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Mosasaurus

Mosasaurus is a genus of mosasaurs, extinct carnivorous aquatic squamates. It existed during the Maastrichtian age of the late Cretaceous period, between about 70 and 66 million years ago, in western Europe, North America, Japan and New Zealand; the name means "Meuse lizard". Mosasaurus was among the last of the mosasaurids, among the largest; as with most mosasaurids, the legs and feet of Mosasaurus were modified into flippers, the front flippers were larger than the hind flippers. The largest known species, M. hoffmanni reached lengths up to 17 m longer than its relatives Tylosaurus and Hainosaurus. Mosasaurus was more robust than related mosasaurids; the skull was more robust than in other mosasaurids, the lower jaws attached tightly to the skull. They had deep, barrel-shaped bodies large eyes, poor binocular vision, poorly developed olfactory bulbs. Experts believe that Mosasaurus lived near the ocean surface, where they preyed on fish, ammonites, smaller mosasaurs, birds and plesiosaurs. Although they were able to dive, they evidently did not venture into deeper waters.

The skull of Mosasaurus tapered off into a conical tip. The jaws were armed with massive conical teeth, their paddle-like limbs had five digits in four in back. The body ended in a strong tail, which other mosasaurid fossils suggest had a fluke similar to those of sharks and some ichthyosaurs; the body remained stiff to reduce drag through the water, while the end of the tail provided strong propulsion. Mosasaurus was the first genus of mosasaurs to be named; the first remains known to science were a fragmentary skull from a chalk quarry in the St Pietersberg, a hill near Maastricht, the Netherlands, found in 1764 and collected by lieutenant Jean Baptiste Drouin in 1766. It was procured for the Teylers Museum at Haarlem in 1784 by Martinus van Marum, the first director of the museum, who published its description only in 1790, he considered it to be a species of "big breathing fish". It is still part of the collection as TM 7424. In october 1778 a second partial skull was procured, it was found in the ground owned by canon Theodorus Joannes Godding, who displayed it in his country house on the slope of the hill.

A local retired German/Dutch army physician, Johann Leonard Hoffmann collected some fragments and corresponded about the skull with the Dutch Professor Petrus Camper. Hoffmann presumed the animal was a crocodile. In 1786 however, Camper disagreed and concluded the remains were those of "an unknown toothed whale". Maastricht, an important fortress city, was captured by the French revolutionary armies by the end of 1794. Accompanying the French troops, although arriving in Maastricht two months after the city had been taken, was geologist Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond on a mission to secure the piece, together with représentant du peuple Augustin-Lucie de Frécine, who during the campaign tried to transport anything of artistic or scientific value he could lay his hands on to France. Finding that it had been removed from the cottage and hidden within the fortress, Frécine offered "six hundred bottles of excellent wine" to those being the first to locate the skull and bring it to him in one piece.

Soon, a dozen grenadiers claimed their reward. December 1794 it was moved to Paris as war booty, by decree declared a national heritage and added to the collection of the new Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. In 1798 Faujas de Saint-Fond published his Histoire naturelle de la montagne de Saint-Pierre de Maestricht, which contained an account of the circumstances of the find. According to him, Dr. Hoffmann paid the quarrymen to inform him of any fossil finds; when the skull was found, Hoffmann was notified by the quarrymen and he is said to have led the excavation from on. Afterwards, Godding would have claimed his rights as landowner and forced Hoffmann to relinquish his ownership through a lawsuit, won by influencing the court. De Saint-Fond, after all, in 1795, saved the specimen for science, promising a considerable indemnity to Godding to compensate for his loss. However, as Dutch historian Peggy Rompen has illustrated little of this famous story can be substantiated by other sources.

Godding was the original owner, Hoffmann never possessed the fossil, there is no trace of any lawsuit, Faujas de Saint-Fond never paid anything, the entire account seems to have been fabricated by him to justify the dispossession by military force. De Saint-Fond still assumed. In 1798 the son of Petrus Camper, Adriaan Gilles Camper, again studied the fossil indirectly by reconsidering the description by his father, he was the first to reach the conclusion that the remains were those of a giant monitor, which result in 1799 he corresponded to Georges Cuvier. In 1808 Cuvier confirmed Camper's result; the fossil had become part of Cuvier's first speculations on the possibility of animal species going extinct. The idea of extinction paved the way for his theory of catastrophism or "consecutive creations", one of the predecessors of the evolution theory. Prior to this all fossil reptile specimens, when recognized as having come from once-living animals, were interpreted as forms similar to those of the modern-day: crocodiles, whales, or large land mammals.

Cuvier's idea that the Maastricht specimen was a gigantic version of a modern animal unlike any species alive today seemed strange to him. He justified this by trusting his techniques in

Woodie Dixon

Woodie H. Dixon, Jr. is the General Counsel and Senior Vice President of Business Affairs for the Pac-12 Conference. He was the salary cap manager and General Counsel for the Kansas City Chiefs, he had been with the team since August 2004. Dixon is a native of Minneapolis, he graduated from Amherst College in 1995 and went on to earn his J. D. from Harvard Law School in 1999 and his Masters of Sport Management from the University of Massachusetts Amherst in 2004. Dixon has been an adjunct professor at the Washburn University School of Law in Topeka, teaching sports law. Dixon is married to Nicole Miller and they have two children. Dixon was named one of the Sports Business Journal's Forty under 40 award recipients in 2013

Kalihiwai, Hawaii

Kalihiwai is a census-designated place in Kauaʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The population was 428 at the 2010 census. Kalihiwai is located on the north shore of the island of Kauai at 22°12′59″N 159°25′7″W, it is bordered to the west by Princeville. Hawaii Route 56 forms the southern edge of the community and leads southeast 17 miles to Kapaa and west 5 miles to Hanalei. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Kalihiwai CDP has a total area of 2.8 square miles, of which 2.7 square miles are land and 0.1 square miles, or 4.46%, are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 717 people, 280 households, 182 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 113.7 people per square mile. There were 394 housing units at an average density of 62.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 72% White, <1% African American, 10% Asian, 4% Pacific Islander, 1% from other races, 13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3% of the population. There were 280 households out of which 36% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50% were married couples living together, 10% had a female householder with no husband present, 35% were non-families.

25% of all households were made up of individuals and 4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.04. In the CDP the population was spread out with 26% under the age of 18, 6% from 18 to 24, 28% from 25 to 44, 34% from 45 to 64, 6% who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $42,083, the median income for a family was $50,536. Males had a median income of $37,143 versus $30,125 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $37,062. About 14% of families and 14% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12% of those under age 18 and 25% of those age 65 or over. "Anini to Kalihiwai to the Kilauea Lighthouse". Save Our Seas Hawaii. January 2, 2013. "Kalihiwai Beach". Kauai Beach Scoop. Kauai Beaches