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Mordechai Maklef

Mordechai Maklef was the third Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces and director-general of many important public companies in the Israeli economy. Makleff was born in the village of Motza, near Jerusalem in the British Mandate of Palestine in 1920, his parents were among the founders of this first modern village outside Jerusalem, located along the road to Jaffa. During the 1929 Palestine riots, inhabitants of the neighbouring Arab village of Qalunya attacked the Makleff home, located along the perimeter of Motza, killed the entire family, except the young Mordechai, who managed to escape the massacre by jumping from a second story window; the murderers included a shepherd employed by the family and the local policeman, the only person in the area to own a gun. The murder shocked the Jewish population of Palestine, was one of the most remembered rioting events. With his immediate family now dead, Mordechai Makleff was raised by relatives in Jerusalem and Haifa; as a teen, Makleff was active in Orde Wingate's Night Raiders unit.

With the outbreak of World War II, he enlisted in the Palestine Regiment of the British Army and fought in the North African and Italian campaigns. He was commissioned from the rank of sergeant in July 1942. Upon his release from the army with the rank of major in August 1946, he remained in Europe, engaged in illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine and acquiring arms for the emerging Jewish state, he returned to Palestine and rejoined the Haganah. During Israel's War of Independence, Makleff fought in the Carmeli Brigade, as its senior operation officer and as brigade commander, participating in battles near Haifa and Acre, he took part in Operation Hiram, in which Jewish forces captured the entire Galilee region for Israel. After the war, he headed the Israeli delegation to talks with Syria. In November 1949, he was appointed Deputy Chief of Staff to Yigael Yadin and senior operations officer of the IDF. Following Yadin's resignation in 1952, Makleff just 32 years old, was appointed to replace him as Chief of Staff.

He agreed to accept the position for a period of one year only. His tenure as Chief of Staff was marked by his battles with the Ministry of Defence, in particular with Shimon Peres. David Ben-Gurion commented in his diary "I had the clear impression that M. suffered from an inferiority complex and suspected that his authority was being undermined". Makleff resigned on 11 October 1953, after repeated demands that relations between the army and the Ministry of Defence be reformed. During that time, Israel was faced with increasing attacks from fedayeen, Palestinian raiders from the West Bank and Gaza Strip, who attacked Israeli border settlements. In response to this, Makleff appointed Major Ariel Sharon to form a commando unit to attack the fedayeen bases across the border and put an end to the attacks on Israeli civilians. Sharon, in turn, created Unit 101, which conducted a lengthy series of retaliatory raids throughout 1953, when it was merged into the Paratroopers Brigade, he was responsible for the establishing of Unit 131 which set up clandestine cells in Arab states to be activated in the event of war.

A year the cell in Egypt was exposed in events that led to the Lavon Affair. On 7 December 1953 one year after he assumed the position, Maklef resigned as Chief of Staff, he went on to serve in a number of key positions in the Israeli public sector. From 1955 to 1968, he was Director General of the Dead Sea Works, developing the local phosphate industry in that region, he served as Director General of the Citrus Marketing Board and Israel Chemicals. Maklef died from a heart attack in Germany in 1978, was buried in the military cemetery in Kiryat Shaul, Israel

1908 in Argentine football

1908 in Argentine football saw Belgrano AC win its 3rd. Title, ending a run of three consecutive championships for Alumni. In International football, Argentina won Copa Lipton. On 13 September 1908, in the Copa Newton game against Uruguay Argentina wore the light blue and white stripes for the first time; the 1908 championship was reduced with each team playing the other twice. Estudiantes was docked 2 points. San Martín was relegated at the end of the tournament. Nacional was disaffiliated by the Association due to the poor conditions of its stadium, according to the rules; the team had played only 2 matches. Champion: River Plate Champion: Banfield Champion: Quilmes Champion: Alumni Champion: Alumni Champions: Wanderers Argentina retained both Copa Lipton and Copa Newton in 1908, although the squad was beaten by Uruguay in the inaugural Copa Premier Honor Argentino. Argentina embarked on a tour of Brazil in August 1908 where the team won six and drew one of the seven games played in 13 days

Jean Sirmond

Jean Sirmond was a neo-Latin poet and French man of letters, historiographer of Louis XIII. Sirmond is known for his lifelong feud with Mathieu de Morgues, known as the son of Saint-Germain, who favored Marie de Médicis and was against Cardinal Richelieu. Jean Sirmond answers it with a series of small works which he writes under various pseudonyms, such as Julius Pomponius Dolabella, the faithful French or Sieur of the Mountains. At the time of his stay in Paris, Sirmond collaborated in the drafting of the statutes of the l'Académie française, of which he became one of the first members in 1634, he authored a Life of the Cardinal of Amboise, published in 1631, wrote Latin poems, published posthumously in 1653. After the death of the king and the cardinal, he withdrew to his native Auvergne, finding himself without support after having fought so much. Paul Pellisson paid Sirmond a personal homage, which constitutes a testimony on the evolution of the French language, which some said was now sufficiently "reasonable" to be worthy to replace Latin and the Greek as the erudite and literary language of the day.

Pellison writes: Les Bons et Vrays Advis du François fidelle. Aux Mal-contans retirez de la Cour La Pitarchie française ou réponse aux vaines plaintes des malcontens Discours au Roy sur l'excellence de ses vertus incomparables et de ses actions héroïques La Lettre déchiffrée. Éloge de Richelieu. Advertissement aux provinces sur les nouveaux mouvemens du royaume La Vie du Cardinal d'Amboise, en suite de laquelle sont traictez quelques poincts sur les affaires présentes Le Coup d'estat de Louys XIII La Défense du roi et de ses ministres contre le manifeste que sous le nom de Monsieur on fait courre parmi le peuple L'Homme du pape et du roy, ou Réparties véritables sur les imputations calomnieuses d'un libelle diffamatoire semé contre sa Sainteté et sa Majesté très-chrestienne Le Souhait du Cid en faveur de Scudéri: une paire de lunettes pour faire mieux ses observations. Documents sur la querelle du Cid. La Chimère deffaicte, ou Réfutation d'un libelle séditieux tendant à troubler l'Estat, sous pretexte d'y prévenir un schisme Notice biographique de l'Académie française

Gulf of Zula

The Gulf of Zula known as Annesley Bay, Baia di Arafali or Zula Bahir Selat’ē, is a body of water on the Eritrean coastline on the Red Sea. The Gulf lies 15 km to the east of Massawa, near the midpoint of the Eritrean coast, it is located between the Foro Subregion and the Buri Peninsula of the Ghela'elo Subregion, both in the country's Northern Red Sea region. On the west side of the gulf are two large mountains, Jebel Gedem 925 m and Mount Arbalu 2,404 m. Between the two, the Aligede River flows, with the village of Zula on its right bank; the coast of the gulf is fringed with mangroves on either side of the mouth of the river. The egyptologist Henry Salt identified Zula as the ancient archaeological site of Adulis. Near the head of the gulf is the village of Arafali, beside the extinct Dola Volcano 161 m. From here, several roads radiate into the surrounding areas. To the east of the gulf lies the Buri Peninsula; this low-lying, undulating area is composed of lava flows at the southern end and granite at the north.

Fringing reefs border much of this coast. About 20 km beyond Arafali is Dolphin Cove, with a low, flat beach, backed by a steep rise to Mount Abdur 245 m behind. 14 km further on is the narrow Melita Bay with the village of Macanille at its head. Here there are mangrove swamps; the Gulf of Zula is a deep water bay, formed as part of the complex rifting system that occurred in these parts where three tectonic plates meet. The rift continues inland to a sandy plain lying 120 m below sea level; the gulf marks the territorial division between the Saho people and the Afar people

Dorothy Carleton Smyth

Dorothy Carleton Smyth was a Scottish artist. Smyth was born in Glasgow in 1880, she was born to a jute manufacturer, William Hugh Smyth. Her parents originated from Ireland, respectively. Despite the family moved to Manchester in the 1880s, Smyth returned to Glasgow to study, as did her sister. Smyth had two sisters. Smyth lived with her sisters for much of her life. Between 1885-1893 Smyth attended the Colonel Clark's School in Manchester and the Manchester High School for Girls, she studied under Walter Crane at the Manchester School of Art between 1893–97, at the Glasgow School of Art between 1898 -1904. At the latter she studied drawing and stained glass but focused on theatre and costume design. In 1901 Smyth's stained glass window Tristan and Iseult was exhibited at the Glasgow International Exhibition. Following her graduation from the Glasgow School of Art she worked in theatre in Stockholm and London. In 1921, aged 41, she painted Self Portrait; this piece shows her in her studio with brushes and paint palette, smiling at the onlooker.

Olive Carleton Smyth presented the painting to Glasgow Museums in 1948. In 1903 an anonymous donor allowed her to travel in Florence and Paris, having earlier paid for her to be a member of the Glasgow Society of Lady Artists in 1902, she exhibited with this group, as well as exhibiting with her dealer Craibe Angus. In 1903, she was commissioned by Glasgow dealer Craibe Angus to exhibit in Turin, Cork and Budapest. In 1914, she returned to GSA to teach, became head of the Commercial Art Department, in which position she remained until 1933. Smyth's sister Olive taught fashion, she was praised and supported by Fra Newbury. Her circle has posthumously been described as the'Glasgow Girls' group of artists. Smyth designed costumes for a number of Shakespearean festivals in Stratford. In 1933, Smyth was offered the position of Director of the Glasgow School of Art, which she accepted; however she died on 16 February that same year. W. O. Hutchinson took up the role instead and Smyth's sister, took up the position of Head of Design at GSA