.91% of the department's votes, as against a national per centage of 51.76%. Nièvre's best-known political representative was François Mitterrand who served as a senator and a deputy for the department, as mayor of Château-Chinon for 22 years before his election to the presidency in 1981.
The Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours hosted the Formula One French Grand Prix from 1991 to 2008, the Bol d'Or from 2000 to 2014, the French round of the Superbike World Championship since 2003. USO Nevers is a professional rugby team that plays in Rugby Pro D2. Cantons of the Nièvre department Communes of the Nièvre department Arrondissements of the Nièvre department Parc naturel régional du Morvan Prefecture website General council website Nievre at Curlie Official website of the Departmental Touristic Agency of Nièvre in Burgundy
The Jurassic period was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period 201.3 million years ago to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period 145 Mya. The Jurassic constitutes the middle period of the Mesozoic Era known as the Age of Reptiles; the start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event. Two other extinction events occurred during the period: the Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinction in the Early Jurassic, the Tithonian event at the end; the Jurassic period is divided into three epochs: Early and Late. In stratigraphy, the Jurassic is divided into the Lower Jurassic, Middle Jurassic, Upper Jurassic series of rock formations; the Jurassic is named after the Jura Mountains within the European Alps, where limestone strata from the period were first identified. By the beginning of the Jurassic, the supercontinent Pangaea had begun rifting into two landmasses: Laurasia to the north, Gondwana to the south; this created more coastlines and shifted the continental climate from dry to humid, many of the arid deserts of the Triassic were replaced by lush rainforests.
On land, the fauna transitioned from the Triassic fauna, dominated by both dinosauromorph and crocodylomorph archosaurs, to one dominated by dinosaurs alone. The first birds appeared during the Jurassic, having evolved from a branch of theropod dinosaurs. Other major events include the appearance of the earliest lizards, the evolution of therian mammals, including primitive placentals. Crocodilians made the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic mode of life; the oceans were inhabited by marine reptiles such as ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs, while pterosaurs were the dominant flying vertebrates. The chronostratigraphic term "Jurassic" is directly linked to the Jura Mountains, a mountain range following the course of the France–Switzerland border. During a tour of the region in 1795, Alexander von Humboldt recognized the limestone dominated mountain range of the Jura Mountains as a separate formation that had not been included in the established stratigraphic system defined by Abraham Gottlob Werner, he named it "Jura-Kalkstein" in 1799.
The name "Jura" is derived from the Celtic root *jor via Gaulish *iuris "wooded mountain", borrowed into Latin as a place name, evolved into Juria and Jura. The Jurassic period is divided into three epochs: Early and Late. In stratigraphy, the Jurassic is divided into the Lower Jurassic, Middle Jurassic, Upper Jurassic series of rock formations known as Lias and Malm in Europe; the separation of the term Jurassic into three sections originated with Leopold von Buch. The faunal stages from youngest to oldest are: During the early Jurassic period, the supercontinent Pangaea broke up into the northern supercontinent Laurasia and the southern supercontinent Gondwana; the Jurassic North Atlantic Ocean was narrow, while the South Atlantic did not open until the following Cretaceous period, when Gondwana itself rifted apart. The Tethys Sea closed, the Neotethys basin appeared. Climates were warm, with no evidence of a glacier having appeared; as in the Triassic, there was no land over either pole, no extensive ice caps existed.
The Jurassic geological record is good in western Europe, where extensive marine sequences indicate a time when much of that future landmass was submerged under shallow tropical seas. In contrast, the North American Jurassic record is the poorest of the Mesozoic, with few outcrops at the surface. Though the epicontinental Sundance Sea left marine deposits in parts of the northern plains of the United States and Canada during the late Jurassic, most exposed sediments from this period are continental, such as the alluvial deposits of the Morrison Formation; the Jurassic was a time of calcite sea geochemistry in which low-magnesium calcite was the primary inorganic marine precipitate of calcium carbonate. Carbonate hardgrounds were thus common, along with calcitic ooids, calcitic cements, invertebrate faunas with dominantly calcitic skeletons; the first of several massive batholiths were emplaced in the northern American cordillera beginning in the mid-Jurassic, marking the Nevadan orogeny. Important Jurassic exposures are found in Russia, South America, Japan and the United Kingdom.
In Africa, Early Jurassic strata are distributed in a similar fashion to Late Triassic beds, with more common outcrops in the south and less common fossil beds which are predominated by tracks to the north. As the Jurassic proceeded and more iconic groups of dinosaurs like sauropods and ornithopods proliferated in Africa. Middle Jurassic strata are neither well studied in Africa. Late Jurassic strata are poorly represented apart from the spectacular Tendaguru fauna in Tanzania; the Late Jurassic life of Tendaguru is similar to that found in western North America's Morrison Formation. During the Jurassic period, the primary vertebrates living in the sea were marine reptiles; the latter include ichthyosaurs, which were at the peak of their diversity, plesiosaurs and marine crocodiles of the families Teleosauridae and Metriorhynchidae. Numerous turtles could be found in rivers. In the invertebrate world, several new groups appeared, including rudists (a reef-formi
Bourgogne-Franche-Comté is a region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014, from a merger of Burgundy and Franche-Comté. The new region came into existence on 1 January 2016, after the regional elections of December 2015, electing 100 members to the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté; the region covers an area of 47,784 km2, has a population of 2,816,814. The text of the territorial reform law gives interim names for most of the merged regions, combining the names of their constituent regions separated by hyphens. Permanent names would be proposed by the new regional councils and confirmed by the Conseil d'État by 1 October 2016. Hence the interim name of the new administrative region is composed of the names of former administrative regions of Burgundy and Franche-Comté; the region chose to retain its interim name as its permanent name, a decision made official by the Conseil d'État on 28 September 2016. The merger represents a historic reunification of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy, for the first time since they were divided in 1477.
The territory, now Burgundy and Franche-Comté was united under the Kingdom of Burgundy. It was divided into two parts: the Duchy of Burgundy of France, the County of Burgundy of the Holy Roman Empire; the County was reintegrated as a free province within the Kingdom of France in the 17th century, separately from the Duchy which remained a vassal province of the Kingdom of France. These two former provinces were abolished during the French Revolution. Most of the area making up the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté used to belong to the former provinces of Burgundy and Franche-Comté, but it includes a significant part of the former provinces of Nivernais, Orléanais, the Territoire de Belfort, a small portion of Île-de-France. From 1941 to 1944, the regional prefecture of Vichy reunited Burgundy and Franche-Comté, as well as the igamie of Dijon from 1948 to 1964. During the creation of the regions of France and Franche-Comté once again became two separate regions, first as public establishments in 1972 as territorial collectivities in 1982.
On 14 April 2014, François Patriat and Marie-Guite Dufay announced in a press conference the desire for the reunification of the two regions, further to the declarations of Prime Minister Manuel Valls, who proposed a simplification of the administrative divisions of France. On 2 June 2014, the two regions were shown as one on the map presented by President François Hollande; these two regions are the only ones to have voluntarily discussed a merger, their alliance was the only one not needing revision by the National Assembly or the Senate. Under the Acte III de la décentralisation, the merger of the two regions was adopted on 17 December 2014, it became effective on 1 January 2016. The region borders Grand Est to the north, Île-de-France to the northwest, Centre-Val de Loire to the west, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes to the south and Switzerland to the east; the distances from Besançon, the capital of the region, to other cities are: Paris, the national capital, 410 km. Bourgogne-Franche-Comté comprises eight departments: Côte-d'Or, Jura, Nièvre, Haute-Saône, Saône-et-Loire, Territoire de Belfort.
Dijon Besançon Belfort Chalon-sur-Saône Nevers Auxerre Mâcon Burgundy Franche-Comté Regions of France Merger of the regions - France 3
In geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust, demarcated by faults or flexures. In the movement of the crust, a massif tends to retain its internal structure while being displaced as a whole; the term refers to a group of mountains formed by such a structure. In mountaineering and climbing literature, a massif is used to denote the main mass of an individual mountain; the massif is a smaller structural unit of the crust than a tectonic plate and is considered the fourth largest driving force in geomorphology. The word is taken from French, where it is used to refer to a large mountain mass or compact group of connected mountains forming an independent portion of a range. One of the most notable European examples of a massif is the Massif Central of the Auvergne region of France; the Face on Mars is an example of an extraterrestrial massif. Massifs may form underwater, as with the Atlantis Massif. Adrar des Ifoghas – Mali Aïr Massif – Niger Bongo Massif – Central African Republic Marojejy Massif – Madagascar Mulanje Massif – Malawi Waterberg Biosphere – South Africa Virunga Massif – border shared by Uganda, Rwanda and DR Congo Kilimanjaro Massif – border of Kenya and Tanzania Oban Massif – Nigeria Borg Massif Craddock Massif Cumpston Massif Vinson Massif Otway Massif Annapurna – Nepal Chu Pong Massif – Vietnam Dhaulagiri – Nepal Gasherbrum – Pakistan Hazaran – Iran Kholeno – Iran Kangchenjunga – Nepal Knuckles Massif – Sri Lanka Kondyor Massif – Russia Kugitangtau Ridge – Turkmenistan Logar ultrabasite massif – Logar Province, Afghanistan Mount Ararat – Turkey Mount Everest massif – border of Nepal and Tibet Mount Kinabalu – Malaysia Mount Tomuraushi – Japan Nanga Parbat – Pakistan Nun Kun – India Panchchuli – India Shillong – Meghalaya, India Alpilles – France Aravis Range – France Ardennes Massif – France/Belgium/Luxembourg Areskutan – Sweden Armorican Massif – Brittany, France Bauges Massif – France Beaufortain Massif – France Ben Nevis massif – Scotland, United Kingdom Bohemian Massif – Czech Republic Bornes Massif – France Calanques Massif Ceahlău Massif – Romania Cerces Massif Chablais Massif – France Chartreuse Massif – France Cornubian Massif – United Kingdom Dévoluy Massif – France Massif des Écrins – France Gotthard Massif – Switzerland Jungfrau Massif – Switzerland Jura Mountains – France Lauzière massif L'Esterel Massif Long Mynd – England, United Kingdom Lubéron – France Massif Central – France Massiccio del Matese - Italy Mangerton Mountain – Ireland Mercantour – France Montgris – Spain Montserrat – Spain Mont Blanc massif – Italy/France/Switzerland Massiccio del Pollino - Italy Rila - Rhodope Massif – Bulgaria/Greece Sila Massif – Italy Snowdon Massif – Wales, United Kingdom Taillefer Massif – France Troodos – Cyprus Untersberg – Germany/Austria Queyras Massif – France Vanoise Massif – France Vercors Plateau – France Vitosha Massif – Bulgaria Vosges Mountains – France Adirondack Massif – New York, USA Mount Cayley massif – British Columbia, Canada Laurentian Massif – Quebec, Canada Le Massif – Canada Denali – Alaska, USA Level Mountain – Canada Mount Edziza – Canada Mount Juneau – Alaska, USA Mount Le Conte – Tennessee, USA Mount Logan – Yukon, Canada Mount Meager massif – Canada Mount Septimus – Canada Mount Shuksan – Washington, USA Teton Range – Wyoming, USA Big Ben – Heard Island Ahipara Gumfields – New Zealand Massif de la Hotte – Haiti Valle Nuevo Massif – Dominican Republic Brasilia Massif – Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay.
Neblina massif – Venezuela–Brazil border Colombian Massif – Colombia North Patagonian Massif – Argentina Deseado Massif – Argentina Atlantis Massif – part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean Tamu Massif — the largest volcano on Earth
The Alps are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies in Europe, separating Southern from Central and Western Europe and stretching 1,200 kilometres across eight Alpine countries: France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria and Slovenia. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps; the Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 metres. The altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe. Wildlife such as ibex live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m, plants such as Edelweiss grow in rocky areas in lower elevations as well as in higher elevations. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era.
A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, the Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800, Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000; the 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists and artists, in particular, the Romantics, followed by the golden age of alpinism as mountaineers began to ascend the peaks. The Alpine region has a strong cultural identity; the traditional culture of farming and woodworking still exists in Alpine villages, although the tourist industry began to grow early in the 20th century and expanded after World War II to become the dominant industry by the end of the century. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, Italian and German Alps. At present, the region has 120 million annual visitors; the English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes.
Maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp; this may be consistent with the theory. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb "hill". Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe. In Roman times, "Albania" was a name for the eastern Caucasus, while in the English languages "Albania" was used as a name for Scotland, although it is more derived from the Latin albus, the color white; the Latin word Alpes could come from the adjective albus. In modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a high mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found, the term "the Alps", referring to the mountains, is a misnomer.
The term for the mountain peaks varies by nation and language: words such as Horn, Kopf, Spitze and Berg are used in German speaking regions. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width; the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, stretching eastward through mid and southern Switzerland; the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the southern border of Bavaria in Germany. In areas like Chiasso and Allgäu, the demarcation between the mountain range and the flatlands are clear; the countries with the greatest alpine territory are Austria, Italy and Switzerland. The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, the Bernese Alps on the northern.
The peaks in the easterly portion of the range, in Austria and Slovenia, are smaller than those in the central and western portions. The variances in nomenclature in the region spanned by the Alps makes classification of the mountains and subregions difficult, but a general classification is that of the Eastern Alps and Western Alps with the divide between the two occurring in eastern Switzerland according to geologist Stefan Schmid, near the Splügen Pass; the highest peaks of the Western Alps and Eastern Alps are Mont Blanc, at 4,810 m and Piz Bernina at 4,049 metres. The second-highest major