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Queensland

Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland had a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.

The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed on 6 June 1859 Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.

The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.

During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.

At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers a

Second Chōshū expedition

The Second Chōshū expedition called the Summer War, was a punitive expedition led by the Tokugawa shogunate against the Chōshū Domain. It followed the First Chōshū expedition of 1864; the Second Chōshū expedition was announced on 6 March 1865. The operation started on 7 June 1866 with the bombardment of Suō-Ōshima in Yamaguchi Prefecture by the Navy of the Bakufu; the expedition ended in military disaster for the shogunate troops, as Chōshū forces were modernized and organised effectively. By contrast, the shogunate army was composed of antiquated feudal forces from the Bakufu and numerous neighbouring domains, with only small elements of modernised units. Many domains put up only half-hearted efforts, several outright refused shogunate orders to attack, notably Satsuma who had by this point entered into an alliance with Chōshū. Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the new shōgun, managed to negotiate a ceasefire after the death of the previous shōgun, but the defeat fatally weakened the shogunate's prestige.

Tokugawa military prowess was revealed to be a paper tiger, it became apparent that the shogunate could no longer impose its will upon the domains. The disastrous campaign is seen to have sealed the fate of the Tokugawa shogunate; the defeat stimulated the Bakufu in making numerous reforms to modernize its administration and army. Yoshinobu's younger brother Ashitake was sent to the 1867 Paris Exposition, Western dress replaced Japanese dress at the shogunal court, collaboration with the French was reinforced leading to the 1867 French military mission to Japan. First Chōshū expedition Bakumatsu Jansen, Marius B.. The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674003347; the Collapse of the Tokugawa Bakufu, 1862–1868. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. OCLC 5495030

4660 Nereus

4660 Nereus is a small asteroid. It was discovered by Eleanor F. Helin on February 28, 1982 1 month after a near pass by the Earth. Nereus is a important asteroid, it is an Apollo and Mars-crosser, with an orbit that comes close to Earth, because of this it is exceptionally accessible to spacecraft. Indeed, because of its small size and close orbit, its delta-V for rendezvous of ~5 km/s is smaller than the Moon's, about 6.3 km/s. Nereus makes seven approaches to Earth of less than 5 million km between 1900 and 2100; the closest will be at 1.2 million km. The next close approach is in December 2021, its orbital period of 1.82 yr puts it somewhat near a 2:1 orbital resonance with Earth, which means that an 4-year mission could depart for and return from the asteroid on near passes to the Earth. Nereus is classified as a hazardous asteroid, due to both its absolute magnitude and its minimum orbit intersection distance; the asteroid is classified as E-type, so it could be associated with aubrite meteorites.

Nereus was proposed for visitation by both the private Near Earth Asteroid Prospector probe, the Japanese sample return mission Hayabusa. However, the NEAP probe was not realized, the Hayabusa's launch was delayed by 10 months and the probe had to be redirected to 25143 Itokawa. 4660 Nereus was considered as a flyby target of the NEAR unmanned robotic spacecraft mission. NEAR was launched, but visited 253 Mathilde and 433 Eros. Nereus has been imaged by radar, revealing a elongated shape which would allow for stable orbits around it. Earlier optical measurements had given an estimated diameter of about 330 ± 50 meters. More recent work on the analysis of the radar data gives a much more detailed shape for Nereus as well as a detailed terrain map of the surface. Nereus has a ellipsoidal shape with dimensions of 510 x 330 x 241 m. On the ends of its longest axis, one end appears narrower and rounder than the other, larger end, making it more of an egg shape; the larger end appears to have a flatter region on one side of it.

Nereus rotates about an axis perpendicular to its longest axis much like a silver spoon spinning on a table. Although the discoverer is given the opportunity to name the asteroid, Helin donated naming rights to the Planetary Society which organized a naming contest; the winner, Robert M. Cutler an employee of NASA contractor The MITRE Corporation, named the asteroid after the ancient Greek proto-god Nereus who had characteristics attributed to Apollo and Poseidon. List of minor planets and comets visited by spacecraft IAUC 3675 IAUC 3677 IAUC 3686 IAUC 5092 4660 Nereus at NeoDyS-2, Near Earth Objects—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Obs prediction · Orbital info · MOID · Proper elements · Obs info · Close · Physical info · NEOCC 4660 Nereus at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters