Queensland Country Women's Association
The Queensland Country Women's Association is the Queensland chapter of the Country Women's Association in Australia. The association seeks to serve the interests of women and children in rural areas in Australia through a network of local branches. Established in 1922, local branches provide friendship and mutual support to their members while contributing to the betterment of life in their local communities. Over time, many branches have evolved to include support for wider issues such as domestic violence campaigns and fund-raising for international initiatives such as orphanages. On 8-11 August 1922, the Brisbane Women's Club held an open conference for countrywomen in Brisbane's Albert Hall during the Exhibition; the conference was opened by Lady Forster, wife of Australian Governor-General and the Queensland Governor Matthew Nathan attended. On 11 August 1922, the outcome of the conference was to establish the Queensland Country Women's Association. Ruth Beatrice Fairfax was elected the first President.
The first meeting of the Toowoomba branch was held at the Toowoomba Town Hall on 12 September 1922. Ruth Fairfax spoke about the objectives of the organisation; the meeting resolved to hold a conference as soon as there were sufficient representatives to attend. The objectives of the association were broad but included some specific items:1. To improve welfare and conditions of women and children in the country2. To draw together all women and children in Country Districts.3. To bring opportunities for recreation and enjoyment within reach of all Members.4. To encourage the active study of Local and State affairs and to promote a wise and kindly spirit.5. To improve educational facilities in the Country.6. To secure better provision for the safeguarding of Public Health of children, the securing of more adequate Medical and Hospital facilities for Country Districts."There was a call for a design for a badge and the winner was Mrs Mabel Chandler of Burra Burri who proposed the letters CWA within a large letter "Q".
It was decided that the royal blue should be adopted as the colours for the organisation. Many QCWA buildings are painted white to approximate the chosen colours; the Queensland chapter was inducted into the Queensland Business Leaders Hall of Fame in 2013. In 2017 the QWCA created its own perfume,' 1922', it was developed by Damask Perfumery in Brisbane. The artwork and branding of the bottle was supplied by Brisbane watercolour artist Michelle Grayson; as at December 2018, the QWCA has over 240 branches throughout Queensland. The following list includes all branches active in December 2018, some of the former branches. On 9 June 2003 in the Queen's Birthday Honours List, Mrs Jean Eva Anderson of Ballater Station at Stamford was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia for her "service to the community of Hughenden through the Country Womens Association", she had given 52 years of service to the Hughenden branch. Her award was presented to her by the Governor of Queensland, Quentin Bryce. Pagliano, Muriel.
Country women: history of the first seventy five years: the Queensland Country Women's Association. Merino Lithographics.—full text available online. The Queensland Country Women's Association, fifty years 1922-1972. Queensland Country Women's Association. 1972. Media related to Queensland Country Women's Association at Wikimedia Commons
Captain Cook Highway
Captain Cook Highway is a short Queensland highway that starts in Cairns and ends in Mossman, where it joins Mossman-Daintree Road, which continues to Daintree. Captain Cook Highway is used by many tourists to travel to Port Douglas north of Cairns. Apart from being a vital link between two tourist locations, Captain Cook Highway is a scenic highway that winds alongside the coast of the tropical seaside rainforest heading towards Port Douglas and Daintree National Park; the highway commences in Cairns. It runs north through Cairns to the suburb of Smithfield as National Route 1, crossing the south and north arms of the Barron River. From there it continues as State Route 44 through the beachside suburbs of Kewarra Beach and Palm Cove, follows the coast to Port Douglas, it proceeds north-west to Mossman where it terminates. Highways in Australia List of highways in Queensland William Walter Mason Bridge Media related to Captain Cook Highway at Wikimedia Commons
Lands administrative divisions of Australia
Lands administrative divisions of Australia are the cadastral divisions of Australia for the purposes of identification of land to ensure security of land ownership. Most states term these divisions as counties, parishes and other terms; the eastern states of Queensland, New South Wales and Tasmania were divided into counties and parishes in the 19th century, although the Tasmanian counties were renamed land districts in the 20th century. Parts of South Australia and Western Australia were divided into counties, there were five counties in a small part of the Northern Territory; however South Australia has subdivisions of hundreds instead of parishes, along with the Northern Territory, part of South Australia when the hundreds were proclaimed. There were formerly hundreds in Tasmania. There have been at least 600 counties, 544 hundreds and at least 15,692 parishes in Australia, but there are none of these units for most of the sparsely inhabited central and western parts of the country. Counties in Australia have no administrative or political function, unlike those in England, the United States or Canada.
Australia instead uses local government areas, including shires, districts and municipalities according to the state, as the second-level subdivision. Some other states were divided into land divisions and land districts. Below these are groups of land parcels known as registered plans or title plans. Queensland has registered plans. Land can be identified using the number of this plan of subdivision held with the lands department, rather than with a named unit such as a parish. Within these are individual land parcels such as lots; the various cadastral units appear on certificates of title, which are given volume and folio numbers. Detailed maps of these divisions have been required since the introduction of the Torrens title system of a central register of land holdings in South Australia in 1858, which spread to the other colonies. While cadastral data since the 1980s has been digitalised, there remain many old maps showing these divisions held in collections of Australian libraries such as the National Library of Australia, as well as in state libraries.
Counties were used since the earliest British settlement in Australia, with the County of Cumberland proclaimed by Captain Phillip on 4 June 1788. In 1804 Governor King divided Van Diemen's Land into two counties; the parishes date to the surveys conducted after 1825, with the instructions given to Governor Brisbane on 23 Jun 1825 to divide the colony into counties and parishes. At this time there were five counties proclaimed in New South Wales: Cumberland, Camden and Northumberland; the Nineteen Counties in south-eastern New South Wales were the limits of location of the colony in a period after 1829, with the area outside them divided into districts, also into counties and parishes. Counties were established soon after the foundation of other Australian colonies. Many of the counties have English names the names of counties in England, such as Devon, Dorset and Kent Counties in Tasmania. Less some have Aboriginal names such as the County of Yungnulgra in New South Wales, County of Croajingolong in Victoria.
The use of counties and parishes was popular in Australia in the 19th century, with many maps of Australian colonies showing these divisions, towns and cities listed in their county. Legal cases referenced counties, many genealogical records for Australia in the 19th century list the county and parish for location of birth and marriages; the 1911 Britannica describes Australian towns and cities as being in their respective county, including most of the capital cities: Melbourne, County of Bourke. However it is not mentioned that Perth was located in the County of Perth, as by this time county names were infrequently used in Western Australia, where they did not cover all of the settled areas, unlike the other states. Instead the system of land divisions and land districts was used, with most of Perth located in the land districts of Swan and Cockburn Sound, all in the South West Land Division of Western Australia. Counties and parishes are still referenced in property law, in industrial relations instruments, for example in a New South Wales award, which excludes people from the County of Yancowinna.
Similar award examples exist in the other states and territories that have been subdivided into counties. The County of Yancowinna is the only part of New South Wales, in a different time zone to the rest of the state, as mentioned in the Australian Standard Time Act of 1987. Counties are used on paperwork for mortgage securities in banks. Parishes and counties are mentioned in definitions of electoral districts. Counties have since gone out of use in Australia, are used or known by most of the population today. Part of the reason is that counties are based on the size of land, rather than population, so in a large country
2016 Australian census
The 2016 Australian census was the seventeenth national population census held in Australia. The census was conducted with effect on Tuesday, 9 August 2016; the total population of the Commonwealth of Australia was counted as 23,401,892 – an increase of 8.8 per cent or 1,894,175 people since the 2011 census. Norfolk Island joined the census for the first time in 2016; the ABS annual report revealed that there were $24 million additional expenses accrued due to the outage on the census website. Results from the 2016 census were available to the public on 11 April 2017, from the Australian Bureau of Statistics website, two months earlier than for any previous census; the second release of data occurred on 27 June 2017 and a third data release was from 17 October 2017. Australia's next census is scheduled for 2021; the 2016 census had a response rate of 95.1% and a net undercount of 1.0%, with 63% of people completing the Census online. In the period leading up to census date the Australian Government decided that the retention period for names and addresses would be increased to up to four years, from 18 months in the 2006 and 2011 censuses, leading to concerns about privacy and data security.
As such, some Australian Senate crossbenchers said they would not complete those specific sections of the census, despite the fines associated with incorrect completion of the census. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics the first release of census data became available to the public on the ABS website on 11 April 2017, two months earlier than for any previous census; the second release of data occurred on 27 June 2017 and a third data release was from 17 October 2017. For the first time, the ABS favoured internet submission of census forms over the traditional paper forms, claiming it expected more than 65% of Australians would complete the census online. Reflecting this new preference, the tagline of the ad campaign for the census was the rhyming slogan "Get online on August 9". Across many regions, paper forms were no longer delivered by default to homes, households that wished to complete a paper census had to order such forms via an automated hotline. Letters were sent to each dwelling with unique code numbers that people would need to either login to the census website, or order a paper form if they preferred.
By census night, many households had still not received such a letter. Contrary to previous years where censuses were both delivered and retrieved from households by dedicated census employees, in 2016 most of the paperwork relating to the census was delivered from and to the ABS by Australia Post; the 2016 census was met by a significant controversy, which meant that many Australians could not complete the census online on the designated census day. The ABS census website shut down at about 7:30 pm AEST on the night the census was to be completed. According to the ABS, throughout 9 August the census website received four denial-of-service attacks. At 7:30 pm, when the site was being used, a software failure meant that the ABS was unable to keep blocking the denial-of-service attacks, leading to the failure of a router; as a result, the ABS decided to close down the system as a precaution. The 15th Chief Statistician, David Kalisch stated; the Australian Signals Directorate assisted the ABS to bring the infrastructure back online more than 24 hours after the closure.
The census website was restored at 2:30 pm on 11 August. On the same day Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull stated his unhappiness over the event, which had "been a failure of the ABS", with his expectation that "heads will roll" once a review was complete. Leader of the opposition Bill Shorten said that the 2016 census had been the "worst-run... in the history of Australia". The ABS blamed service provider IBM for the failure in the online census, saying that IBM had advised on the preparedness and resilience to DDoS attacks and had not offered any further protections that could be employed. On 31 August, Parliament initiated an inquiry into the 2016 census, it released its findings on 24 November and found that no individual party was responsible but it was shared between the government, IBM, the sub-contractors. The census forms were able to be submitted online until 23 September. Once collection was complete, the ABS issued an announcement which confirmed that in spite of the initial online problems, there was a preliminary response rate of more than 96%.
This consisted of 3.5 million paper forms. The preliminary response rate was similar to the previous two census response rates of 95.8% in 2006 and 96.5% in 2011. An independent panel established by the Australian Statistician to quality assure the data from the 2016 census found it was fit for purpose, comparable to previous Australian and international censuses and can be used with confidence. "The Independent Assurance Panel I established to provide extra assurance and transparency of Census data quality concluded that the 2016 Census data can be used with confidence." The Census form had 51 questions relating to the characteristics of individuals, plus an extra nine questions relating to households. Of the sixty questions, the following two questions were optional: What is the person's religion? Does each person agree to his/her name and address and other information on this form being kept by the National Archives of Australia and made publicly available after 99 years? The population counts for Australian states and territories were that New South Wales remains the most populous state, with 7,480,228 people counted, ahead of Victoria and Queensland.
Australian Capital Territory experienced the lar
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Mossman Shire Hall and Douglas Shire Council Chambers
Mossman Shire Hall and Douglas Shire Council Chambers is a heritage-listed former town hall at 8-14 Mill Street, Shire of Douglas, Australia. It was built in 1937 by Tarmey & Euhus, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 6 August 2010. The former Mossman Shire Hall and Douglas Shire Council Chambers, constructed 1936-1937, is a substantial civic building that reflects the importance of the sugar industry to north Queensland during the interwar period and is associated with the ascendancy of Mossman as a commercial and administrative centre and the decline of Port Douglas as an early regional centre; the hall demonstrates the pattern of construction of civic buildings for local government purposes during the 1930s using funds from the Queensland Government Unemployment Relief Scheme. The town of Mossman lies inland from Port Douglas, on the flood-plain of the Mossman River between the Great Dividing Range and the coast, about 70 kilometres north of Cairns. Port Douglas was established in 1877 as an alternative to Cairns as a service port to the Hodgkinson goldfield, proclaimed on 15 June 1876.
With the construction of the Cairns-Kuranda railway line in 1882-1891, Port Douglas declined as a town and port. The Mossman district, although taken up as homestead selections supplying fodder and tropical fruits to the goldfields, converted to sugar-growing in the 1890s and prospered in the early twentieth century. During these formative years, the region was part of the Douglas Divisional Board but was replaced by Douglas Shire Council on 30 March 1903 after the Local Authorities Act 1902 abolished divisional boards; the township of Mossman was created from a private subdivision made following the establishment of the Mossman Central Mill on the Mossman River in 1894-1895 under the Sugar Works Guarantee Act 1893. Sugar production in the Mossman district expanded from this time. Despite this, in 1910 the township comprised little more than the Exchange Hotel, a store, butcher's shop and timber church, clustered around the sugar mill; these buildings and most of nearby Port Douglas were damaged by a cyclone on 16 March 1911.
In the aftermath, with the continued increase of both transient and permanent workers in the sugar industry, businesses at Port Douglas gravitated to Mossman. In the 1920s the Court House and banking facilities moved from Port Douglas to Mossman, by the end of the decade Mossman was the administrative centre of Douglas Shire. Despite the growing population in Mossman, Douglas Shire councillors continued to meet in Port Douglas. In 1932, the Queensland Government amended the Local Authorities Act so that governments-in-council could subdivide shires into divisions for election purposes; as a result, the Douglas Shire was divided into five divisions and all but one of the new divisions had one council member. Division three had two council members which gave residents of Mossman greater council representation and influence. A new council was elected in 1933 and Raymond David Rex was elected Chairman. Moves to improve town facilities began with the Mossman Chamber of Commerce requesting that Mossman be declared a municipality so that water services could be upgraded and street lights electrified.
While Mossman never became a municipality, it did become the administrative and commercial hub of Douglas Shire, from 1937, the seat of the Douglas Shire Council. In August 1934 Rex proposed council borrow £4,250 and use subsidies from the Queensland Government's Unemployment Relief Scheme to build a new shire hall and council offices at Mossman on a 1-acre site in the centre of the town, to which council had held the title since 1903; the Unemployment Relief Scheme was part of the Forgan Smith Labour Government's strategy to support employment. Many civic buildings and infrastructure projects were established across Queensland using this scheme, the Intermittent Relief Work Scheme, projects managed by the Bureau of Industry. Other extant shire halls in Queensland that were constructed during this period include Gladstone Town Hall, Gayndah Soldier's Memorial Hall and Council Chambers, Bowen Shire Council Offices, Johnstone Shire Hall, Goondiwindi Shire Hall. In Mossman, a special meeting was convened to discuss Rex's proposal.
His vision to construct a hall, shire offices and commercial shops was supported by other councillors and the proposal went to tender in October 1934. The council was split regarding the choice of design but selected plans by well-known Cairns architects Richard Hill and AJH Taylor. Hill & Taylor, in partnership from 1927 to c. 1940 and 1945 to 1952, designed a number of prominent north Queensland civic buildings between the first and second world wars, including the Cairns City Council Chambers, Cairns Post Office, Johnstone Shire Hall in Innisfail and a number of country hospitals, including Mossman District Hospital and Proserpine Hospital. However, the process of finalising the design and layout was protracted. Continued deliberations regarding building components and plans caused delays and friction within the council, between council and the architects; the final proposal stipulated that the new shire hall complex would comprise four commercial shops, council offices upstairs, a hall, supper lounge and ample stage accommodation.
Costs were not to exceed £8,500. Three additional sets of plans were submitted before they were sent to the Publi
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, used for sugar production. It has stout, fibrous stalks that are rich in the sugar sucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes; the plant is two to six metres tall. All sugar cane species can interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. Sugarcane belongs to the grass family Poaceae, an economically important seed plant family that includes maize, wheat and sorghum, many forage crops. Sucrose and purified in specialized mill factories, is used as raw material in the food industry or is fermented to produce ethanol. Sugarcane is the world's largest crop by production quantity, with 1.9 billion tonnes produced in 2016, Brazil accounting for 41% of the world total. In 2012, the Food and Agriculture Organization estimated it was cultivated on about 26 million hectares, in more than 90 countries.
The global demand for sugar is the primary driver of sugarcane agriculture. Cane accounts for 79% of sugar produced. Sugarcane predominantly grows in the subtropical regions. Other than sugar, products derived from sugarcane include falernum, rum, cachaça, ethanol. In some regions, people use sugarcane reeds to make pens, mats and thatch; the young, unexpanded inflorescence of Saccharum edule is eaten raw, steamed, or toasted, prepared in various ways in Southeast Asia, including Fiji and certain island communities of Indonesia. Sugarcane was an ancient crop of the Papuan people, it was introduced to Polynesia, Island Melanesia, Madagascar in prehistoric times via Austronesian sailors. It was introduced to southern China and India by Austronesian traders at around 1200 to 1000 BC; the Persians, followed by the Greeks, encountered the famous "reeds that produce honey without bees" in India between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. They adopted and spread sugarcane agriculture. Merchants began to trade in sugar from India, considered a luxury and an expensive spice.
In the 18th century AD, sugarcane plantations began in Caribbean, South American, Indian Ocean and Pacific island nations and the need for laborers became a major driver of large human migrations, both the voluntary in indentured servants. And the involuntary migrations, in the form of slave labor. Sugarcane is a tropical, perennial grass that forms lateral shoots at the base to produce multiple stems three to four m high and about 5 cm in diameter; the stems grow into cane stalk. A mature stalk is composed of 11–16% fiber, 12–16% soluble sugars, 2–3% nonsugars, 63–73% water. A sugarcane crop is sensitive to the climate, soil type, fertilizers, disease control and the harvest period; the average yield of cane stalk is 60–70 tonnes per hectare per year. However, this figure can vary between 30 and 180 tonnes per hectare depending on knowledge and crop management approach used in sugarcane cultivation. Sugarcane is a cash crop, but it is used as livestock fodder. There are two centers of domestication for sugarcane: one for Saccharum officinarum by Papuans in New Guinea and another for Saccharum sinense by Austronesians in Taiwan and southern China.
Papuans and Austronesians primarily used sugarcane as food for domesticated pigs. The spread of both S. officinarum and S. sinense is linked to the migrations of the Austronesian peoples. Saccharum barberi was only cultivated in India after the introduction of S. officinarum. Saccharum officinarum was first domesticated in New Guinea and the islands east of the Wallace Line by Papuans, where it is the modern center of diversity. Beginning at around 6,000 BP they were selectively bred from the native Saccharum robustum. From New Guinea it spread westwards to Island Southeast Asia after contact with Austronesians, where it hybridized with Saccharum spontaneum; the second domestication center is mainland southern China and Taiwan where S. sinense was a primary cultigen of the Austronesian peoples. Words for sugarcane exist in the Proto-Austronesian languages in Taiwan, reconstructed as *təbuS or **CebuS, which became *tebuh in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, it was one of the original major crops of the Austronesian peoples from at least 5,500 BP.
Introduction of the sweeter S. officinarum may have replaced it throughout its cultivated range in Island Southeast Asia. From Island Southeast Asia, S. officinarum was spread eastward into Polynesia and Micronesia by Austronesian voyagers as a canoe plant by around 3,500 BP. It was spread westward and northward by around 3,000 BP to China and India by Austronesian traders, where it further hybridized with Saccharum sinense and Saccharum barberi. From there it spread further into the Mediterranean; the earliest known production of crystalline sugar began in northern India. The exact date of the first cane sugar production is unclear; the earliest evidence of sugar production comes from ancient Pali texts. Around the 8th century and Arab traders introduced sugar from medieval India to the other parts of the Abbasid Caliphate in the Mediterranean, Egypt, North Africa, Andalusia. By the 10th century, sources state, it was among the early crops brought to the Americas by the Spanish Andalu