Moïse Amyraut, Latin Moyses Amyraldus, in English texts Moses Amyraut, was a French Huguenot, Reformed theologian and metaphysician. He is most noted for his modifications to Calvinist theology regarding the nature of Christ's atonement, referred to as Amyraldism or Amyraldianism. Born at Bourgueil, in the valley of the Changeon in the province of Anjou, his father was a lawyer, preparing Moses for his own profession, sent him, on the completion of his study of the humanities at Orléans to the university of Poitiers. At the university he took the degree of licentiate of laws. On his way home from the university he passed through Saumur, having visited the pastor of the Protestant church there, was introduced by him to Philippe de Mornay, governor of the city. Struck with young Amyraut's ability and culture, they both urged him to change from law to theology, his father advised him to revise his philological and philosophical studies, read over Calvin's Institutions, before determining a course.
He did so, decided for theology. He moved to the Academy of Saumur and studied under John Cameron, who regarded him as his greatest scholar, he had a brilliant course, was in due time licensed as a minister of the French Protestant Church. The contemporary civil wars and excitements hindered his advancement, his first church was in the province of Maine. There he remained two years. Jean Daillé, who moved to Paris, advised the church at Saumur to secure Amyraut as his successor, praising him "as above himself." The university of Saumur at the same time had fixed its eyes on him as professor of theology. The great churches of Paris and Rouen contended for him, to win him sent their deputies to the provincial synod of Anjou. Amyraut had left the choice to the synod, he was appointed to Saumur in 1633, to the professor's chair along with the pastorate. On the occasion of his inauguration he maintained for thesis De Sacerdotio Christi, his co-professors were Louis Cappel and Josué de la Place, who were Cameron's pupils and lifelong friends, who collaborated in the Theses Salmurienses, a collection of theses propounded by candidates in theology prefaced by the inaugural addresses of the three professors.
Amyraut soon gave to French Protestantism a new direction. In 1631 he published his Traité des religions. Chosen to represent the provincial synod of Anjou and Maine at the 1631 National Synod of Charenton, he was appointed as orator to present to the king The Copy of their Complaints and Grievances for the Infractions and Violations of the Edict of Nantes. Previous deputies had addressed the king on their bent knees, whereas the representatives of the Catholics had been permitted to stand. Amyraut consented to be orator. There was intense resistance. Cardinal Richelieu himself, preceded by lesser dignitaries, condescended to visit Amyraut to persuade him to kneel, his "oration" on this occasion, published in the French Mercure, remains a striking landmark in the history of French Protestantism. During his absence on this matter the assembly debated "whether the Lutherans who desired it, might be admitted into communion with the Reformed Churches of France at the Lord's Table." It was decided in the affirmative previous to his return.
Pierre Bayle recounts the title-pages of no fewer than thirty-two books of which Amyraut was the author. These show that he took part in all the great controversies on predestination and Arminianism which so agitated and harassed all Europe, he held fast the Calvinism of his preceptor Cameron. In 1634 he published his Traité de la predestination, in which he tried to mitigate the harsh features of predestination by his Universalismus hypotheticus. God, predestines all men to happiness on condition of their having faith; this gave rise to a charge of heresy, of which he was acquitted at the national synod held at Alençon in 1637, presided over by Benjamin Basnage. The charge was brought up again at the national synod of Charenton in 1644, when he was again acquitted. A third attack at the synod of Loudun in 1659 met with no better success; the university of Saumur became the university of French Protestantism. Amyraut had as many as a hundred students in attendance upon his lectures. One of these was William Penn, who would go on to found the Pennsylvania Colony in America based in part on Amyraut's notions of religious freedom.
Another historic part filled by Amyraut was in the negotiations originated by Pierre le Gouz de la Berchère, first president of the parlement of Grenoble, when exiled to Saumur, for a reconciliation and reunion of the Catholics of France with the French Protestants. Large were the concessions made by Richelieu in his personal interviews with Amyraut. On all sides the statesmanship and eloquence of Amyraut were conceded, his De l'elevation de la foy et de l'abaissement de la raison en la creance des mysteres de la religion gave him early a high place as a metaphysician. Exclusive of his controversial writings, he left behind him a voluminous series of practical evangelical books, which
The ruins of Thurant Castle stand on a wide hill spur made from slate above the villages of Alken on the Moselle in Germany. The castle is located within the county of Mayen-Koblenz in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate) and belongs to the spur castle type. Next to the castle which stands on a steep shoulder of the valley are vine gardens on the sunny side. From the mid-13th century the archbishops of Cologne and Trier were joint owners of the site and had their respective property managed by burgraves; as a result, each half of the castle had its own bergfried and domestic buildings and a separate entrance. From the early 16th century the double castle fell into disrepair and was made a complete ruin during the destruction wrought by the War of the Palatine Succession. Robert Allmers from Varel, co-found of the Hansa Automobil company and, from 1914, Director of Bremen's Hansa Lloyd factories, purchased the site in 1911 and had part of it rebuilt; the castle may be visited from March to mid-November for a fee.
According to the Heritage Monument Conservation Act of Rhineland-Palatinate, it is a protected monument, incorporated into the state monument list. The entire site has been declared a protected zone. In addition Thurant Castle is a protected cultural object under the Hague Convention and displays the blue and white protection signs. Pottery finds point to a Roman settlement on the hill spur, but the first record of the place dates to the year 1209. Count Palatine Henry I the Tall from the House of Welf had a fortification built on the present site between 1198 and 1206 in order to secure the claims of his brother, Emperor Otto IV, in the Moselle region. According to tradition, he named the hill castle after Toron Castle near Tyros in present-day Lebanon, which he had besieged in vain during the Battle of Barbarossa during the Third Crusade. After Count Palatine Henry II the Younger died without male issue in 1214, Emperor Frederick II gave the castle and the village of Alken as an imperial fief together with the Palatinate to the House of Wittelsbach who were loyal to the Hohenstaufens.
As a result of its location in the land around Trier Thurant Castle was however, claimed by the archbishops of Cologne and Trier. In 1216 Engelbert I of Cologne succeeded in taking the castle by force. Although Pope Honorius III protested against this act, Engelbert retained possession of his prize until his death in November 1225, when the castle went back into the hands of the counts Palatine by Rhine. Following that, Duke Otto II of Bavaria appointed a knight, named Zurn, as the burgrave; because Berlewin conducted himself as a robber baron and raided the Trier Land from his castle, Arnold II of Isenburg and Conrad of Hochstaden joined forces and besieged the castle in 1246 in the so-called Great Feud. In 1248 the place was captured by them and, on 17 November that year, an expiatory treaty was signed that has survived to the present day and is thus one of the oldest German documents. In the treaty, Electoral Palatinate gives up possession of Thurant Castle and the associated estate of Alken in favour of the two archbishops.
The archbishops divided the site into a Trier and a Cologne half which were separated by a wall and each managed by a burgrave appointed by their respective primates. Each half had a separate entrance, its own residential and domestic buildings and a bergfried, today called the Trier Tower and Cologne Tower. In the 14th and 15th centuries, both parts of the castle were not only Afterlehen fiefs, but mortgaged properties. Among the noble families who occupied the castle from the early 14th century were the families of von Schöneck, von Winningen, von Eltz and von der Reck. From 1495 the lords of Wiltberg were one of the vassals, they used the castle, becoming a ruin as early as 1542, as a stone quarry, in order to build a country house in Alken, the Wiltberg’sche Schloss or Wiltburg. During the War of the Palatine Succession the castle suffered further destruction in 1689 at the hand of French troops and the castle became a ruin. Only the two bergfriede and a residential house from the 16th century were undamaged.
Geheimrat Robert Allmer purchased the site in 1911 and had several of its elements rebuilt in 1915/16. Since 1973 it has been a joint private residence of the Wulf families. Klaus Freckmann: Einführung in die Geschichte der Burgen und Schlösser an der Mosel. In: Wartburg-Gesellschaft zur Erforschung von Burgen und Schlössern: Forschungen zu Burgen und Schlössern. Vol. 2. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich/Berlin, 1996, ISBN 3-422-06187-8, pp. 9–30. Martina Holdorf: Burgen und Schlösser am Mittelrhein. Görres, Koblenz, 1999, ISBN 3-920388-71-2, pp. 69–72. Gustav Schellack, Willi Wagner: Burgen und Schlösser in Hunsrück-, Nahe- und Moselland. Henn, Kastellaun, 1976, ISBN 3-450-19912-9, pp. 240–243. Gunther Seifert: Die Moselburgen - Zwischen Trier und Koblenz. Seifert, Overath, 1999, pp. 4–5. Stefan Ulrich: Arras, Bernkastel, Cochem und Thurandt. Beobachtungen an einigen Moselburgen. In: Burgen und Schlösser. Zeitschrift für Burgenforschung und Denkmalpflege. Jg. 49, 2008, No. 3, ISSN 0007-6201, pp. 154-160. Burg Thurant und Umgebung.
Allmers, Varel, 1994. Source collection Official website of Thurant Castle Information and photographs of the castle Castle entry in the scientific castle data bank of the European Castle Institute Artist's reconstruction by Wolfgang Braun
Reginald Hollingworth was an English footballer who played in the Football League for Wolverhampton Wanderers. Hollingworth, born in Doncaster but raised in Rainworth, was training as a mechanical engineer and playing amateur football for Sutton Junction when he was spotted by Wolverhampton Wanderers, he joined the Second Division club on 8 November 1928, making his first team debut two days in a 2–0 win at their Black Country rivals West Bromwich Albion. The defender made only sporadic appearances during his first seasons with the Molineux club, but became a first team regular during the 1930–31 season; the following season he was again a bedrock of their defence as the club won the Second Division championship and returned to the top flight after a 26-year absence. This season saw him selected by England to play in a trial match in March, preceding a Home International against Scotland, but he was forced to pull out after damaging his ankle on the eve of the game in a league match. Injuries began to persistently restrict his career over the following years causing him to announce his football retirement at the end of the 1935–36 season, aged 26.
He had made 180 appearances in total for Wolves, scoring eight times. After leaving football, he joined the Staffordshire police force, later worked at the Goodyear factory in Wolverhampton, he died on 8 July 1969, aged 59. With Wolverhampton WanderersSecond Division: 1931–32
West Stockbridge Grange No. 246 is a historic grange hall at 5 Swamp Road in West Stockbridge, Massachusetts. The Greek Revival building was constructed in 1838 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1999; this early Grange Hall was built as the Methodist Church in the Village of West Stockbridge in 1838. Located on Swamp Road the property is bordered by the Williams River. A handsome example of Greek Revival architecture, which still retains its original 36 over 36 sashes with glazed gothic arches, the church closed its doors in 1910; the building remained vacant for a number of years. In 1918 the building was purchased by the West Stockbridge/Alford Grange and underwent extensive renovations to the interior making it one of the "best Grange Halls of its day in Western Massachusetts." These improvements included electricity, wainscoting the walls and vaulted ceiling, the installation of some of the original church pews on sidewall platforms and the addition of rock maple flooring.
The choir was enclosed and glazed pocket doors with early stained glass decals were installed. A dramatic theatrical stage was constructed at the back of the large open meeting room with a spectacular hand painted theater curtain which remains there today; the building was dedicated by members of that Grange on August 1, 1919 and the lofty 17’ ceiling, gothic windows and wainscoting remain intact from this time period. This building has been owned since 2007 and continues to be a meeting place for the West Stockbridge Grange which still houses their ceremonial artifacts there; these include a number of podiums, early wind and rain machines and various other items of historic interest. The current owner has offered the building for use and as a fundraising tool by non-profit organizations. Amenities include a sound system, digital projector, 14’ x 9’ movie screen, spot lit mirror ball, dimmable lighting, comfortable upholstered seating, numerous side chairs and various folding tables; the building is not open to the public, but it is able to be shown by appointment.
Søren Ulrik Thomsen is a Danish poet. His debut was City Slang, 1981. Søren Ulrik Thomsen was born in 1956 in Kalundborg, he grew up in Store Heddinge, south of Copenhagen, where he went to school together with another Danish poet, Jens Fink-Jensen from 1968 to 1972. During his childhood he heard readings of literature and sang evening songs; this early exposure to the rhythm and poetry of language influenced his writing. In school he became familiar with the songs of B. S. Ingemann, a poet who has had significant influence on Thomsen's poetry, he moved with his family to Copenhagen at sixteen and enrolled in secondary school at Rysensteen and, after being expelled, at Det Frie Gymnasium, where he completed his upper secondary education, making him eligible for university studies. His encounter with Copenhagen influenced his early poetry, was reflected in themes such as the strangeness and loneliness of the big city. Søren Ulrik Thomsen studied comparative literature at the University of Copenhagen, but prioritized writing poetry rather than completing his degree.
His debut was in the review Hvedekorn in 1977. His first collection of poetry was City Slang, it is poetry about human alienation in a city. In 1984, the Danish singer Lars H. U. G. Scored these poems on an album of the same title, expanding Thomsen's audience. Thomsen's collections of poetry City Slang, Ukendt under den samme måne and New poems belonged to the group of 80s poets who were reacting against the political poets of the seventies; the 80s poets, which included Michael Strunge, was focused on the body and existential subjects in a tight, minimalistic language. Thomsen published Hjemfalden, Det skabtes vaklen and Det værste og det bedste, illustrated by Ib Spang Olsen. With these collections he moved away from the school 80s poets and establishes himself as a poet with a individual expression. Søren Ulrik Thomsen is interested in great existential human conditions such as death and loneliness and destruction, his poems in Hjemfalden are rhythmic arabesques, which comes through in his public readings.
He has published two poetics, where he tries to define the essence of poetry and what happens in the process of creating a poem, Mit lys brænder. Omrids af en essays; as a writer Søren Ulrik Thomsen participates in public debate and has published a book of essays with Frederik Stjernfeldt, Kritik af den negative opbyggelighed. His books have always enjoyed a great deal of attention as the subject of numerous books and essays, he is seen as one of the more significant Danish contemporary poets, he was the focus of the only conference devoted to a living Danish writer. Søren Ulrik Thomsen's poetry has been translated in the book Selected Poetry, based on poems from Hjemfalden and Det skabtes vaklen. 1985 – Otto Gelsted Prize 2015 – Søren Gyldendal Prize
The Canon AF35M, by Canon Japan or the Sure Shot by Canon USA, was Canon Inc.'s first autofocus 35mm lens-shutter compact camera. It was launched in November 1979 and received the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry's 1980 Good Design Award in September 1980, it sold well. It was supplanted by 1981's higher-specified AF35ML and wholly replaced by 1983's AF35M II; the active autofocus system used a near-infrared emitting diode and a pin photo diode to determine the subject position by triangulation in a manner similar to a coincident-image rangefinder. This meant that the system was independent of ambient light levels and achieved a high degree of accuracy; the autofocus area was marked on the reverse-Galilean optical viewfinder, which had projected framelines, zone focusing marks for near and far, parallax correction marks, battery-check and camera-shake warning LEDs. Viewfinder magnification was 0.5× and coverage was 85% of the full 135 frame area. The lens was of 38 mm focal length and with a maximum aperture of f/2.8.
A ring around the lens optic itself was used to set the film speed, indicated on a small window on the front of the lens assembly. The location of this, inside the filter ring of the lens, meant that the meter would function even with filters fitted to the lens. Film transport was automatic in both directions, but the camera was not fitted with Canon's Quick Load feature. An integral flash was fitted; the unit had a guide number of 14 and featured auto-exposure with the camera's light meter as well as supporting fill flash. On the front was a self-timer control. All electronic functions drew power from two AA batteries; some of the models drew power from a single 2CR5 battery