Leo Joseph Ryan, Jr. was an American teacher and politician. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as the U. S, representative from Californias 11th congressional district from 1973 until his assassination in 1978. After the Watts Riots of 1965, Assemblyman Ryan took a job as a school teacher to investigate. During his time in Congress, Ryan traveled to Newfoundland to investigate the practice of seal hunting and he was famous for vocal criticism of the lack of Congressional oversight of the Central Intelligence Agency, and authored the Hughes–Ryan Amendment, passed in 1974. He was killed just 11 days after he was re-elected for a fourth term and he was the second sitting member of the U. S. House of Representatives to have been assassinated in office, the first being James M. Hinds in 1868. He was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal posthumously in 1983, Ryan was born in Lincoln, Nebraska. Throughout his early life, his family moved frequently through Illinois, New York, Wisconsin and he graduated from Campion Jesuit High School in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, in 1943.
He received V-12 officer training at Bates College and served with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946 as a submariner, Ryan graduated from Nebraskas Creighton University with a B. A. in 1949 and an M. S. in 1951. He served as a teacher, school administrator and South San Francisco city councilman from 1956 to 1962 and he taught English at Capuchino High School, and chaperoned the marching band in 1961 to Washington, D. C. to participate in President John F. Kennedys inaugural parade. Ryan was inspired by Kennedys call to service in his inaugural address, in 1962, Ryan was elected mayor of South San Francisco. He served less than a year as mayor, before taking a seat in the California State Assemblys 27th district and he had previously run for the State Assemblys 25th district in 1958, but lost to Republican Louis Francis. Ryan served as a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1964 and 1968, and he held his Assembly seat through 1972 and he was successively elected three more times to the United States Congress. U. S.
Congresswoman and former California State Senator and Ryan aide Jackie Speier described Ryans style of investigation as experiential legislating. After the Watts Riots of 1965, Assemblyman Ryan went to the area and took a job as a school teacher to investigate. In 1970, using a pseudonym, Ryan had himself arrested, detained and he stayed as an inmate for ten days in the Folsom Prison, while presiding as chairman on the Assembly committee that oversaw prison reform. As a California Assemblyman, Ryan served as the Chairman of legislative subcommittee hearings and presided over hearings involving his successor as Congressman, Congressman Ryan once told Dick Cheney that leaking a state secret was an appropriate way for a member of Congress to block an ill-conceived operation. Ryan supported Patricia Hearst, and along with Senator S. I, delivered Hearsts application for a presidential commutation to the Pardon Attorney. In 1978, reports regarding widespread abuse and human rights violations in Jonestown among the Peoples Temple, led by cult leader Jim Jones, Ryan was one of 91 Congressmen to write Guyanese Prime Minister Forbes Burnham on Stoens behalf
San Francisco Chronicle
It was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. The paper is owned by the Hearst Corporation, which bought it from the de Young family in 2000. The paper benefited from the growth of San Francisco and was the largest circulation newspaper on the West Coast of the United States by 1880. Like many other newspapers, it has experienced a fall in circulation in the early 21st century. The newspaper publishes two web sites, SFGate, which has a mixture of news and web features. Between World War II and 1971, new editor Scott Josephine Newhall took a bold, the newspaper grew in circulation to become the citys largest, overtaking the rival San Francisco Examiner. The demise of other San Francisco dailies through the late 1950s and early 1960s left the Examiner, from 1965 on the two papers shared a single classified-advertising operation. This arrangement stayed in place until the Hearst Corporation took full control of the Chronicle, beginning in the early 1990s, the Chronicle started to face competition beyond the borders of San Francisco.
The Chronicle launched five zoned sections to appear in the Friday edition of the paper, the sections covered San Francisco, and four different suburban areas. They each featured a unique columnist, enterprise pieces and local news specific to the community, the newspaper added 40 full-time staff positions to work in the suburban bureaus. The de Young family controlled the paper, via the Chronicle Publishing Company, until July 27,2000, following the sale, the Hearst Corporation transferred the Examiner to the Fang family, publisher of the San Francisco Independent and AsianWeek, along with a $66-million subsidy. Under the new owners, the Examiner became a free tabloid, in 1949, the de Young family founded KRON-TV, the Bay Areas third television station. Until the mid-1960s, the station, operated from the basement of the Chronicle Building, KRON moved to studios at 1001 Van Ness Avenue. The frequent bold-faced, all-capital-letter headlines typical of the Chronicles front page were eliminated, editor Ward Bushees note heralded the issue as the start of a new era for the Chronicle.
On July 6,2009, the paper unveiled some alterations to the new design that included yet newer section fronts and wider use of color photographs and graphics. In a special section publisher Frank J. Vega described new, the newer look was accompanied by a reduction in size of the broadsheet. On November 9,2009, the Chronicle became the first newspaper in the nation to print on high-quality glossy paper, the high-gloss paper is used for some section fronts and inside pages. As of 2013 the publisher of the Chronicle is Jeffrey Johnson, audrey Cooper was named editor-in-chief in January 2015 and is the first woman to hold the position
Guyana, officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America. It is, included in the Caribbean Region due to its cultural, historical. Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and southwest, Suriname to the east, with 215,000 square kilometres, Guyana is the fourth-smallest country on mainland South America after Uruguay and French Guiana. The region known as the Guianas consists of the large landmass north of the Amazon River. Originally inhabited by indigenous groups, Guyana was settled by the Dutch before coming under British control in the late 18th century. It was governed as British Guiana, with mostly a plantation style economy until the 1950s and it gained independence in 1966, and officially became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. The legacy of British rule is reflected in the political administration and diverse population, which includes Indian, Amerindian. Guyana is the only South American nation in which English is the official language, the majority of the population, speak Guyanese Creole, an English-based creole language, as a first language.
In addition to being part of the Anglophone Caribbean, Guyana is one of the few Caribbean countries that is not an island in the West Indies, CARICOM, of which Guyana is a member, is headquartered in Guyanas capital and largest city, Georgetown. In 2008, the joined the Union of South American Nations as a founding member. The name Guyana is derived from Guiana, the name for the region that formerly included Guyana, French Guiana. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Guyana is derived from an Indigenous Amerindian language, there are nine indigenous tribes residing in Guyana, the Wai Wai, Patamona, Kalina, Pemon and Warao. Historically the Lokono and Kalina tribes dominated Guyana, although Christopher Columbus sighted Guyana during his third voyage, the Dutch were the first to establish colonies, Essequibo and Demerara. After the British assumed control in 1796, the Dutch formally ceded the area in 1814, in 1831 the three separate colonies became a single British colony known as British Guiana.
Since its Independence in 1824 Venezuela has claimed the area of land to the west of the Essequibo River, in 1899 an international tribunal ruled the land belonged to Great Britain. Guyana achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 26 May 1966 and became a republic on 23 February 1970, the US State Department and the US Central Intelligence Agency, along with the British government, played a strong role in influencing political control in Guyana during this time. The American government supported Forbes Burnham during the years of independence because Cheddi Jagan was identified as a Marxist. In 1978, Guyana received international notice when 918 members of the American cult, Peoples Temple, most of the suicides were by Americans and not Guyanese
California State Assembly
The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. It consists of 80 members, with each member representing at least 465,000 people, members of the assembly are generally referred to using the titles assemblyman, assemblywoman, or assemblymember. The State Assembly convenes at the California State Capitol in Sacramento, in the current session, the Democrats control 55 seats, forming a supermajority of the chamber. The Speaker presides over the State Assembly in the leadership position, controlling the flow of legislation. The Speaker is elected by the majority party caucus, followed by confirmation of the full assembly, other leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses according to each partys strength in the chamber. The current Speaker is Democrat Anthony Rendon, the majority leader is Democrat Ian Calderon, while the minority leader is Republican Chad Mayes. The chambers green tones are based on the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, the dais rests along a wall shaped like an E, with its central projection housing the rostrum.
Along the cornice appears a portrait of Abraham Lincoln and a Latin quotation, almost every decorating element is identical to the Senate Chamber. According to Article 4, Section 2 of the California Constitution, the Chief Clerk, the Sergeant-at-Arms, and the Chaplain are not members of the Legislature. The Sergeant-at-Arms protects the members of the California State Assembly and this position has existed since December 15,1849, when Samuel N. Houston became the Assemblys first Sergeant-at-Arms. The Chief Clerk, the acting Chief Sergeant-at-Arms, and the Chaplains are not members of the Legislature
San Francisco City Hall
San Francisco City Hall is the seat of government for the City and County of San Francisco, California. The structures dome is taller than that of the United States Capitol by 42 feet, the present building replaced an earlier City Hall that was destroyed during the 1906 earthquake, which was two blocks from the present one. It was bounded by Larkin Street, McAllister Street, and City Hall Avenue, largely where the current Public Library and U. N. Plaza stand today. The principal architect was Arthur Brown, Jr. of Bakewell & Brown, whose attention to the finishing details extended to the doorknobs, browns blueprints of the building are preserved at the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. Brown designed the San Francisco War Memorial Opera House, Veterans Building, Temple Emanuel, Coit Tower, the buildings vast open space is more than 500,000 square feet and occupying two full city blocks. It is 390 ft between Van Ness Avenue and Polk Street, and 273 ft between Grove and McAllister Streets and its dome, which owes much to Mansarts Baroque domes of the Val-de-Grâce and Les Invalides in Paris, rises 307.5 ft above the Civic Center Historic District.
It is 19 ft higher than the United States Capitol, and has a diameter of 112 ft, resting upon 4 x 50 ton and 4 x 20 ton girders, each 9 ft deep and 60 ft. The building as a whole contains 7,900 tons of steel from the American Bridge Company of Ambridge. It is faced with Madera County granite on the exterior, and Indiana sandstone within, together with finish marbles from Alabama, Vermont, much of the statuary is by Henri Crenier. The Rotunda is a space and the upper levels are public. Opposite the grand staircase, on the floor, is the office of the Mayor. A bust of former county supervisor Harvey Milk, who was assassinated in the building was unveiled on May 22,2008, MAYOR1931 The words were written by the previous Mayor Edward Robeson Taylor, and dedicated by Mayor James Rolph. The medallions in the vaults of the Rotunda are of Equality, Strength, Learning and, as memorialized in the South Light Court display, Progress. The current City Hall building is a replacement for a building which was completed in 1899 after 27 years of planning.
The original city hall was a larger building which contained a smaller extension which contained the citys Hall of Records. The building was destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, after Arthur Brown Juniors design was selected, construction started in 1913 and was completed by 1915, in time for the Exposition. The main rotunda had served as the location of prominent state funerals. General Fredrick Funston, hero of the Spanish–American War, Philippine–American War, joe DiMaggio and Marilyn Monroe were married at City Hall in 1954
Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. A grandson of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, Felix Mendelssohn was born into a prominent Jewish family and he was brought up without religion until the age of seven, when he was baptised as a Reformed Christian. Mendelssohn was recognised early as a prodigy, but his parents were cautious. Mendelssohn enjoyed early success in Germany, where he revived interest in the music of Johann Sebastian Bach. The Leipzig Conservatoire, which he founded, became a bastion of this anti-radical outlook, Mendelssohn wrote symphonies, oratorios, piano music and chamber music. His Songs Without Words are his most famous solo piano compositions and he is now among the most popular composers of the Romantic era. Mendelssohns father was the banker Abraham Mendelssohn, the son of the German Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn and his mother was Lea Salomon, a member of the Itzig family and a sister of Jakob Salomon Bartholdy.
Mendelssohn was the second of four children, his older sister Fanny displayed exceptional, the family moved to Berlin in 1811, leaving Hamburg in disguise fearing French revenge for the Mendelssohn banks role in breaking Napoleons Continental System blockade. Abraham and Lea Mendelssohn sought to give their children – Fanny, Paul, Fanny became a well-known pianist and amateur composer, originally Abraham had thought that she, rather than Felix, would be the more musical. However, at time, it was not considered proper, by either Abraham or Felix, for a woman to have a career in music, so Fanny remained an active. Abraham was disinclined to allow Felix to follow a career until it became clear that he seriously intended to dedicate himself to it. Mendelssohn grew up in an intellectual environment, Sarah Rothenburg wrote of the household that Europe came to their living room. Abraham Mendelssohn renounced the Jewish religion, he and his wife decided not to have Felix circumcised. Felix and his siblings were first brought up without religious education and his wife Lea were themselves baptised in 1822, formally adopting the surname Mendelssohn Bartholdy for themselves and their children.
The name Bartholdy was added at the suggestion of Leas brother, Jakob Salomon Bartholdy, in 1829, his sister Fanny wrote to him of Bartholdy this name that we all dislike. Like Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart before him, Mendelssohn was regarded as a child prodigy and he began taking piano lessons from his mother when he was six, and at seven was tutored by Marie Bigot in Paris. After the family moved to Berlin, all four Mendelssohn children studied piano with Ludwig Berger, from at least May 1819 Felix studied counterpoint and composition with Carl Friedrich Zelter in Berlin. This was an important influence on his future career, Zelter had almost certainly been recommended as a teacher by his aunt Sarah Levy, who had been a pupil of W. F. Bach and a patron of C. P. E. Bach
Twinkie defense is a derisive label for an improbable legal defense. Whites defense was that he suffered diminished capacity as a result of his depression and his change in diet from healthful food to Twinkies and other sugary foods was said to be a symptom of depression. Contrary to common belief, Whites attorneys did not argue that the Twinkies were the cause of Whites actions, White was convicted of voluntary manslaughter. The expression derives from the 1979 trial of Dan White, a former San Francisco police officer and firefighter, and until just before the crime, on November 27,1978, White assassinated Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk. Furthermore, White had previously been a fanatic and health food advocate. As an incidental note, Blinder mentioned theories that elements of diet could worsen existing mood swings, another psychiatrist, George Solomon, testified that White had exploded and was sort of on automatic pilot at the time of the killings. Public protests over the verdict led to the White Night Riots, Twinkies were never mentioned in the courtroom during the White trial, nor did the defense claim that White was on a sugar rush and committed the murders as a result.
However, one use of the term Twinkie defense became popular. The misunderstanding was mentioned at the end of Milk, Gus Van Sants 2008 biopic of Harvey Milk, in a bonus feature on the DVD version of The Times of Harvey Milk, a documentary on Milks life and death, Whites lawyers explain what they actually argued in court. In the American Broadcasting Companys 2017 docudrama, When We Rise, in stories covering the trial, satirist Paul Krassner had played up the angle of the Twinkie, and he would claim credit for coining the term Twinkie defense. Dan White committed suicide seven years later, Californias statutory definitions of premeditation and malice required for murder were eliminated by the states legislature, with the return to common law definitions. By this time, the Twinkie defense had become such a term that one lawmaker had waved a Twinkie in the air while making his point during a debate. During oral Supreme Court arguments in United States v. Gonzalez-Lopez,548 U. S, I want a lawyer whos going to get me off.
I want a lawyer who will invent the Twinkie defense, I would not consider the Twinkie defense an invention of a competent lawyer. But I want a lawyer whos going to win for me, high Court Debates Defendants Right to Counsel of Choice. Double Play, The Hidden Passions Behind the Double Assassination of George Moscone and Harvey Milk, ISBN 978-0-9825650-5-6 Snopes, The Twinkie Defense Myth of the Twinkie defense - San Francisco Chronicle, November 23,2003
Conservatism in the United States
Historians argue that the conservative tradition has played a major role in American politics and culture since the 1790s. However they have stressed that a conservative movement has played a key role in politics only since the 1950s. The recent movement is based in the Republican Party, though some Democrats were important figures early in the movements history, the history of American conservatism has been marked by tensions and competing ideologies. Fiscal conservatives and libertarians favor small government, low taxes, limited regulation, Social conservatives see traditional social values as threatened by secularism, they tend to support voluntary school prayer and oppose abortion and same sex marriage. Some want the teaching of intelligent design or creationism allowed, the 21st century has seen an increasingly fervent conservative support for Second Amendment rights of private citizens to own firearms. Neoconservatives want to expand American ideals throughout the world, paleoconservatives advocate restrictions on immigration, non-interventionist foreign policy, and stand in opposition to multiculturalism.
Nationwide most factions, except some libertarians, support a unilateral foreign policy, the conservative movement of the 1950s attempted to bring together these divergent strands, stressing the need for unity to prevent the spread of godless communism. All other activities of government tend to diminish freedom and hamper progress, the growth of government must be fought relentlessly. In this great social conflict of the era, we are, without reservations and we believe that truth is neither arrived at nor illuminated by monitoring election results, binding though these are for other purposes, but by other means, including a study of human experience. On this point we are, without reservations, on the conservative side, President Ronald Reagan set the conservative standard in the 1980s, in the 2010s the Republican leaders typically claim fealty to it. For example, most of the Republican candidates in 2012 claimed to be standardbearers of Reagans ideological legacy, the 1980s and beyond became known as the Reagan Era.
Typically, conservative politicians and spokesmen in the 21st century proclaim their devotion to Reagans ideals and policies on most social and they support a strong policy of law and order to control crime, including long jail terms for repeat offenders. Most conservatives support the death penalty for particularly egregious crimes, the law and order issue was a major factor weakening liberalism in the 1960s. From 2001 to 2008, Republican President George W. Bush stressed cutting taxes and minimizing regulation of industry and banking, Conservatives generally advocate the use of American military power to fight terrorists and promote democracy in the Middle East. According to a 2014 poll, 38% of American voters identify as conservative or very conservative, 34% as moderate, although the study does show some distinction between the concentration of moderates and conservatives or liberals between the Republican and Democratic parties. Among Democrats, 44% are self-identified liberals, 19% as conservatives, for Republicans 70% self-identified as conservative, 24% as moderate, and 5% as liberal.
Conservatism appears to be growing stronger at the state level, the trend is most pronounced among the least well-off, least educated, most blue collar, most economically hard-hit states. Conservatives generally believe that government action is not the solution to problems as poverty and inequality
Assassination is the murder of a prominent person, often a political leader or ruler, usually for political reasons or payment. The word assassin is believed to derive from the word Hashshashin. It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Persians who worked against various Arab, founded by the Persian Hassan-i Sabbah, the Assassins were active in the fortress of Alamut in Iran from the 8th to the 14th centuries, and controlled the castle of Masyaf in Syria. The group killed members of the Persian, Seljuq, the word for murder in many Romance languages is derived from this same root word. Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics and it dates back at least as far as recorded history. The Old Testament story of Judith illustrates how a woman frees the Israelites by tricking and assassinating Holofernes, a warlord of the rival Assyrians, with whom the Israelites were at war. King Joash of Judah was recorded as being assassinated by his own servants, Joab assassinated Absalom, King Davids son, chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra.
His student Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire, made use of assassinations against some of his enemies, other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, and Roman consul Julius Caesar. Emperors of Rome often met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later, the practice was well known in ancient China, as in Jing Kes failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC. Whilst many assassination were performed by an individual or a small group, the earliest were the sicarii in 6 A. D. who predated the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries. In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe and strangling in the bathtub were the most commonly used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe and this account is, contentious among historians, it being most commonly asserted that he died of natural causes.
The myth of the Curse of King Zvonimir is based on the legend of his assassination, in 1192, Conrad of Montferrat, the de facto King of Jerusalem, was killed by an assassin. The reigns of King Przemysł II of Poland, William the Silent of the Netherlands, in Russia alone, two emperors, Paul I and his grandson Alexander II, were assassinated within 80 years. In the United Kingdom, only one Prime Minister of the United Kingdom has ever been assassinated—Spencer Perceval on May 11,1812. In the United States, within 100 years, four presidents—Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, there have been at least 20 known attempts on U. S. presidents lives. Huey Long, a Senator, was assassinated in September of 1935, the Polish Home Army conducted a regular campaign of assassinations against top Nazi German officials in occupied Poland. Adolf Hitler, was almost killed by his own officers, indias Father of the Nation, Mohandas K. Gandhi, was shot to death on January 30,1948, by Nathuram Godse
A service pistol is any handgun issued to military personnel or law enforcement officers. Pistols are not typically issued to front-line infantry, before firearms were commonplace, officers typically carried swords instead. Traditionally and officers had carried swords for both protection and use in combat. Training was a factor—it took a long time to train new recruits in the use of longbows. As a result, swords were retained only by officers and by cavalry, the invention of the revolver in 1836 finally made a service pistol practical, as prior to this pistols had largely been single-shot weapons usually of no particular standardized pattern. Although officers traditionally had been obligated to buy their own weapons, non-commissioned officers, service pistols, on the other hand, were generally issued to officers, NCO, and others who needed to carry personal weapons as part of their duties. Hence, it was common for officers to carry government-issued service pistols in combat. Special operations soldiers often carry a handgun as a weapon to serve in a supplementary capacity to their primary weapon.
Soldiers who do not serve in a combat role are often issued a pistol. Service pistols are issued to police and other soldiers acting in a law enforcement capacity as part of their duties. The tradition of issuing pistols to officers as a weapon is being phased out by many nations. The United States Marine Corps, for example, recently began requiring all enlisted personnel and all officers below the rank of Lieutenant Colonel to carry the M4 Carbine as their primary weapon
Joan Chandos Baez is an American folk singer, songwriter and activist whose contemporary folk music often includes songs of protest or social justice. Baez has performed publicly for over 55 years, releasing over 30 albums, fluent in Spanish and English, she has recorded songs in at least six other languages. She is regarded as a singer, although her music has diversified since the counterculture days of the 1960s and now encompasses everything from folk rock and pop to country. In recent years, she has found success interpreting songs of modern songwriters such as Ryan Adams, Josh Ritter, Steve Earle and her recordings include many topical songs and material dealing with social issues. She began her career in 1960 and achieved immediate success. Her first three albums, Joan Baez, Joan Baez, Vol.2, and Joan Baez in Concert all achieved gold status and stayed on the Billboard. Songs of acclaim include Diamonds & Rust and covers of Phil Ochss There but for Fortune and she is known for Farewell, Love Is Just a Four-Letter Word, Forever Young, Joe Hill, Sweet Sir Galahad and We Shall Overcome.
Baez will be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on April 7,2017, Baez was born on Staten Island, New York, on January 9,1941. Joans grandfather, the Reverend Alberto Baez, left Catholicism to become a Methodist minister and her father, Albert Baez, was born in Puebla and grew up in Brooklyn, New York, where his father preached to—and advocated for—a Spanish-speaking congregation. Albert first considered becoming a minister but instead he turned to the study of mathematics and physics, Albert was credited as a co-inventor of the x-ray microscope. Baez, is a mathematical physicist, whom Albert interested in physics as a child, born in April 1913, she died on April 20,2013, days after her one hundredth birthday. Baez had two sisters — the elder, Pauline Thalia Baez Bryan, and the younger, Mimi Fariña, Mimi, a musician and activist, died of cancer in California in 2001. The Baez family converted to Quakerism during Joans early childhood, and she has continued to identify with the tradition, particularly in her commitment to pacifism, while growing up, Baez was subjected to racial slurs and discrimination due to her Mexican heritage.
Consequently, she became involved with a variety of social causes early in her career and she declined to play in any venues that were segregated, which meant that when she toured the Southern states she would play only at black colleges. Joan graduated from Palo Alto High School in 1958, Joan Baez became involved with a variety of social causes early in her career, including civil rights and non-violence. Social justice, she stated in the PBS series American Masters, is the core of her life. The opening line of Baezs memoir And a Voice to Sing With is I was born gifted, a friend of Joans father gave her a ukulele. She learned four chords, which enabled her to play rhythm and blues and her parents, were fearful that the music would lead her into a life of drug addiction
The Peoples Temple of the Disciples of Christ, commonly shortened to Peoples Temple, was a new religious movement founded in 1955 by Jim Jones in Indianapolis, Indiana. Jones used the Peoples Temple to spread a message which combined elements of Christianity with socialist politics, the group moved to California in the 1970s and established several locations throughout the state, including its headquarters in San Francisco. At its peak, the Temple boasted 20,000 members, the mass suicide and killings at Jonestown resulted in the greatest single loss of American civilian life in a deliberate act prior to the events of September 11,2001. The thought was, infiltrate the church, so I consciously made a decision to look into that prospect. Although he feared a backlash for being a communist, Jones was surprised when a Methodist superintendent helped him into the church, despite his knowledge that Jones was a communist. In 1952, Jones became a student pastor in Sommerset Southside Methodist Church in Indianapolis, in 1954, Jones began his own church in a rented space in Indianapolis, at first naming it the Community Unity Church.
Jones and Temple members knowingly faked healings because they found that the increased faith generated financial resources to help the poor and these healings involved chicken livers and other animal tissue, claimed by Jones to be cancerous tissues removed from the body. In 1956, Jones bought his first church building, in a racially mixed Indianapolis neighborhood and he first named this church Wings of Deliverance, and that year renamed it the Peoples Temple Full Gospel Church, the first time he used the phrase Peoples Temple. Jones healings and purported clairvoyant revelations attracted spiritualists and Temple members drove through various cities in Indiana and Ohio on recruiting and fund raising efforts. The Temple stressed egalitarian ideals, asking members to attend in casual clothes so poor members would not feel out of place, while the Temple had increased its African-American membership from 15% to nearly 50%, in order to attempt further gains the Temple hired African-American preacher Archie Ijames.
Pastor Ijames was one of the first to commit to Jones socialist collective program, in 1959, the church joined the Christian Church, and was renamed the Peoples Temple Christian Church Full Gospel. This affiliation was an attempt to both raise the dwindling membership and restore the reputation of the organization. Jones and his wife helped to increase the Temples soup kitchen service to an average of about 2,800 meals per month, the Temples public profile was further elevated when Jones was appointed to the Indianapolis Human Rights Commission. He engaged in attempts to integrate businesses, and was the subject of much local media coverage. Jones had read extensively about Father Divine, the founder of the International Peace Mission movement and Temple members visited Divine several times, while Jones studied his writings and tape recordings of his sermons. The Temple printed Divines texts for its members and began to preach that members should abstain from sex, in 1959, in a sermon in his Delaware Street Temple, Jones tested the new fiery rhetorical style that Divine had used.
His speech captivated members with lulls and crescendos, as Jones challenged individual members in front of the group, the speech marked the beginning of the Temples underlying us versus them message. He did so knowing that his Christian audience would recognize the similarities with text from the Acts of the Apostles which stated distribution was made to each as any had need