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Mostar

Mostar is a city and the administrative center of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mostar is the fifth-largest city in the country. Mostar was named after the bridge keepers who in the medieval times guarded the Stari Most over the Neretva; the Old Bridge, built by the Ottomans in the 16th century, is one of Bosnia and Herzegovina's most visited landmarks, is considered an exemplary piece of Islamic architecture in the Balkans. Human settlements on the river Neretva, between the Hum Hill and the Velež Mountain, have existed since prehistory, as witnessed by discoveries of fortified enceintes and cemeteries. Evidence of Roman occupation was discovered beneath the present town; as far as medieval Mostar goes, although the Christian basilicas of late antiquity remained in use, few historical sources were preserved and not much is known about this period. The name of Mostar was first mentioned in a document dating from 1474, taking its name from the bridge-keepers.

During this time it was the seat of a kadiluk. Since Mostar was on the trade route between the Adriatic and the mineral-rich regions of central Bosnia, the settlement began to spread to the right bank of the river. Prior to 1474 the names of two towns appear in medieval historical sources, along with their medieval territories and properties – the towns of Nebojša and Cimski grad. In the early 15th century the county of Večenike covered the site of the present-day Mostar along the right bank of the Neretva, including the sites of Zahum, Ilići, Raštani and Vojno, it was at the center of this area. Mostar is indirectly referred to in a 1454 charter of King Alfonso V of Aragon as Pons, for a bridge had been built there. Prior to 1444, the Nebojša Tower was built on the left bank of the Neretva, which belonged to the late medieval county still known as Večenike or Večerić; the earliest documentary reference to Mostar as a settlement dates from 3 April 1452, when Ragusans from Dubrovnik wrote to their fellow countrymen in the service of Serbian Despot Đorđe Branković to say that Vladislav Hercegović had turned against his father Stjepan and occupied the town of Blagaj and other places, including “Duo Castelli al ponte de Neretua.”.

In 1468 the region came under Ottoman rule and the urbanization of the settlement began. It was named Köprühisar, meaning fortress at the bridge, at the centre of, a cluster of 15 houses; the town was organized into two distinct areas: čaršija, the crafts and commercial centre of the settlement, mahala or a residential area. The town was fortified between the years 1520 and 1566, the wooden bridge rebuilt in stone; the stone bridge, the Old Bridge, was erected in 1566 on the orders of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and at 28 metres long and 20 metres high became a wonder in its own time. Becoming the city's symbol, the Old Bridge was designed by Mimar Hayruddin, a student and apprentice of Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. In the late 16th century, Köprühisar was one of the towns of the Sanjak of Herzegovina; the traveler Evliya Çelebi wrote in the 17th century that: the bridge is like a rainbow arch soaring up to the skies, extending from one cliff to the other... I, a poor and miserable slave of Allah, have passed through 16 countries, but I have never seen such a high bridge.

It is thrown from rock to rock as high as the sky. Austria-Hungary took control over Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878 and ruled the country until the aftermath of World War I in 1918, when it became part of the State of Slovenes and Serbs and Yugoslavia. During this period, Mostar was recognized as the unofficial capital of Herzegovina; the first church in the city of Mostar, a Serbian Orthodox Church, was built in 1834 during Ottoman rule. In 1881 the town became the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Mostar-Duvno and in 1939, it became a part of the Banovina of Croatia. During World War II, Mostar was an important city in the fascist Independent State of Croatia. After World War II, Mostar developed industries producing plastics, bauxite, wine and aluminium. Several dams were built in the region to harness the hydroelectric power of the Neretva; the city was a major industrial and tourist center and prospered economically during the time of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. After Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia in April 1992, the town was besieged by the Yugoslav People's Army, following clashes between the JNA and Croat forces.

The Croats were organized into the Croatian Defence Council and were joined by a sizable number of Bosniaks. The JNA artillery periodically shelled neighbourhoods outside of their control from early April. On 7 June the Croatian Army launched an offensive code named Operation Jackal, the objective of, to relieve Mostar and break the JNA siege of Dubrovnik; the offensive was supported by the HVO, which attacked the Army of Republika Srpska positions around Mostar. By 12 June the HVO secured the western part of the city and by 21 June the VRS was pushed out from the eastern part. Numerous religious buildings and most of the city's bridges were destroyed or damaged during the fighting. Among them were the Catholic Cathedral of Mary, Mother of the Church, the Franciscan Church and

Kwigillingok, Alaska

Kwigillingok is a census-designated place in Bethel Census Area, United States. The population was 321 at the 2010 census, down from 338 in 2000. Kwigillingok is located at 59°52′20″N 163°09′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 20.2 square miles, of which, 20.1 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Kwigillingok first appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as Quigillingok, an unincorporated native village, it did not appear on the 1930 census, but was returned as "Quigilinook" in 1940. In 1950, the name was changed to the present spelling of Kwigillingok, it was made a census-designated place in 1980. As of the census of 2000, there were 388 people, 96 households, 89 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 16.8 people per square mile. There were 78 housing units at an average density of 3.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 2.07% White, 97.63% Native American, 0.30% from two or more races. There were 96 households out of which 60.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 74.0% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 9.6% were non-families.

6.8% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.63 and the average family size was 4.89. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 39.9% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 14.2% from 45 to 64, 7.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 131.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 128.1 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $36,250, the median income for a family was $33,250. Males had a median income of $23,125 versus $50,625 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $7,577. About 28.8% of families and 34.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 46.8% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. The Kwigillingok Airport is the only connection to the outside world, as there are no roads leading to the town, it is served by the K-12 Kwigillingok School, operated by the Lower Kuskokwim School District.

As of 2018 it has about 119 students, 12 teachers, 10 other employees

Trinity bristle snail

The Trinity bristle snail is a species of medium-sized land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusc in the family Monadeniidae. The Trinity bristle snail attains a body length of 2.5 cm. It is brown or chestnut-colored and covered with minuscule, translucent bristles, which give the species its common name; this species is endemic to California. This snail is found in northwestern Trinity County, along the Trinity River, up some of its tributaries and into the Corral Bottom area, it has a healthy population within its territory. It likes cool, shady riparian zones, prefers areas with a deciduous understory; the Trinity bristle snail is dependent on cool, moist conditions, therefore it is only active at night. It spends warmer parts of the day stuck to shady areas on tree trunks, in warm parts of the summer it may not move for days; when conditions are cool enough it feeds on the tender parts of green plants. The snail has a lifespan of over ten years, may not reach full size for nearly that long.

It is subject to predation by beetles and rodents. The species appears dependent on riparian habitats, likes bigleaf maples, eating the leaves that are decomposing at the base of the trees. There have been no studies that show it occupied a larger area than it does now--much of the northwestern portion of Trinity County. At the edges of its territory it has been known to cross with others of the Monadenia genus "Monadenia setosa". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 26 September 2015