A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, monks or nuns. The term derives via Old French from Latin conventus, perfect participle of the verb convenio, meaning to convene, to come together; the original reference was to the gathering of mendicants. Technically, a “monastery" or "nunnery" is a community of monastics, whereas a "friary" or "convent" is a community of mendicants, a "canonry" a community of canons regular; the terms "abbey" and "priory" can be applied to both canonries. In English usage since about the 19th century the term "convent" invariably refers to a community of women, while "monastery" and "friary" are used for men. In historical usage they are interchangeable, with "convent" likely to be used for a friary; when applied to religious houses in Eastern Orthodoxy and Buddhism, English refers to all houses of male religious as "monasteries" and of female religious "convents". Christian monasticism Enclosed religious orders Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"Convent". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Carmelite Monastery of the Sacred Hearts —- an example of a modern-day convent Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Convent". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
The Trial of Joan of Arc
The Trial of Joan of Arc is a 1962 French historical film directed by Robert Bresson. Joan of Arc is played by Florence Delay; as with Bresson's most renowned films, The Trial of Joan of Arc stars non-professional performers and is filmed in an spare, restrained style. Bresson's screenplay is drawn from the transcriptions of Joan's rehabilitation. Bresson's Joan of Arc is compared with The Passion of Joan of Arc by Carl Theodor Dreyer. Bresson compared that film unfavorably with his own, expressing his dislike of the actors' "grotesque buffooneries" in Dreyer's film. In 1431 Jeanne, a French peasant girl, is brought to trial at Rouen. Despite rigorous interrogation by the judges and constant persecution from the jailers, her faith remains unshaken; the relentless theological questioning and argument in court is broken only by an ineffectual attempt at torture and an examination to prove her virginity. Jeanne's insistence that her military ventures were bidden by God is scoffed at by the English, who are anxious to destroy the legend building around her.7fbIn a moment of weakness during the trial, Jeanne recants her faith.
She is sentenced to life imprisonment, but when she retracts her earlier confession, the court decrees that she be burned at the stake as a witch. Florence Delay – Jeanne d'Arc Jean-Claude Fourneau – Bishop Cauchon Roger Honorat – Jean Beaupere Marc Jacquier – Jean Lemaitre Jean Gillibert – Jean de Chatillon Michel Herubel – Brother Isambert de la Pierre André Régnier – D'Estivet Arthur Le Bau – Jean Massieu Marcel Darbaud – Nicolas de Houppeville Philippe Dreux – Brother Martin Ladvenu Paul-Robert Mimet – Guillaume Erard Gérard Zingg – Jean-Lohier The Trial of Joan of Arc was not warmly received by critics on its original release. While it remains less acclaimed than most of Bresson's previous works, retrospective reviews are nonetheless positive, it holds a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, with an average rating of 8.2/10. The film won the Special Jury Prize at the 1962 Cannes Film Festival. Joan of Arc in art The Trial of Joan of Arc on IMDb
In Christianity, an abbess is the female superior of a community of nuns, an abbey. In the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican abbeys, the mode of election, position and authority of an abbess correspond with those of an abbot, she must have been a nun for 10 years. The age requirement in the Catholic Church has evolved over time, ranging from 30 to 60; the requirement of 10 years as a nun is only 8 in Catholicism. In the rare case of there not being a nun with the qualifications, the requirements may be lowered to 30 years of age and 5 of those in an "upright manner", as determined by the superior. A woman, of illegitimate birth, is not a virgin, has undergone non-salutory public penance, is a widow, or is blind or deaf, is disqualified for the position, saving by permission of the Holy See; the office is the choice being by the secret votes of the nuns belonging to the community. Like an abbot, after being confirmed in her office by the Holy See, an abbess is solemnly admitted to her office by a formal blessing, conferred by the bishop in whose territory the monastery is located, or by an abbot or another bishop with appropriate permission.
Unlike the abbot, the abbess receives only the ring, the crosier, a copy of the rule of the order. She does not receive a mitre as part of the ceremony; the abbess traditionally adds a pectoral cross to the outside of her habit as a symbol of office, though she continues to wear a modified form of her religious habit or dress, as she is unordained—females cannot be ordained—and so does not vest or use choir dress in the liturgy. An abbess serves except in Italy and some adjacent islands. Abbesses are, like abbots, major superiors according to canon law, the equivalents of abbots or bishops, they receive the vows of the nuns of the abbey. They have full authority in its administration. However, there are significant limitations, they may not administer the sacraments, whose celebration is reserved to bishops, deacons, those in Holy Orders. They may make provision for an ordained cleric to help train and to admit some of their members, if needed, as altar servers, extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion, or lectors—all ministries which are now open to the unordained.
They may not serve as a witness to a marriage except by special rescript. They may not administer Penance, Anointing of the Sick, or function as an ordained celebrant or concelebrant of the Mass, they may preside over the Liturgy of the Hours which they are obliged to say with their community, speak on Scripture to their community, give certain types of blessings not reserved to the clergy. On the other hand, they may not ordinarily preach a sermon or homily, nor read the Gospel during Mass; as they do not receive episcopal ordination in the Catholic and Oriental Churches, they do not possess the ability to ordain others, nor do they exercise the authority they do possess under canon law over any territories outside of their monastery and its territory. There are exigent circumstances, where due to Apostolical privilege, certain Abbesses have been granted rights and responsibilities above the normal, such as the Abbess of the Cistercian Monastery of the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas near Burgos, Spain.
Granted exceptional rights was the Abbess of the Cistercian order in Conversano Italy. She was granted the ability to appoint her own vicar-general and approve the confessors, along with the practice of receiving the public homage of her clergy; this practice continued until some of the duties were modified due to an appeal by the clergy to Rome. In 1750, the public homage was abolished. In some Celtic monasteries, abbesses presided over joint-houses of monks and nuns, the most famous example being Saint Brigid of Kildare's leadership in the founding of the monastery at Kildare in Ireland; this custom accompanied Celtic monastic missions to France, to Rome itself. In 1115, the founder of Fontevraud Abbey near Chinon and Saumur, committed the government of the whole order, men as well as women, to a female superior. In Lutheran churches, the title of abbess has in some cases survived to designate the heads of abbeys which since the Protestant Reformation have continued as monasteries or convents.
These positions continued changing from Catholic to Lutheran. The first to make this change was the Abb
L'Avventura is a 1960 Italian film directed by Michelangelo Antonioni and starring Gabriele Ferzetti, Monica Vitti, Lea Massari. Developed from a story by Antonioni with co-writers Elio Bartolini and Tonino Guerra, the film is about the disappearance of a young woman during a boating trip in the Mediterranean, the subsequent search for her by her lover and her best friend, it was filmed on location in Rome, the Aeolian Islands, Sicily in 1959 under difficult financial and physical conditions. The film is noted for its unusual pacing, which emphasizes visual composition and character over traditional narrative development. L'Avventura was nominated for numerous awards and was awarded the Jury Prize at the 1960 Cannes Film Festival; the film made Monica Vitti an international star. According to an Antonioni obituary, the film "systematically subverted the filmic codes and structures in currency at its time." L'Avventura is the first film of a trilogy by Antonioni, followed by La L'Eclisse. It has appeared on Sight & Sound's list of the critics' top ten greatest films made three times in a row: It was voted second in 1962, fifth in 1972 and seventh in 1982.
In 2010, it was ranked #40 in Empire magazine's "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema." Anna meets her friend Claudia at her father's villa on the outskirts of Rome prior to leaving on a yachting cruise on the Mediterranean. They drive into Rome to Isola Tiberina near the Pons Fabricius to meet up with Anna's boyfriend, Sandro. While Claudia waits downstairs and Sandro make love in his house. Afterwards Sandro drives the two women to the coast where they join two wealthy couples and set sail south along the coast; the next morning the yacht reaches the Aeolian Islands north of Sicily. After they pass Basiluzzo, Anna impulsively jumps into the water for a swim, Sandro jumps in after her; when Anna yells that she's seen a shark, Sandro comes to her side protectively. Onboard Anna confesses to Claudia that the "whole shark thing was a lie," to get Sandro's attention. After noticing Claudia admiring her blouse, she tells her to put it on, that it looks better on her, that she should keep it. At one of the smaller islands, Lisca Bianca, the party comes ashore.
Anna and Sandro talk about their relationship. Anna is unhappy with his long business trips. Sandro takes a nap on the rocks. Sometime Corrado decides to leave the small island, concerned about the weather and rough seas, they hear a boat nearby. Claudia searches for Anna. Sandro is annoyed, saying this type of behavior is typical, they find nothing. Sandro and Corrado decide to continue their search on the island while sending the others off to notify the authorities. Claudia decides to stay as well. Sandro and Claudia continue their search and end up at a shack where they stay the night; as they talk, Sandro takes offense at Claudia's suggestion that Anna's disappearance is somehow due to his neglect. In the morning Claudia watches the sunrise. After finding Anna's blouse in her bag, she meets Sandro out near the cliffs and they talk about Anna, but Sandro now seems attracted to Claudia; the police find nothing. Anna's father, a former diplomat arrives in a high-speed hydrofoil; when he sees the books his daughter has been reading—Tender Is the Night by F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Holy Bible—he feels confident that she hasn't committed suicide.
The police are being held in Milazzo. Sandro decides to investigate, but before leaving he finds Claudia alone on the yacht and kisses her. Claudia rushes off, she decides to search the other islands on her own. They all agree to meet up at Corrado's Villa Montaldo in Palermo. At the Milazzo police station Sandro realizes; when he discovers that Claudia has arrived from the islands, he meets her at the train station where their mutual attraction is evident, but Claudia urges him not to complicate matters and begs him to leave. She boards a train to Palermo, as the train pulls away, Sandro runs after it and jumps aboard. On the train Claudia is annoyed, saying, "I don't want you with me." She says it would be easier if they sacrifice now and deny their attraction, but Sandro sees no sense in sacrificing anything. Still focused on her friend's disappearance, Claudia is troubled by the thought that it "takes so little to change." Sandro gets off the train at Castroreale. At Messina Sandro tracks down the journalist, who wrote an article about Anna's disappearance.
Their meeting is interrupted by crowds of excited men following a beautiful nineteen-year-old "writer" and aspiring actress named Gloria Perkins, an expensive prostitute. Sandro stops to admire her beauty. Zuria says. After bribing Zuria to run another story on Anna, Sandro heads to Troina. Meanwhile, Claudia meets up with her boating companions at Corrado's Villa Montaldo in Palermo. No one seems to take Anna's disappearance except Claudia. Corrado's young wife Giulia flirts with the young prince in front of her husband. After reading Zuria's follow-up story, Claudia leaves the villa for Troina to continue her search. In Troina Sandro questions the chemist who claimed to have sold tranquilizers to Anna. Claudia arrives and they learn that the woman identified by the chemist left on a bus to Noto in southern Sicily. Sandro