Mosses are small flowerless plants that form dense green clumps or mats in damp or shady locations. The individual plants are composed of simple leaves that are only one cell thick, attached to a stem that may be branched or unbranched and has only a limited role in conducting water and nutrients. Although some species have conducting tissues, these are poorly developed and structurally different from similar tissue found in vascular plants. Mosses do not have seeds and after fertilisation develop sporophytes with unbranched stalks topped with single capsules containing spores, they are 0.2–10 cm tall, though some species are much larger. Dawsonia, the tallest moss in the world, can grow to 50 cm in height. Mosses are confused with lichens and liverworts. Lichens may superficially resemble mosses, sometimes have common names that include the word "moss", but they are not related to mosses. Mosses were grouped with the hornworts and liverworts as "non-vascular" plants in the division "bryophytes", all of them having the haploid gametophyte generation as the dominant phase of the life cycle.
This contrasts with the pattern in all vascular plants, where the diploid sporophyte generation is dominant. Mosses are now classified on their own as the division Bryophyta. There are 12,000 species; the main commercial significance of mosses is as the main constituent of peat, although they are used for decorative purposes, such as in gardens and in the florist trade. Traditional uses of mosses included as insulation and for the ability to absorb liquids up to 20 times their weight. Botanically, mosses are non-vascular plants in the land plant division Bryophyta, they are small herbaceous plants that absorb water and nutrients through their leaves and harvest carbon dioxide and sunlight to create food by photosynthesis. They differ from vascular plants in lacking water-bearing xylem vessels; as in liverworts and hornworts, the haploid gametophyte generation is the dominant phase of the life cycle. This contrasts with the pattern in all vascular plants, where the diploid sporophyte generation is dominant.
Mosses reproduce using spores, not seeds, have no flowers. Moss gametophytes have stems which may be branched and upright or prostrate, their leaves are simple only a single layer of cells with no internal air spaces with thicker midribs. They have threadlike rhizoids that anchor them to their substrate. Mosses do not absorb water or nutrients from their substrate through their rhizoids, they can be distinguished from liverworts by their multi-cellular rhizoids. Spore-bearing capsules or sporangia of mosses are borne singly on long, unbranched stems, thereby distinguishing them from the polysporangiophytes, which include all vascular plants; the spore-bearing sporophytes are short-lived and dependent on the gametophyte for water supply and nutrition. In most mosses, the spore-bearing capsule enlarges and matures after its stalk elongates, while in liverworts the capsule enlarges and matures before its stalk elongates. Other differences are not universal for all mosses and all liverworts, but the presence of differentiated stem with simple-shaped, ribbed leaves, without lobed or segmented leaves and not arranged in three ranks, all point to the plant being a moss.
Vascular plants have two sets of chromosomes in their vegetative cells and are said to be diploid, i.e. each chromosome has a partner that contains the same, or similar, genetic information. By contrast and other bryophytes have only a single set of chromosomes and so are haploid. There is a period in the moss life cycle when they do have a double set of paired chromosomes, but this happens only during the sporophyte stage; the moss life-cycle starts with a haploid spore that germinates to produce a protonema, either a mass of thread-like filaments or thalloid. Massed moss protonemata look like a thin green felt, may grow on damp soil, tree bark, concrete, or any other reasonably stable surface; this is a transitory stage in the life of a moss, but from the protonema grows the gametophore, structurally differentiated into stems and leaves. A single mat of protonemata may develop several gametophore shoots. From the tips of the gametophore stems or branches develop the sex organs of the mosses.
The female organs are known as archegonia and are protected by a group of modified leaves known as the perichaetum. The archegonia are small flask-shaped clumps of cells with an open neck down which the male sperm swim; the male organs are enclosed by modified leaves called the perigonium. The surrounding leaves in some mosses form a splash cup, allowing the sperm contained in the cup to be splashed to neighboring stalks by falling water droplets. Mosses can be either monoicous. In dioicous mosses and female sex organs are borne on different gametophyte plants. In monoicous mosses, both are borne on the same plant. In the presence of water, sperm from the antheridia swim to the archegonia and fertilisation occurs, leading to the production of a diploid sporophyte; the spe
The Convair Model 58-9 was a proposed American supersonic transport, developed by the Convair division of General Dynamics and intended to carry fifty-two passengers at over Mach 2. Derived from the B-58 Hustler bomber, it was designed in 1961 but no examples of the type were built; the Model 58-9 was Convair's proposal for the third step in a three-step program for the development of a SST based on the company's B-58 Hustler supersonic medium bomber. Derived from the proposed B-58C, an enlarged version of the Hustler, the Model 58-9 was anticipated to follow up on route-proving using an unmodified B-58, with a version of the bomber using a five-passenger version of its unique external weapons pod being an intermediate step to the final airliner version. Proposed during early 1961, the Model 58-9 would use the wing design of the B-58C, which would be mated to an new fuselage and tail; the Model 58-9 was expected to have a maximum take-off weight of 190,000 pounds, would have a range of 2,500 nautical miles at a cruising speed of Mach 2.4.
If the project had been approved, it was projected by Convair that the first prototype of the airliner could fly within three years of the project being approved, with eighteen months of flight testing, using four prototype aircraft, following the aircraft's maiden flight. It was expected that the Military Air Transport Service would perform simulated airline flights using the Model 58-9 during its development. Related development Convair B-58 Hustler Convair Model 58-9 SST
Bruce Isaacson is an American poet and publisher. He was appointed the first poet laureate of Clark County, Nevada, a community of more than two million people where Las Vegas is located, June 1, 2015 He initiated the Poets of National Stature series there, which includes readings by Juan Felipe Hererra, the sitting Poet Laureate of the United States and Beat Legend Michael McClure. Other poets Isaacson brought to Las Vegas include beat feminist icon Diane di Prima, San Francisco Poet Laureate Jack Hirshman and others. Bruce Isaacson is best known in San Francisco Bay Area poetry as an organizer and poet in the Café Babar readings, an anarchistic poetry free-for all which led the poetry resurgence of the mid-1980s; these readings helped inaugurate a new presentation style and aesthetic called SF Spoken Word. His work is included in "The Babarians" section of Alan Kaufman and S. A. Griffin's The Outlaw Bible of American Poetry, in New American Underground Poetry, Volume 1, The Barbarians of San Francisco - Poets From Hell.
With David Lerner, Isaacson founded Zeitgeist Press in 1986 to publish the work of the Babarians. Isaacson and Lerner were sometimes referred to as the T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound of the Babarians. Zeitgeist focused on work from that genre, a few notable Las Vegas writers, producing more than 100 titles in total. Isaacson today serves as co-editor. Bruce Isaacson was involved in poetry in other cities. In New York City, he was a surprise finalist in the first season of the famed Poetry Slam at the Nuyorican Poets Café. In Los Angeles, Isaacson was one of the featured poets at the Poetry in Motion series at Helena’s and Largo and at Tommy Tang’s in NYC; these readings mixed long-term poets with poetry performances by some of Hollywood’s actors. Isaacson lived seven months in Leningrad after the opening to the West in 1992, he was involved in poetry activities at the Leningrad Writers Union. His poem, "Rolling into Red Square" appears in Signs of Life: Channel-surfing Through'90s Culture, he has lived in Michoacan, moved to Las Vegas in 1995, was active in many Las Vegas poetry communities, including readings at the Café Espresso Roma and Enigma Garden Cafe.
His work appears in Literary Nevada: Writings from the Silver State. He earned degrees at Dartmouth College, Claremont McKenna, Brookline College, where American poet Allen Ginsberg read his MFA thesis, his full-length books from Zeitgeist Press include Bad Dog Blues, Love Affairs with Barely Any People in Them, Ghosts Among the Neon, Dumbstruck at the Lights in the Sky