Louis IX of France
Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louiss childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals, as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions and his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king is the judge to whom anyone is able to appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, to enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs.
According to his vow made after an illness, and confirmed after a miraculous cure. He was succeeded by his son Philip III, Louiss actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution and he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louiss life comes from Jean de Joinvilles famous Life of Saint Louis, two other important biographies were written by the kings confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus biography, while several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the kings death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, and baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church.
His grandfather on his fathers side was Philip II, king of France, while his grandfather on his mothers side was Alfonso VIII, tutors of Blanches choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, and government. He was 9 years old when his grandfather Philip II died, a member of the House of Capet, Louis was twelve years old when his father died on 8 November 1226. He was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral, because of Louiss youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority. Louis mother trained him to be a leader and a good Christian. She used to say, I love you, my son, as much as a mother can love her child
Pope Boniface VIII
Pope Boniface VIII, born Benedetto Caetani, was Pope from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303. Today, he is probably best remembered for his feuds with King Philip IV of France and Dante Alighieri, Benedetto was born in ca.1235 in Anagni, some thirty-one miles southeast of Rome. He was a son of Roffredo Caetani, a member of a baronial family of the Papal States. Through his mother, Emilia Patrasso di Guarcino, a niece of Pope Alexander IV, he was not far distant from the seat of ecclesiastical power and his fathers younger brother, was Podestà di Orvieto. He took his first steps in the life when he was sent to the monastery of the Friars Minor in Velletri. In 1252, when his paternal uncle Pietro Caetani became Bishop of Todi, in Umbria, Benedetto followed him to Todi and he was granted a canonry of the cathedral in the familys stronghold of Anagni, with the permission of Pope Alexander. His uncle Pietro Caetani granted him a canonry in the Cathedral of Todi in 1260 and he came into possession of the small nearby castello of Sismano, a place with twenty-one fires.
Later in life he expressed his gratitude to Anagni, Todi. In 1264 Benedetto entered the Roman Curia, perhaps with the office of Advocatus and he served as secretary to Cardinal Simon de Brion, the future Pope Martin IV, on a mission to France. Cardinal Simon had been appointed by Pope Urban IV, between 25 and 27 April 1264, to engage in negotiations with Charles of Anjou, Comte de Provence, over the crown of Naples and Sicily. On 1 May 1264 he was given permission to appoint two or three tabelliones for his mission, one of whom was Benedetto. On 20 March 1265, in order to expedite the business with Charles of Anjou and this may have been the occasion on which Benedetto Caetani acquired at least some of his French benefices. On 9 April 1265, on the petition of Cardinal Simon de Brion, there would have been no point in making such a ruling if Cardinal Simon had already ceased to be Legate. Benedetto accompanied Cardinal Ottobono Fieschi, the future Pope Adrian V, another member of Cardinal Ottobonos suite was Theobaldus of Piacenza, Archdeacon of Liège, who became a friend of Prince Edward, and went on Crusade with him, he was elected Pope Gregory X.
On 29 August 1265 the Cardinal was received at the French Court by King Louis IX, there he learned that Simon de Montfort and his son Henry had been killed at the Battle of Evesham earlier that month. Cardinal Ottobono did not reach Boulogne until October 1265 and he was in England until July 1268, working to suppress the remnants of Simon de Montforts barons who were still in arms against King Henry III of England. This drawback was a concern of Cardinal Ottobono and his entourage. While in England Benedetto Caetani became rector of St. Lawrences church in Towcester, upon Benedettos return from England, there is an eight-year period in which nothing is known about his life
A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, etc. of the body of a dead person, or the burial with the attendant observances. Customs vary widely both between cultures and between groups and denominations within cultures. Common secular motivations for funerals include mourning the deceased, celebrating their life, funerals often have religious aspects which are intended to help the soul of the deceased reach the afterlife, resurrection or reincarnation. The funeral usually includes a ritual through which the corpse of the deceased is given up, depending on culture and religion, these can involve either the destruction of the body or its preservation. Differing beliefs about cleanliness and the relationship between body and soul are reflected in funerary practices, when a funerary ceremony is performed but the body of the deceased is not available, it is usually called a memorial service. The word funeral comes from the Latin funus, which had a variety of meanings, including the corpse, Funerary art is art produced in connection with burials, including many kinds of tombs, and objects specially made for burial with a corpse.
Funeral rites are as old as human culture itself, pre-dating modern Homo sapiens, substantial cross-cultural and historical research document funeral customs as a highly predictable, stable force in communities. Funeral customs tend to be characterized by five anchors, significant symbols, gathered community, ritual action, cultural heritage, and transition of the dead body. The Baháí funeral service contains the only prayer thats permitted to be read as a group - congregational prayer, the Baháí decedent often controls some aspects of the Baháí funeral service, since leaving a will and testament is a requirement for Baháís. Since there is no Baháí clergy, services are conducted under the guise, or with the assistance of. A Buddhist funeral marks the transition from one life to the next for the deceased and it reminds the living of their own mortality. Christian burials typically occur on consecrated ground, rather than a destructive process such as cremation, was the traditional practice amongst Christians, because of the belief in the resurrection of the body.
Cremations came into use, although some denominations forbid them. Congregations of varied denominations perform different ceremonies, but most involve offering prayers, scripture reading from the Bible, a sermon, homily, or eulogy, and music. One issue of concern as the 21st century began was with the use of music at Christian funerals. Antyesti, literally last rites or last sacrifice, refers to the rituals associated with a funeral in Hinduism. It is sometimes referred to as Antima Samskaram, Antya-kriya, Anvarohanyya, a dead adult Hindu is cremated, while a dead child is typically buried. The rite of passage is said to be performed in harmony with the premise that the microcosm of all living beings is a reflection of a macrocosm of the universe
Dismemberment is the act of cutting, pulling, wrenching or otherwise removing the limbs of a living thing. It has been practised upon human beings as a form of punishment, can occur as a result of a traumatic accident, or in connection with murder, suicide. As opposed to surgical amputation of the limbs, dismemberment is often fatal to all, in criminology, a distinction is made between offensive and defensive dismemberment. Intentional, criminal dismemberment is known as mayhem, sliced to pieces by elephant Particularly in South-Eastern Asia, execution by trained elephants was a form of capital punishment practiced for several centuries. The techniques by which the person was actually executed varied widely but did, on occasion. They were ordered, accordingly, to be thrown to the elephants and their hoofs were cased with sharp iron instruments, and the extremities of these were like knives. The fate of Wilhelm von Grumbach in 1567, a knight in the Holy Roman Empire who was fond of making his own private wars and was thus condemned for treason, is worthy of note.
Gout-ridden, he was carried to the site in a chair. The executioner ripped out his heart, and stuck it in von Grumbachs face with the words, the executioner quartered von Grumbachs body. His principal associate was given the treatment, and an eyewitness avers that after his heart had been ripped out. One example of a highly aggravated execution is illustrated by the fate of Bastian Karnhars on July 16,1600, the two several halves are suspended on a camel, and paraded through the streets, for the edification of all beholders. This punishment was, for example, meted out to Hwang Sa-Yong in 1801, china The Five Pains is a Chinese variation invented during the Qin dynasty. Current use Dismemberment is no longer used by most modern governments as a form of execution or torture, ravaillacs extended torture and execution has been described like this, He was condemned to be tortured with red-hot pincers on four limbs and on each breast. His wounds were to be sprinkled with molten lead and boiling oil and his body was to be torn in pieces by four horses, the remains being subsequently burnt.
When the horses failed to disconnect the sinews between his body and his limbs, his body, still alive, was quartered with a knife and his friend, the infamous Casanova, reports that he watched the dreadful sight for four hours. The following is an extract from the official death sentence issued by the Spanish authorities which condemns Túpac Amaru II to torture. The torso will be taken to the hill overlooking the city, where it will be burned in a bonfire. Tupac Amarus head will be sent to Tinta to be displayed for three days in the place of execution and placed upon a pike at the principal entrance to the city
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe as a Catholic holy war against Islam. The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year to the forces of Zengi, the county had been founded during the First Crusade by King Baldwin of Boulogne in 1098. While it was the first Crusader state to be founded, it was the first to fall, the armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe. After crossing Byzantine territory into Anatolia, both armies were defeated by the Seljuk Turks. Louis and Conrad and the remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem, the crusade in the east was a failure for the crusaders and a great victory for the Muslims. It would ultimately have a key influence on the fall of Jerusalem, the only Christian success of the Second Crusade came to a combined force of 13,000 Flemish, Norman, English and German crusaders in 1147. Travelling from England, by ship, to the Holy Land, after the First Crusade and the minor Crusade of 1101 there were three crusader states established in the east, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch and the County of Edessa.
A fourth, the County of Tripoli, was established in 1109, Count Baldwin II and future count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Baldwin and Joscelin were both captured a second time in 1122, and although Edessa recovered somewhat after the Battle of Azaz in 1125, Joscelin was killed in battle in 1131. His successor Joscelin II was forced into an alliance with the Byzantine Empire, Joscelin had quarreled with the Count of Tripoli and the Prince of Antioch, leaving Edessa with no powerful allies. Meanwhile, the Seljuq Zengi, Atabeg of Mosul, had added to his rule in 1128 Aleppo, both Zengi and King Baldwin II turned their attention towards Damascus, Baldwin was defeated outside the great city in 1129. Damascus, ruled by the Burid Dynasty, allied with King Fulk when Zengi besieged the city in 1139 and 1140, in late 1144, Joscelin II allied with the Ortoqids and marched out of Edessa with almost his entire army to support the Ortoqid army against Aleppo.
Zengi, already seeking to take advantage of Fulks death in 1143, hurried north to besiege Edessa, manasses of Hierges, Philip of Milly and others were sent from Jerusalem to assist, but arrived too late. Joscelin II continued to rule the remnants of the county from Turbessel, Zengi himself was praised throughout Islam as defender of the faith and al-Malik al-Mansur, the victorious king. He did not pursue an attack on the territory of Edessa, or the Principality of Antioch. Events in Mosul compelled him to home, and he once again set his sights on Damascus. However, he was assassinated by a slave in 1146 and was succeeded in Aleppo by his son Nur ad-Din, the news of the fall of Edessa was brought back to Europe first by pilgrims early in 1145, and by embassies from Antioch and Armenia. Bishop Hugh of Jabala reported the news to Pope Eugene III, Hugh told the Pope of an eastern Christian king, who, it was hoped, would bring relief to the crusader states, this is the first documented mention of Prester John
Curing (food preservation)
Many curing processes involve smoking, spicing, or cooking. Dehydration was the earliest form of food curing, because curing increases the solute concentration in the food and hence decreases its water potential, the food becomes inhospitable for the microbe growth that causes food spoilage. Curing can be traced back to antiquity, and was the way of preserving meat. Nitrates and nitrites, in conjunction with salt, are one of the most common agents in curing meat because they inhibit the growth of Clostridium botulinum. They contribute to the pink color. For lesser-developed countries, curing remains a key process in ensuring the viability of meat production, untreated meat decomposes rapidly if it is not preserved, at a speed that depends on several factors, including ambient humidity and the presence of pathogens. Most meats cannot be kept at room temperature in excess of a few days without spoiling, if kept in excess of this time, meat begins to change colour and exude a foul odour, indicating the decomposition of the food.
Ingestion of such spoiled meat can cause serious food poisonings, like botulism, in such circumstances the usefulness of preserving foods containing nutritional value for transport and storage is obvious. Curing is able to extend the life of meat before it spoils. A survival technique since prehistory, the conservation of meat has become, over the centuries, a topic of political, Food curing dates back to ancient times, both in the form of smoked meat and salt-cured meat. Several sources describe the salting of meat in the ancient Mediterranean world, diodore of Sicily in his Bibliotheca historica wrote that the Cosséens in the mountains of Persia salted the flesh of carnivorous animals. Strabo indicates that people at Borsippa were catching bats and salting them to eat, the ancient Greeks prepared tarichos, which was meat and fish conserved by salt or other means. The Romans called this dish salsamentum – which term included salted fat, evidence of ancient sausage production exists. The Roman gourmet Apicius speaks of a technique involving œnogaros.
A trade in salt meat occurred across ancient Europe, in Polybiuss time, the Gauls exported salt pork each year to Rome in large quantities, where it was sold in different cuts, rear cuts, middle cuts and sausages. This meat, after having been salted with the greatest care, was sometime smoked and these goods had to have been considerably important, since they fed part of the Roman people and the armies. The Belgians were celebrated above all for the care which they gave to the fattening of their pigs and their herds of sheep and pigs were so many, they could provide skins and salt meat not only for Rome, but for most of Italy. The Ceretani of Spain drew a large income from their hams
The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body. It is composed of around 300 bones at birth – this total decreases to 206 bones by adulthood after some bones have fused together, the bone mass in the skeleton reaches maximum density around age 20. The human skeleton can be divided into the skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton is formed by the column, the rib cage. The appendicular skeleton, which is attached to the skeleton, is formed by the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle. The human skeleton performs six major functions, movement, production of cells, storage of minerals. The human skeleton is not as sexually dimorphic as that of other primate species. In general, female skeletal elements tend to be smaller and less robust than corresponding male elements within a given population, the human female pelvis is different from that of males in order to facilitate child birth. Unlike most primates, human males do not have penile bones, the axial skeleton is formed by the vertebral column, a part of the rib cage, and the skull.
The upright posture of humans is maintained by the skeleton, which transmits the weight from the head, the trunk. The bones of the spine are supported by many ligaments, the erector spinae muscles are supporting and are useful for balance. The appendicular skeleton is formed by the pectoral girdles, the limbs, the pelvic girdle or pelvis. Their functions are to make locomotion possible and to protect the organs of digestion and reproduction. The skeleton serves six major functions, movement, production of cells, storage of minerals. The skeleton provides the framework which supports the body and maintains its shape, the pelvis, associated ligaments and muscles provide a floor for the pelvic structures. Without the rib cages, costal cartilages, and intercostal muscles, the joints between bones allow movement, some allowing a wider range of movement than others, e. g. the ball and socket joint allows a greater range of movement than the pivot joint at the neck. Movement is powered by muscles, which are attached to the skeleton at various sites on bones.
Muscles and joints provide the principal mechanics for movement and it is believed that the reduction of human bone density in prehistoric times reduced the agility and dexterity of human movement
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the Metropolitan City of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants, Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time. It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has called the Athens of the Middle Ages. A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family, from 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy. The Historic Centre of Florence attracts 13 million tourists each year and it was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. The city is noted for its culture, Renaissance art and architecture, the city contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, and still exerts an influence in the fields of art and politics. Due to Florences artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world, in 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy.
Florence originated as a Roman city, and later, after a period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe, the language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, and still is, accepted as the Italian language. Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War and they similarly financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European historys most important noble families, Lorenzo de Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century, Leo X, catherine de Medici married king Henry II of France and, after his death in 1559, reigned as regent in France.
Marie de Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future king Louis XIII, the Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de Medici in 1737. The Etruscans initially formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole and it was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the route between Rome and the north, and within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement quickly became an important commercial centre. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century, Florence was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital. The population began to again and commerce prospered