George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw, known at his insistence as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic and political activist. His influence on Western theatre and politics extended from the 1880s to his death and beyond, he wrote more than sixty plays, including major works such as Man and Superman and Saint Joan. With a range incorporating both contemporary satire and historical allegory, Shaw became the leading dramatist of his generation, in 1925 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Born in Dublin, Shaw moved to London in 1876, where he struggled to establish himself as a writer and novelist, embarked on a rigorous process of self-education. By the mid-1880s he had become a respected music critic. Following a political awakening, he joined the gradualist Fabian Society and became its most prominent pamphleteer. Shaw had been writing plays for years before his first public success and the Man in 1894. Influenced by Henrik Ibsen, he sought to introduce a new realism into English-language drama, using his plays as vehicles to disseminate his political and religious ideas.
By the early twentieth century his reputation as a dramatist was secured with a series of critical and popular successes that included Major Barbara, The Doctor's Dilemma and Caesar and Cleopatra. Shaw's expressed views were contentious, he courted unpopularity by denouncing both sides in the First World War as culpable, although not a republican, castigated British policy on Ireland in the postwar period. These stances had no lasting effect on his productivity as a dramatist. In 1938 he provided the screenplay for a filmed version of Pygmalion for which he received an Academy Award, his appetite for politics and controversy remained undiminished. In the final decade of his life he made fewer public statements, but continued to write prolifically until shortly before his death, aged ninety-four, having refused all state honours, including the Order of Merit in 1946. Since Shaw's death scholarly and critical opinion has varied about his works, but he has been rated as second only to Shakespeare among British dramatists.
The word Shavian has entered the language as encapsulating Shaw's ideas and his means of expressing them. Shaw was born at 3 Upper Synge Street in a lower-middle-class part of Dublin, he was the youngest child and only son of Lucinda Elizabeth Shaw. His elder siblings were Elinor Agnes; the Shaw family was of English descent and belonged to the dominant Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. His relatives secured him a sinecure in the civil service, from which he was pensioned off in the early 1850s. In 1852 he married Bessie Gurly. If, as Holroyd and others surmise, George's motives were mercenary he was disappointed, as Bessie brought him little of her family's money, she came to despise her ineffectual and drunken husband, with whom she shared what their son described as a life of "shabby-genteel poverty". By the time of Shaw's birth, his mother had become close to George John Lee, a flamboyant figure well known in Dublin's musical circles. Shaw retained a lifelong obsession; the young Shaw suffered no harshness from his mother, but he recalled that her indifference and lack of affection hurt him deeply.
He found solace in the music. Lee was a teacher of singing; the Shaws' house was filled with music, with frequent gatherings of singers and players. In 1862, Lee and the Shaws agreed to share a house, No. 1 Hatch Street, in an affluent part of Dublin, a country cottage on Dalkey Hill, overlooking Killiney Bay. Shaw, a sensitive boy, found the less salubrious parts of Dublin shocking and distressing, was happier at the cottage. Lee's students gave him books, which the young Shaw read avidly. Between 1865 and 1871, Shaw attended four schools, his experiences as a schoolboy left him disillusioned with formal education: "Schools and schoolmasters", he wrote, were "prisons and turnkeys in which children are kept to prevent them disturbing and chaperoning their parents." In October 1871 he left school to become a junior clerk in a Dublin firm of land agents, where he worked hard, rose to become head cashier. During this period, Shaw was known as "George Shaw". In June 1873, Lee left Dublin for London and never returned.
A fortnight Bessie followed him. Shaw's explanation of why his mother followed Lee was that without the la
Cole Albert Porter was an American composer and songwriter. Born to a wealthy family in Indiana, he defied the wishes of his domineering grandfather and took up music as a profession. Classically trained, he was drawn to musical theatre. After a slow start, he began to achieve success in the 1920s, by the 1930s he was one of the major songwriters for the Broadway musical stage. Unlike many successful Broadway composers, Porter wrote the lyrics as well as the music for his songs. After a serious horseback riding accident in 1937, Porter was left disabled and in constant pain, but he continued to work, his shows of the early 1940s did not contain the lasting hits of his best work of the 1920s and'30s, but in 1948 he made a triumphant comeback with his most successful musical, Kiss Me, Kate. It won the first Tony Award for Best Musical. Porter's other musicals include Fifty Million Frenchmen, DuBarry Was a Lady, Anything Goes, Can-Can and Silk Stockings, his numerous hit songs include "Night and Day", "Begin the Beguine", "I Get a Kick Out of You", "Well, Did You Evah!", "I've Got You Under My Skin", "My Heart Belongs to Daddy" and "You're the Top".
He composed scores for films from the 1930s to the 1950s, including Born to Dance, which featured the song "You'd Be So Easy to Love". Porter was born in Peru, the only surviving child of a wealthy family, his father, Samuel Fenwick Porter, was a druggist by trade. His mother, was the indulged daughter of James Omar "J. O." Cole, "the richest man in Indiana", a coal and timber speculator who dominated the family. J. O. Cole built the couple a house on his Peru-area property. After high school, Porter returned to his childhood home only for occasional visits. Porter's strong-willed mother began his musical training at an early age, he learned the violin at age six, the piano at eight, wrote his first operetta at ten. She falsified his recorded birth year, changing it from 1891 to 1893 to make him appear more precocious, his father, a shy and unassertive man, played a lesser role in Porter's upbringing, although as an amateur poet, he may have influenced his son's gifts for rhyme and meter. Porter's father was a talented singer and pianist, but the father-son relationship was not close.
J. O. Cole wanted his grandson to become a lawyer, with that in mind, sent him to Worcester Academy in Massachusetts in 1905. Porter brought an upright piano with him to school and found that music, his ability to entertain, made it easy for him to make friends. Porter did well in school and came home to visit, he became class valedictorian and was rewarded by his grandfather with a tour of France and Germany. Entering Yale University in 1909, Porter majored in English, minored in music, studied French, he was a member of Scroll and Key and Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, contributed to campus humor magazine The Yale Record. He was an early member of the Whiffenpoofs a cappella singing group and participated in several other music clubs. Porter wrote 300 songs while at Yale, including student songs such as the football fight songs "Bulldog" and "Bingo Eli Yale" that are still played at Yale today. During college, Porter became acquainted with New York City's vibrant nightlife, taking the train there for dinner and nights on the town with his classmates, before returning to New Haven, early in the morning.
He wrote musical comedy scores for his fraternity, the Yale Dramatic Association, as a student at Harvard – Cora, And the Villain Still Pursued Her, The Pot of Gold, The Kaleidoscope and Paranoia – which helped prepare him for a career as a Broadway and Hollywood composer and lyricist. After graduating from Yale, Porter enrolled in Harvard Law School in 1913, he soon felt that he was not destined to be a lawyer, and, at the suggestion of the dean of the law school, switched to Harvard's music department, where he studied harmony and counterpoint with Pietro Yon. Kate Porter did not object to this move. In 1915, Porter's first song on Broadway, "Esmeralda", appeared in the revue Hands Up; the quick success was followed by failure: his first Broadway production, in 1916, See America First, a "patriotic comic opera" modeled on Gilbert and Sullivan, with a book by T. Lawrason Riggs, was a flop, closing after two weeks. Porter spent the next year in New York City before going overseas during World War I.
In 1917, when the United States entered World War I, Porter moved to Paris to work with the Duryea Relief organization. Some writers have been skeptical about Porter's claim to have served in the French Foreign Legion, but the Legion lists Porter as one of its soldiers and displays his portrait at its museum in Aubagne. By some accounts, he served in North Africa and was transferred to the French Officers School at Fontainebleau, teaching gunnery to American soldiers. An obituary notice in The New York Times said that, while in the Legion, "he had a specially constructed portable piano made for him so that he could carry it on his back and entertain the troops in their bivouacs." Another account, given by Porter, is that he joined the recruiting department of the American Aviation Headquarters, according to his biographer Stephen Citron, there is no record of his joining this or any other branch of the forces. Porter maintained a luxury apartment in Paris, his parties were extrava
Edna Ferber was an American novelist, short story writer and playwright. Her novels included the Pulitzer Prize-winning So Big, Show Boat, Cimarron and Ice Palace, filmed in 1960. Ferber was born August 15, 1885, in Kalamazoo, Michigan, to a Hungarian-born Jewish storekeeper, Jacob Charles Ferber, his Milwaukee, Wisconsin-born wife, Julia Ferber, of German Jewish descent, she moved due to her father's business failures caused by his early blindness and eventual death. After living in Chicago, she lived in Ottumwa, Iowa with her parents and older sister, from age five to twelve. In Ottumwa, Ferber faced brutal anti-Semitism as just a child, she recalled when adult males would verbally abuse her, mock her, spit on her every day as she brought lunch to her dad. At the age of 12 Ferber and her family moved to Appleton, where she graduated from high school and attended Lawrence University, she took newspaper jobs at the Appleton Daily Crescent and the Milwaukee Journal before publishing her first novel.
She covered the 1920 Republican National Convention and 1920 Democratic National Convention for the United Press Association. Ferber's novels featured strong female protagonists, along with a rich and diverse collection of supporting characters, she highlighted at least one strong secondary character who faced discrimination ethnically or for other reasons. Several theatrical and film productions have been based on her works, including Show Boat, Ice Palace, Saratoga Trunk and the 1960 remake. Three of these works – Show Boat, Saratoga Trunk, Giant – have been developed into musicals; when composer Jerome Kern proposed turning the serious Show Boat into a musical, Ferber was shocked, thinking it would be transformed into a typical light entertainment of the 1920s. It was not until Kern explained that he and Oscar Hammerstein II wanted to create a different type of musical that Ferber granted him the rights. Saratoga, based on Saratoga Trunk, was written at a much date, after serious plots had become acceptable in stage musicals.
In 1925, she won the Pulitzer Prize for her book So Big, made into a silent film starring Colleen Moore that same year. An early talkie movie remake followed, in 1932, starring Barbara Stanwyck and George Brent, with Bette Davis in a supporting role. A 1953 remake of So Big starring Jane Wyman in the Stanwyck role is the version most seen today. Ferber was a member of the Algonquin Round Table, a group of wits who met for lunch every day at the Algonquin Hotel in New York. Ferber and another member of the Round Table, Alexander Woollcott, were long-time enemies, their antipathy lasting until Woollcott's death in 1943, although Howard Teichmann states in his biography of Woollcott that their feud was due to a misunderstanding. According to Teichmann, Ferber once described Woollcott as "a New Jersey Nero who has mistaken his pinafore for a toga". Before most other Americans in 1922, Ferber became troubled by the rise of the Nazi Party and its spreading of the antisemitic prejudice she had faced in her childhood.
Her fears influenced her work, which featured themes of racial and cultural discrimination. Her 1938 autobiography, A Peculiar Treasure included a spiteful dedication to Adolf Hitler, claiming that her hatred for his actions was the inspiration for the book. While this was changed by the time of the book's publication, it still alluded to the Nazi threat. Ferber collaborated with Round Table member George S. Kaufman on several plays presented on Broadway: Minick, The Royal Family, Dinner At Eight, The Land Is Bright, Stage Door, Bravo!. Ferber never married, had no children, is not known to have engaged in a romance or sexual relationship. In her early novel Dawn O'Hara, the title character's aunt is said to have remarked, "Being an old maid was a great deal like death by drowning – a delightful sensation when you ceased struggling." Ferber did take a maternal interest in the career of her niece Janet Fox, an actress who performed in the original Broadway casts of Ferber's plays Dinner at Eight and Stage Door.
Ferber died at her home in New York City, of stomach cancer, at the age of 82. Ferber was portrayed by the actress Lili Taylor in the Vicious Circle. In 2008, The Library of America selected Ferber's article "Miss Ferber Views'Vultures' at Trial" for inclusion in its two-century retrospective of American True Crime. On July 29, 2002, in her hometown of Appleton, the U. S. Postal Service issued an 83¢ Distinguished Americans series postage stamp honoring her. Artist Mark Summers, well known for his scratchboard technique, created this portrait for the stamp referencing a black-and-white photograph of Ferber taken in 1927. A fictionalized version of Edna Ferber appears as a character in Philipp Meyer's novel The Son. An additional fictionalized version of Edna Ferber, with her as the protagonist, appears in a series of mystery novels by Ed Ifkovic and published by Poisoned Pen Press, including'Downtown Strut: An Edna Ferber mystery, written in 2013. In 2013, Ferber was inducted into the Chicago Literary Hall of Fame.
In her hometown of Appleton, the Edna Ferber Elementary School was named after her. Construction of the school was voted down in a 1971 referendum. Dawn O'Hara, The Girl
My Fair Lady
My Fair Lady is a musical based on George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion, with book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe. The story concerns Eliza Doolittle, a Cockney flower girl who takes speech lessons from professor Henry Higgins, a phoneticist, so that she may pass as a lady; the original Broadway and London shows starred Julie Andrews. The musical's 1956 Broadway production was a notable popular success, it set a record for the longest run of any show on Broadway up to that time. It was followed by a hit London production, a popular film version, many revivals. My Fair Lady has been called "the perfect musical". Act IIt is the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden; the protagonist, Eliza Doolittle, is a Cockney with a unintelligible accent. Professor Henry Higgins invites Colonel Pickering to stay as his houseguest. Soon after, Eliza Doolittle comes to Professor Higgins's house. Professor Higgins wagers Colonel Pickering, that in six months he will turn Eliza into a lady by teaching her to speak properly.
Eliza is indentured into the Higgins household as a resident elocution student. After some weeks, Eliza is introduced to Freddy Eynsford-Hill. Freddy falls in love. Eliza's accent is now refined, she is now being educated on how to function as a debutante in high society. Eliza's final test requires her to pass as a lady at the Embassy Ball. After more weeks of preparation, she is ready. All the ladies and gentlemen at the ball admire her, the Queen of Transylvania invites her to dance with the prince. For his part, the Hungarian linguist Zoltan Karpathy declares her to be a fellow Hungarian - deducting that the English she speaks is not her mother language and that she had been instructed in removing any trace of her native accent. Act IIThe ball was a success. Colonel Pickering and Professor Higgins revel in their triumph, failing to pay attention to Eliza until Higgins asks Eliza to fetch his slippers. Eliza is insulted packs up and leaves the Higgins house, she hadn't been given any credit for all the effort.
Higgins awakens the next morning. He finds without Eliza, he is served tea instead of coffee, cannot find his files. Colonel Pickering notices the Professor's lack of consideration. Pickering finds another host, leaves the Higgins house. Professor Higgins visits his mother. To his surprise, Eliza has been staying with Mother Higgins. Mother Higgins scolds Henry, enjoins him to apologize to Eliza. Eliza accuses him of wanting her only to fetch and carry for him, saying that she will marry Freddy because he loves her, she declares. Higgins realizes his heart is broken, cannot do anything about it, he reaches the Higgins house. Sentimentally, he reviews the recording, he hears his own harsh words: "She's so deliciously low! So horribly dirty!" The phonograph turns off, a real voice speaks in a Cockney accent: "I washed me face an"ands before I come, I did". It is Eliza, standing in the doorway. In suppressed joy at their reunion, Professor Higgins scoffs and asks, "Eliza, where the devil are my slippers?"
The original cast of the Broadway stage production: Eliza Doolittle, a young Cockney flowerseller – Julie Andrews Henry Higgins, a professor of phonetics – Rex Harrison Alfred P. Doolittle, Eliza's father, a dustman – Stanley Holloway Colonel Hugh Pickering, Henry Higgins's friend and fellow phoneticist – Robert Coote Mrs. Higgins, Henry's socialite mother – Cathleen Nesbitt Freddy Eynsford-Hill, a young socialite and Eliza's suitor – John Michael King Mrs. Pearce, Higgins's housekeeper – Philippa Bevans Zoltan Karpathy, Henry Higgins's former student and rival – Christopher Hewett In the mid-1930s, film producer Gabriel Pascal acquired the rights to produce film versions of several of George Bernard Shaw's plays, Pygmalion among them. However, having had a bad experience with The Chocolate Soldier, a Viennese operetta based on his play Arms and the Man, refused permission for Pygmalion to be adapted into a musical. After Shaw died in 1950, Pascal asked lyricist Alan Jay Lerner to write the musical adaptation.
Lerner agreed, he and his partner Frederick Loewe began work. But they realised that the play violated several key rules for constructing a musical: the main story was not a love story, there was no subplot or secondary love story, there was no place for an ensemble. Many people, including Oscar Hammerstein II, with Richard Rodgers, had tried his hand at adapting Pygmalion into a musical and had given up, told Lerner that converting the play to a musical was impossible, so he and Loewe abandoned the project for two years. During this time, the collaborators separated and Gabriel Pascal died. Lerner had been trying to musicalize Li'l Abner when he read Pascal's obituary and found himself thinking about Pygmalion again; when he and Loewe reunited, everything fell into place. All of the insurmountable obstacles that had stood in their way two years earlier disappeared when the team realised that the play needed few changes apart from "adding the action that took place between the acts of the play".
They excitedly began writing the show. However, Chase Manhattan Bank was in charge of Pascal's estate, the musical rights to Pygmalion were sought both by Lerner and Loewe and by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, whose executives called Lerner to discourage him from challenging the studio. Loewe said, "We will write the show without the rights, when the time comes for them to decide, to get them, we will be so far ahead of everyone else that they will be forced to give them to us." Fo
The Ed Sullivan Show
The Ed Sullivan Show was an American television variety show that ran on CBS from June 20, 1948, to June 6, 1971, was hosted by New York entertainment columnist Ed Sullivan. It was replaced in September 1971 by the CBS Sunday Night Movie. In 2002, The Ed Sullivan Show was ranked #15 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. In 2013, the series finished No. 31 in TV Guide Magazine's 60 Best Series of All Time. From 1948 until its cancellation in 1971, the show ran on CBS every Sunday night from 8–9 p.m. E. T. and is one of the few entertainment shows to have run in the same weekly time slot on the same network for more than two decades. Every type of entertainment appeared on the show; the format was the same as vaudeville and, although vaudeville had undergone a slow demise for a generation, Sullivan presented many ex-vaudevillians on his show. Co-created and produced by Marlo Lewis, the show was first titled Toast of the Town, but was referred to as The Ed Sullivan Show for years before September 25, 1955, when that became its official name.
In the show's June 20, 1948 debut, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis performed along with singer Monica Lewis and Broadway composers Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II previewing the score to their then-new show South Pacific, which opened on Broadway in 1949. From 1948 through 1962, the program's primary sponsor was the Lincoln-Mercury Division of the Ford Motor Company; the Ed Sullivan Show was broadcast via live television from CBS-TV studio 51, the Maxine Elliott Theatre, at Broadway and 39th St. before moving to its permanent home at CBS-TV Studio 50 in New York City, renamed the Ed Sullivan Theater on the occasion of the program's 20th anniversary in June 1968. The last original Sullivan show telecast was on March 28, 1971, with guests Melanie, Joanna Simon, Danny Davis and the Nashville Brass and Sandler and Young. Repeats were scheduled through June 6, 1971. Along with the new talent Sullivan booked each week, he had recurring characters appear many times a season, such as his "Little Italian Mouse" puppet sidekick Topo Gigio, who debuted December 9, 1962, ventriloquist Señor Wences debuted December 31, 1950.
While most of the episodes aired live from New York City, the show aired live on occasion from other nations, such as the United Kingdom and Japan. For many years, Ed Sullivan was a national event each Sunday evening, was the first exposure for foreign performers to the American public. On the occasion of the show's tenth anniversary telecast, Sullivan commented on how the show had changed during a June 1958 interview syndicated by the Newspaper Enterprise Association: The chief difference is one of pace. In those days, we had maybe six acts. Now we have 11 or 12; each of our acts would do a leisurely ten minutes or so. Now they do three minutes, and in those early days I talked too much. Watching these kines I cringe. I look up at me talking away and I say "You fool! Keep quiet!" But I just keep on talking. I've learned; the show enjoyed phenomenal popularity in early 1960s. As had occurred with the annual telecasts of The Wizard of Oz in the 1960s and'70s, the family ritual of gathering around the television set to watch Ed Sullivan became a U.
S. cultural universal. He was regarded as a kingmaker, performers considered an appearance on his program as a guarantee of stardom, although this sometimes did not turn out to be the case; the show's iconic status is illustrated by the song "Hymn for a Sunday Evening" from the 1960 musical Bye Bye Birdie. In the song, a family of viewers expresses their regard for the program in worshipful tones. In September 1965, CBS started televising the program in compatible color, as all three major networks began to switch to 100 percent color prime time schedules. CBS had once backed its own color system, developed by Peter Goldmark, resisted using RCA's compatible process until 1954. At that time, it built its first New York City color TV studio, Studio 72, in a former RKO movie theater at 2248 Broadway. One Ed Sullivan Show was broadcast on August 22, 1954, from the new studio, but it was used for one-time-only specials such as Rodgers and Hammerstein's March 31, 1957 Cinderella. CBS Studio 72 was replaced by an apartment house.
CBS Studio 50 was "colorized" in 1965. The 1965–66 season premiere starred the Beatles in an episode airing on September 12, the last episode to air in black and white; this occurred because the episode was taped at the Beatles' convenience on August 14, the eve of their Shea Stadium performance and a two-week tour of North America before the program was ready for color transmission. In the late 1960s, Sullivan remarked, he realized that to keep viewers, the best and brightest in entertainment had to be seen, or else the viewers were going to keep on changing the channel. Along with declining viewership, Ed Sullivan attracted a higher median age for the average viewer as the seasons went on; these two factors were the reason the show was canceled by CBS as part of a mass cancellation of advertiser-averse progr
I'd Rather Be Right
I'd Rather Be Right is a musical with a book by Moss Hart and George S. Kaufman, lyrics by Lorenz Hart, music by Richard Rodgers; the story is a Depression-era political satire set in New York City, about Washington politics and political figures, such as President Franklin D. Roosevelt; the plot centers on Peggy Jones and her boyfriend Phil, who needs a raise in order for them to get married. The President solves their dilemma. I'd Rather Be Right premiered on Broadway at the Alvin Theatre on November 2, 1937, produced by Sam H. Harris, transferred to the Music Box Theatre, ran for 290 performances, it starred George M. Cohan as Franklin D. Roosevelt. In such pieces as "Off the Record", Cohan, as FDR, danced—not possible in real life for the President. H. G. Wells wrote enthusiastically about the musical, Cohan's performance as Roosevelt, in an article "The Fall in America 1937", published in Collier's on January 28, 1938, reprinted in his World Brain; the musical is prominently featured in the 1942 Cohan biopic Yankee Doodle Dandy, in which it serves as a narrative bookend.
James Cagney, playing Cohan, after meeting FDR in the Oval Office, performs a joyous tap dance as he walks back down the stairs of the White House. In the film, we see Cagney as Cohan performing "Off the Record" during the show's run.. "A Homogeneous Cabinet"--Cabinet Members "Have You Met Miss Jones?"--Peggy Jones and Phil Barker "Take and Take and Take"--The Judge's Girl and Ensemble "Spring in Vienna"--Tony "A Little Bit of Constitutional Fun"--The Judge's Girl and Ensemble "Sweet Sixty-Five"--Peggy Jones and Phil Barker "We're Going to Balance the Budget"--The President of the United States and Company "American Couple"--Ensemble "Labor Is the Thing"--James B. Maxwell and Ensemble "I'd Rather Be Right"--Peggy Jones, Phil Barker, The Judge's Girl, The President of the United States and Ensemble "Off the Record"--The President of the United States "A Baby Bond"--The Secretary of the Treasury I'd Rather Be Right at the Internet Broadway Database "The President on Broadway: FDR, George M. Cohan, I’d Rather Be Right" by William A. Harris, FDR Library Deputy Director — Forward with Roosevelt, the blog of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum Time Magazine review, November 15, 1937 Essay on I'd Rather be Right in Studies in Musical Theatre, January 2007 I'd Rather Be Right, Libretto ISBN 1-4179-9228-X
Act One (book)
Act One is an autobiographical book by playwright Moss Hart. The chronicles of Moss Hart's impoverished New York childhood and his long struggle to Broadway success; the book was adapted into the film Act One 1963. James Lapine wrote a stage version, commissioned by the Lincoln Center Theater and developed by the Vineyard Arts Project. A reading was held in July 2012. There was a workshop on Martha's Vineyard July 16–21, 2012, which featured Tony Shalhoub, Debra Monk, Chuck Cooper, David Turner; the play premiered on Broadway, at the Lincoln Center Vivian Beaumont Theater, in previews on March 20, 2014, with the official opening on April 17, 2014. The play starred Santino Fontana, Tony Shalhoub, Andrea Martin, was directed by Lapine. Google Books