Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, United States. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is bordered on three sides by the city of Los Angeles – Pacific Palisades to the north, Brentwood on the northeast, West Los Angeles on the east, Mar Vista on the southeast, Venice on the south; the Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736. Due in part to an agreeable climate, Santa Monica became a famed resort town by the early 20th century; the city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its downtown core, significant job growth and increased tourism. The Santa Monica Pier and Pacific Park remain popular destinations. Santa Monica was long inhabited by the Tongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language; the first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present-day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3, 1769. Named after the Christian saint Monica, there are two different accounts of how the city's name came to be.
One says it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica, but her feast day is May 4. Another version says it was named by Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs, that were reminiscent of the tears Saint Monica shed over her son's early impiety. In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios. Following the Mexican–American War, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2, 1848. In the 1870s the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, connected Santa Monica with Los Angeles, a wharf out into the bay; the first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building a beer hall, now part of the Santa Monica Hostel. It is Santa Monica's oldest extant structure. By 1885, the town's first hotel was the Santa Monica Hotel. Amusement piers became enormously popular in the first decades of the 20th century and the extensive Pacific Electric Railroad brought people to the city's beaches from across the Greater Los Angeles Area.
Around the start of the 20th century, a growing population of Asian Americans lived in and around Santa Monica and Venice. A Japanese fishing village was near the Long Wharf while small numbers of Chinese lived or worked in Santa Monica and Venice; the two ethnic minorities were viewed differently by White Americans who were well-disposed towards the Japanese but condescending towards the Chinese. The Japanese village fishermen were an integral economic part of the Santa Monica Bay community. Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field for the Douglas Aircraft Company. In 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes returned after covering 27,553 miles in 175 days, were greeted on their return September 23, 1924, by a crowd of 200,000; the Douglas Company kept facilities in the city until the 1960s. The Great Depression hit Santa Monica deeply. One report gives citywide employment in 1933 of just 1,000.
Hotels and office building owners went bankrupt. In the 1930s, corruption infected Santa Monica; the federal Works Project Administration helped build several buildings, most notably City Hall. The main Post Office and Barnum Hall were among other WPA projects. Douglas's business grew astronomically with the onset of World War II, employing as many as 44,000 people in 1943. To defend against air attack, set designers from the Warner Brothers Studios prepared elaborate camouflage that disguised the factory and airfield; the RAND Corporation began as a project of the Douglas Company in 1945, spun off into an independent think tank on May 14, 1948. RAND acquired a 15-acre campus between the Civic Center and the pier entrance; the completion of the Santa Monica Freeway in 1966 brought the promise of new prosperity, though at the cost of decimating the Pico neighborhood, a leading African American enclave on the Westside. Beach volleyball is believed to have been developed by Duke Kahanamoku in Santa Monica during the 1920s.
The Santa Monica Looff Hippodrome is a National Historic Landmark. It sits on the Santa Monica Pier, built in 1909; the La Monica Ballroom on the pier was once the largest ballroom in the US and the source for many New Year's Eve national network broadcasts. The Santa Monica Civic Auditorium was an important music venue for several decades and hosted the Academy Awards in the 1960s. McCabe's Guitar Shop is a leading acoustic performance space as well as retail outlet. Bergamot Station is a city-owned art gallery compound; the city is home to the California Heritage Museum and the Angels Attic dollhouse and toy museum. The New West Symphony is the resident orchestra of Barnum Hall, they are resident orchestra of the Oxnard Performing Arts Center and the Thousand Oaks Civic Arts Plaza. Santa Monica has three main shopping districts: Montana Avenue on the north side, the Downtown District in the city's core, Main Street on the south end; each has personality. Montana Avenue is a stretch of luxury boutique stores and small offices that features more upscale shopping.
The Main Street district offers an eclectic mix of clothing and other specialty retail. The Downtown District is the home of the Third Street Promenade, a major outdoor pedestrian-on
West Hollywood, California
West Hollywood referred to as WeHo, is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. Incorporated in 1984, it is home to the Sunset Strip; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, its population was 34,399, it is considered one of the most prominent gay villages in the United States. West Hollywood is bounded by the city of Beverly Hills on the west, on other sides by neighborhoods of the city of Los Angeles: Hollywood Hills on the north, Hollywood on the east, the Fairfax District on the southeast, Beverly Grove on the southwest; the city's irregular boundary is featured in its logo. West Hollywood benefits from a dense, compact urban form with small lots, mixed land use, a walkable street grid. According to Walkscore, a website that ranks cities based on walkability, West Hollywood is the most walkable city in California with a Walkscore of 89. Commercial corridors include the nightlife and dining focused on the Sunset Strip, along Santa Monica Boulevard, the Avenues of Art and Design along Robertson and Beverly Boulevard.
Residential neighborhoods in West Hollywood include the Norma Triangle, West Hollywood North, West Hollywood West, West Hollywood East, West Hollywood Heights, all of which are only a few blocks long or wide. Major intersecting streets provide amenities within walking distance of adjacent neighborhoods. West Hollywood has a Subtropical-semi-arid climate with year-round warm weather; the record high temperature of 111 °F was recorded September 26, 1963, while the record low of 24 °F was recorded on January 4, 1949. Snow is rare in West Hollywood, with the last accumulation occurring in 1949. Rainfall is sparse, falls during the winter months. Most historical writings about West Hollywood began in the late-18th century with European colonization when the Portuguese explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho arrived offshore and claimed the inhabited region for Spain. Around 5,000 of the indigenous inhabitants from the Tongva Indian tribe canoed out to greet Juan Cabrillo; the Tongva tribe was a nation of hunter-gatherers known for their reverence of courage.
By 1771, these native people had been ravaged by diseases brought in by the Europeans from across wide oceans. The Spanish mission system changed the tribal name to "Gabrielinos", in reference to the Mission de San Gabriel. Early in 1770 Gaspar de Portola's Mexican expeditionary force stopped just south of the Santa Monica Mountains near what would become West Hollywood to draw pitch from tar pits to waterproof their belongings and to say mass; the Gabrielinos are believed to have burned the pitch for fuel. By 1780, what became the "Sunset Strip" was the major connecting road for El Pueblo de Los Angeles, all ranches westward to the Pacific Ocean; this land passed through the hands of various owners during the next one hundred years, it was called names such as "La Brea" and "Plummer" that are listed in historical records. Most of this area was part of the Rancho La Brea, it came to be owned by the Henry Hancock family. During the final decade years of the nineteenth century, the first large land development in what would become West Hollywood—the town of "Sherman"—was established by Moses Sherman and his partners of the Los Angeles Pacific Railroad, an interurban railroad line which became part of the Pacific Electric Railway system.
Sherman became the location of the railroad's main shops, railroad yards, "car barns". Many working-class employees of the railroad settled in this town, it was during this time that the city began to earn its reputation as a loosely regulated, liquor-friendly place for eccentric people wary of government interference. Despite several annexation attempts, the town elected not to become part of the City of Los Angeles. In a controversial decision, in 1925 Sherman adopted "West Hollywood", "...a moniker pioneered earlier in the decade by the West Hollywood Realty Board" as its informal name, though it remained under the governance of Los Angeles County. For many years, the area, now the city of West Hollywood was an unincorporated area in the midst of Los Angeles; because gambling was illegal in the city of Los Angeles, but still legal in Los Angeles County, the 1920s saw the proliferation of many casinos, night clubs, etc. along Sunset Boulevard. These businesses were immune from the sometimes heavy-handed law-enforcement of the L.
A. Police Department; some people connected with movie-making were attracted to this less-restricted area of the County, a number of architecturally distinctive apartment buildings and apartment hotels were built. Many interior designers, decorators and "to the trade" furnishing showrooms located in West Hollywood date back to the middle of the century; the area and its extravagant nightclubs fell out of favor. However, the Sunset Strip and its restaurants and nightclubs continued to be an attraction for out-of-town tourists. During the late 1960s, the Sunset Strip was transformed again during the hippie movement which brought a thriving music publishing industry coupled with "hippie" culture; some young people from all over the country flocked to West Hollywood. The most recent migration to West Hollywood came about after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, when thousands of Russian Jews immigrated to the city. A majority of the 5,000 to 6,000 Russian Jews settled in two major immigration waves, 1978–79 and 1988–92.
Other than New York, West Hollywood's Russian-speaking community is the most concentrated single Russian-speaking region in United States. In 1984, resid
Owensmouth may refer to: Owensmouth, California was a town founded in 1912 in the Western part of the San Fernando Valley. Owensmouth joined the city of Los Angeles in 1917, was renamed Canoga Park on March 1, 1931. Owensmouth was named for the 1913 Owens River aqueduct's terminus in current Canoga Park; the town was started by the Los Angeles Suburban Homes Company as part of an extraordinary real estate development in Southern California. Los Angeles Suburban Homes Company was owned by a syndicate of rich Los Angeles investors and speculators: including Harrison Gray Otis, Harry Chandler, Moses Sherman, Hobart Johnstone Whitley, others. On April 2, 1915 H. J. Whitley purchased the Suburban Home Company so that he would have complete control for finishing the development, it anticipated possible connections to but was planned independent of the soon to be completed Los Angeles Aqueduct from the Owens River watershed to the City of Los Angeles through the San Fernando Valley in Los Angeles County.
The newly built Sherman Way double drive and the Pacific Electric street cars, opened on December 7, 1912, gave new access to the town and to the other new towns in the valley Van Nuys and Marion. Sherman Way was a paved boulevard with lush landscaping and no speed limit where one might get up to 35 mph, there was a separate dirt road for farm wagons/equipment, telegraph lines; the new town had its problems. In 1916 there were only 200 residents; the town and orchards did not get any aqueduct water till 1917, when City of Los Angeles annexed Owensmouth. The street, Owensmouth Avenue that runs north-west through the Valley, is one of the few reminders of the 1910s; the community's name was changed to Canoga Park in 1931. Current West Hills, Los Angeles, was part of Owensmouth from 1912 to 1931. In 1987 West Hills was formed from a homeowners break way from Canoga Park forming the new community. Owensmouth Ave, a street running north and south through the San Fernando Valley just east of Topanga Canyon Blvd, from just south of the CA 118 to just north of CA 101.
Owensmouth Street car line to Owensmouth ran from 1911 to 1952. San Fernando Street car line to Owensmouth. Built by Moses Sherman's Los Angeles Pacific Railroad sold to PE. Owensmouth Southern Pacific Railroad line and station opened in 1912; the 1912 station is at 21355 Sherman Way, Canoga Park, CA. The station was damaged by fire in 1995. Parts of the old Rancho El Escorpión were in the Owensmouth; the Mexican land grant was on the land before Owensmouth. Los Angeles Suburban Homes Company was in Owensmouth, The company built homes, owned by Isaac Newton Van Nuys State Bank of Owensmouth, was in Owensmouth, its President was H. J. Whitley. Owensmouth High School in Canoga Park, California opened October 4, 1914, it is now called Canoga High School, the oldest High School in the west San Fernando Valley. Owensmouth Continuation high school is in Canoga Park. State Water Project Warner Center William Mulholland Glendale and Montrose Railway Bell Canyon Park Sherman Way Canoga-Owensmouth Historical Museum LADWP Los Angeles Aqueduct web site Los Angeles Aqueduct Landscape Atlas Mono Lake Committee Website LADWP History page on William Mulholland Los Angeles Aqueduct Slideshow The William Mulholland Memorial Fountain Los Angeles Aqueduct Digital Platform
The Owens River is a river in eastern California in the United States 183 miles long. It drains into and through the Owens Valley, an arid basin between the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada and the western faces of the Inyo and White Mountains; the river terminates at the endorheic Owens Lake south of Lone Pine, at the bottom of a 2,600 sq mi watershed. In the early 1900s the Owens was the focus of the California Water Wars, fought between the city of Los Angeles and the inhabitants of Owens Valley over the construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct. Since 1913, the Owens River has been diverted to Los Angeles, causing the ruin of the valley's economy and the drying of Owens Lake. In winter 2006, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power restored 5% of the pre-aqueduct flow to the river, by court order, allowing the Owens River Gorge, the river bed in the valley, Owens Lake to contain a small amount of water; the river rises in the Sierra Nevada in southwestern Mono County 15 miles south of Mono Lake and 35 miles east of Yosemite Valley.
It flows southeast across the Long Valley Caldera, through Lake Crowley reservoir descends through the 20-mile-long Owens River Gorge, emerging at the north end of the Owens Valley northwest of Bishop. In the area around Bishop, it is diverted through many ditches to irrigate the surrounding farming region, it flows south-southeast through the Owens Valley between the Sierra Nevada on the west and the White and Inyo Mountains on the east, past Big Pine. 14 miles south-southeast of Big Pine, most of the remaining river is diverted into the Los Angeles Aqueduct, completed in 1913 to supply municipal and agricultural water to Los Angeles. The remaining river flows through the southern valley, flanked by the Los Angeles Aqueduct, past Lone Pine, entering the lake bed of predominantly dry Owens Lake at the southern end of Owens Valley; the river flows through two major valleys of the extreme southwestern Great Basin – the Long Valley and Owens Valley. The north to south drainage basin is in portions of Mono and Inyo counties and terminates in the now-dry Owens Lake.
To the northwest of the valley is the Long Valley Caldera, only a fraction of the size of the Owens Valley. The Owens River enters Owens Valley from the northwest, while the Spring Valley Wash drains the northernmost part of the valley, extending a tiny portion of the basin into Nevada; the river flows on the east side of the valley, because alluvial deposits from Sierra Nevada streams have forced the river channel in that direction. Vertical relief in the basin is immense – elevations range from 14,505 feet at Mount Whitney, the highest peak in the continental United States, to 3,556 feet on the bed of Owens Lake; the Owens River itself heads at an elevation of 7,291 feet. Few people inhabit open grasslands and steep mountainsides of the watershed; the largest city on the river is Bishop, with a population of just under 4,000. Other significant towns include Lone Pine, Big Pine, Independence; the Owens River flows through part of the Range Province of North America's Great Basin. The Owens Valley is a graben or rift valley, a section of land that has dropped down between two parallel faults, while the land on either side has risen.
This has resulted in steep, towering walls of the present-day valley. With the Sierra Nevada on the west side and the Inyo Mountains and White Mountains on the east, with the highest peaks of either range rising to over 14,000 feet and the floor of the valley at a comparatively low 3,000 to 4,000 feet, the Owens River flows in one of the deepest valleys in the United States. Further to the north, the Owens River basin encompasses predominantly igneous rocks and vast remnants of past volcanic activity; the upper 30 miles of the river run through the Long Valley Caldera, an enormous 20-mile -wide crater formed by a volcanic eruption some 760,000 years ago. The eruption's resulting ash cloud covered much of the southwestern United States, including parts of ten U. S. states. Mammoth Mountain, to the southwest formed from eruptions related to the Long Valley Caldera. To the north of the Caldera, extending to the Mono Lake area, lie the chain of Mono-Inyo Craters, which range in age from 400,000 to 500 years old.
During the Pleistocene at the end of the last glacial period, melting glaciers in the Sierra Nevada and Inyo/White Mountains fed prodigious amounts of runoff into the Owens River, causing it to expand to many times its current size. The increased volume of the river caused Owens Lake to rise as well spilling out the south side of the valley into the Mojave Desert. Ancient, now-abandoned river channels suggest that the extended Owens River ran south to China Lake east into Searles Lake, north into the Panamint Valley and east into Death Valley and the ancient Lake Manly; this great inland sea was fed by the Mojave River from the south, the Amargosa River from the east and the Death Valley Wash from the north. During this short time, the Owens River became part of a vast interior drainage system that stretched east to west covering over 8,000 square miles. During the peak of runoff, water from this massive basin may have escaped to the Colorado River through a valley leading to the southeast.
For thousands of years the Owens River valley was inhabited by the seminomadic Owens Valley Northern Paiute and the Shoshone tribes
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway
The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway referred to as the Santa Fe or AT&SF, was one of the larger railroads in the United States. Chartered in February 1859, the railroad reached the Kansas-Colorado border in 1873 and Pueblo, Colorado, in 1876. To create a demand for its services, the railroad set up real estate offices and sold farm land from the land grants that it was awarded by Congress. Despite the name, its main line never served New Mexico, as the terrain was too difficult; the Santa Fe was a pioneer in intermodal freight transport, an enterprise that included a tugboat fleet and an airline. Its bus line extended passenger transportation to areas not accessible by rail, ferryboats on the San Francisco Bay allowed travelers to complete their westward journeys to the Pacific Ocean; the AT&SF was the subject of a popular song, Harry Warren and Johnny Mercer's "On the Atchison and the Santa Fe", written for the film, The Harvey Girls. The railroad ceased operations on December 31, 1996, when it merged with the Burlington Northern Railroad to form the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway.
The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway was chartered on February 11, 1859, to join Atchison and Topeka, with Santa Fe, New Mexico. In its early years, the railroad opened Kansas to settlement. Much of its revenue came from wheat grown there and from cattle driven north from Texas to Wichita and Dodge City by September 1872. Rather than turn its survey southward at Dodge City, AT&SF headed southwest over Raton Pass because of coal deposits near Trinidad and Raton, New Mexico; the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad was aiming at Raton Pass, but AT&SF crews arose early one morning in 1878 and were hard at work with picks and shovels when the D&RGW crews showed up for breakfast. At the same time the two railroads had a series of skirmishes over occupancy of the Royal Gorge west of Cañon City, Colorado. Federal intervention prompted an out-of-court settlement on February 2, 1880, in the form of the so-called "Treaty of Boston", wherein D&RG was allowed to complete its line and lease it for use by Santa Fe.
D&RG paid an estimated $1.4 million to Santa Fe for its work within the Gorge and agreed not to extend its line to Santa Fe, while Santa Fe agreed to forego its planned routes to Denver and Leadville. Building across Kansas and eastern Colorado was simple, with few natural obstacles, but the railroad found it economically impossible because of the sparse population, it set up real estate offices in the area and promoted settlement across Kansas on the land, granted to it by Congress in 1863. It offered discounted fares to anyone. AT&SF reached Albuquerque in 1880. In March 1881 AT&SF connected with the Southern Pacific at Deming, New Mexico, forming the second transcontinental rail route; the railroad built southwest from Benson, Arizona, to Nogales on the Mexican border where it connected with the Sonora Railway, which the AT&SF had built north from the Mexican port of Guaymas. AT&SF purchased the Southern California Railway on Jan. 17, 1906. The Atlantic & Pacific Railroad was chartered in 1866 to build west from Springfield, along the 35th parallel of latitude to a junction with SP at the Colorado River.
The infant A&P had no rail connections. The line, to become the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway would not reach Springfield for another four years, SP did not build east from Mojave to the Colorado River until 1883. A&P started construction in 1868, built southwest into what would become Oklahoma, promptly entered receivership. In 1879 A&P struck a deal with the Santa Frisco railroads to construct a rail line for each; the railroads would jointly own the A&P railroad west of Albuquerque. In 1883 A&P reached Needles, where it connected with an SP line. A&P built a line between Tulsa, Oklahoma and St. Louis, Missouri for the Frisco, but the Tulsa-Albuquerque portion remained unbuilt; the Santa Fe began to expand: a line from Barstow, California, to San Diego in 1885 and to Los Angeles in 1887. By January 1890, the entire system consisted of some 7,500 miles of track; the Panic of 1893 had the same effect on the AT&SF. In 1895 AT&SF sold the Frisco and the Colorado Midland and wrote off the losses, but it still retained control of the A&P.
The Santa Fe Railway still wanted to reach California on its own rails, the state of California eagerly courted the railroad to break SP's monopoly. In 1897 the railroad traded the Sonora Railway of Mexico to SP for their line between Needles and Barstow, giving AT&SF its own line from Chicago to the Pac
William Mulholland was an Irish American civil engineer, responsible for building the infrastructure to provide a water supply that allowed Los Angeles to grow into the largest city in California. As the head of a predecessor to the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, Mulholland designed and supervised the building of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, a 233-mile -long system to move water from Owens Valley to the San Fernando Valley; the creation and operation of the aqueduct led to the disputes known as the California Water Wars. In March 1928, Mulholland's career came to an end when the St. Francis Dam failed just over 12 hours after he and his assistant gave it a safety inspection. William Mulholland was born in Belfast, part of the United Kingdom, his parents Hugh and Ellen Mulholland were Dubliners and they returned to the city a few years after William's birth. His younger brother, Hugh Jr. was born in 1856. At the time of Mulholland's birth, his father was working as a guard for the Royal Mail.
In 1862, when William was seven years old, his mother died. Three years his father remarried. William was educated at O'Connell School by the Christian Brothers in Dublin. After having been beaten by his father for receiving bad marks in school, Mulholland ran off to sea. At 15, Mulholland was a member of the British Merchant Navy, he spent the next four years as a seaman on the Gleniffer, making at least 19 Atlantic crossings to ports in North America and the Caribbean. In 1874 he disembarked in New York and headed west to Michigan where he worked a summer on a Great Lakes freighter and the winter in a lumber camp. After nearly losing a leg in a logging accident he moved to Ohio. Mulholland reconnected with his brother Hugh, in December 1876 they stowed away on a ship in New York bound for California, they were forced to leave the ship. They walked over 47 miles through jungle to the city of Balboa. Mulholland arrived in Los Angeles in 1877. After arriving in Los Angeles, which at the time had a population of about 9,000, Mulholland decided to return to life at sea, as work was hard to find.
On his way to the port at San Pedro to find a ship, he accepted a job digging a well. After a brief stint in Arizona where he prospected for gold and worked on the Colorado River, he obtained a job from Frederick Eaton as Deputy Zanjero with the newly formed Los Angeles City Water Company. In Alta California during the Spanish and Mexican administrations, water was delivered to Pueblo de Los Angeles in a large open ditch, the Zanja Madre; the man who tended the ditch was known as a zanjero. In 1880, Mulholland oversaw the laying of the first iron water pipeline in Los Angeles. Mulholland left the employment of the LACWC in 1884 but returned in mid-December of that same year, he worked for the Sespe Land and Water Company. As part of his compensation he was granted twenty acres on Sespe Creek. In 1886 he returned to the LAWC and, in October of that year, became a naturalized American citizen. At the end of that year he was made the superintendent of the LACWC. In 1898, the Los Angeles city government decided not to renew the contract with the LACWC.
Four years the Los Angeles Water Department was established with Mulholland as its superintendent. In 1911, the Water Department was renamed the Bureau of Water Works and Supply with Mulholland named as its chief engineer. In 1937, two years after Mulholland's death, the Bureau of Water Works and Supply merged with the Bureau of Power and Light to form the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. Mulholland had a vision of a Los Angeles that would become far bigger than the Los Angeles of the start of the 20th century; the limiting factor to the growth of Los Angeles was its water supply, because it has a semi-arid climate with unreliable rainfall. "If you don't get the water, you won't need it," Mulholland famously remarked. Mulholland shared the vision of a much larger Los Angeles with Frederick Eaton, the mayor of Los Angeles from 1898 through 1900, they both worked together in the private Los Angeles Water Company in the 1880s. In 1886, Eaton became City Mulholland became superintendent of the Water Company.
When Eaton was elected mayor of Los Angeles, he was instrumental in converting the Water Company to city control in 1902. When the company became the Los Angeles Water Department, Mulholland continued to be superintendent, due to his vast knowledge of the water system. Expansion followed as Mulholland's public works program began to irrigate large areas of arid land. Within a decade, the city's population had doubled from just 50,000 in 1890 to more than 100,000 in 1900. Ten years it had tripled to 320,000. To create this expansion and Mulholland realized that the large amount of runoff from the Sierra Nevada in Owens Valley could be delivered to Los Angeles through a gravity-fed aqueduct. From 1902 through 1905, Eaton and others engaged in underhanded methods to ensure that Los Angeles would gain the water rights in the Owens Valley, blocking the Bureau of Reclamation from building water infrastructure for the residents in Owens Valley. While Eaton engaged in most of the political maneuvrings and chicanery, Mulholland misled Los Angeles public opinion by understating the amount of water available for Los Angeles' growth.
Mulholland misled residents of the Owens Valley: he indicated that Los Angeles would only use unused flows in the Owens Valley, while planning on using the full water rights to fill the aquifer of the San Fernando Valley. In 1906, the