Motion capture is the process of recording the movement of objects or people. It is used in military, sports, medical applications, for validation of computer vision and robotics. In filmmaking and video game development, it refers to recording actions of human actors, using that information to animate digital character models in 2D or 3D computer animation; when it includes face and fingers or captures subtle expressions, it is referred to as performance capture. In many fields, motion capture is sometimes called motion tracking, but in filmmaking and games, motion tracking refers more to match moving. In motion capture sessions, movements of one or more actors are sampled many times per second. Whereas early techniques used images from multiple cameras to calculate 3D positions the purpose of motion capture is to record only the movements of the actor, not his or her visual appearance; this animation data is mapped to a 3D model so that the model performs the same actions as the actor. This process may be contrasted with the older technique of rotoscoping, as seen in Ralph Bakshi's The Lord of the Rings and American Pop.
This method works by capturing the actor's motions and movements. To explain, an actor is filmed performing an action, the recorded film is projected onto an animation table frame-by-frame. Animators trace the live-action footage onto animation cels, capturing the actor's outline and motions frame-by-frame, they fill in the traced outlines with the animated character; the completed animation cels are photographed frame-by-frame matching the movements and actions of the live-action footage. The end result of, that the animated character replicates the live-action movements of the actor. However, this process takes a considerable amount of effort. Camera movements can be motion captured so that a virtual camera in the scene will pan, tilt or dolly around the stage driven by a camera operator while the actor is performing. At the same time, the motion capture system can capture the camera and props as well as the actor's performance; this allows the computer-generated characters and sets to have the same perspective as the video images from the camera.
A computer processes the data and displays the movements of the actor, providing the desired camera positions in terms of objects in the set. Retroactively obtaining camera movement data from the captured footage is known as match moving or camera tracking. Motion capture offers several advantages over traditional computer animation of a 3D model: Low latency, close to real time, results can be obtained. In entertainment applications this can reduce the costs of keyframe-based animation; the Hand Over technique is an example of this. The amount of work does not vary with the complexity or length of the performance to the same degree as when using traditional techniques; this allows many tests to be done with different styles or deliveries, giving a different personality only limited by the talent of the actor. Complex movement and realistic physical interactions such as secondary motions and exchange of forces can be recreated in a physically accurate manner; the amount of animation data that can be produced within a given time is large when compared to traditional animation techniques.
This contributes to meeting production deadlines. Potential for free software and third party solutions reducing its costs. Specific hardware and special software programs are required to process the data; the cost of the software and personnel required can be prohibitive for small productions. The capture system may have specific requirements for the space it is operated in, depending on camera field of view or magnetic distortion; when problems occur, it is easier to shoot the scene again rather than trying to manipulate the data. Only a few systems allow real time viewing of the data to decide; the initial results are limited to what can be performed within the capture volume without extra editing of the data. Movement that does not follow the laws of physics cannot be captured. Traditional animation techniques, such as added emphasis on anticipation and follow through, secondary motion or manipulating the shape of the character, as with squash and stretch animation techniques, must be added later.
If the computer model has different proportions from the capture subject, artifacts may occur. For example, if a cartoon character has large, oversized hands, these may intersect the character's body if the human performer is not careful with their physical motion. Video games use motion capture to animate athletes, martial artists, other in-game characters; this has been done since the Sega Model 2 arcade game Virtua Fighter 2 in 1994. By mid-1995 the use of motion capture in video game development had become commonplace, developer/publisher Acclaim Entertainment had gone so far as to have its own in-house motion capture studio built into its headquarters. Namco's 1995 arcade game Soul Edge used passive optical system markers for motion capture. Movies use motion capture for CG effects, in some cases replacing traditional cel animation, for computer-generated creatures, such as Gollum, The Mummy, King Kong, Davy Jones from Pirates of the Caribbean, the Na'vi from the film Avatar, Clu from Tron: Legacy.
The Great Goblin, the three Stone-trolls, many of the orcs and goblins in the 2012 film The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, Smaug were created using motion capture. ‘’Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace’’ was the first feature-length film to include a main character created using mo
2015 Rugby Europe Women's Sevens Olympic Repechage Tournament. Spain won the tournament and qualified for the 2016 Rugby World Women's Sevens Olympic Repechage Tournament along with runner-up Ireland and third place Portugal. Teams qualified for the tournament based on their performances in the 2015 Rugby Europe Women's Sevens Championships. Spain Ireland Netherlands Italy Ukraine Portugal Germany Belgium Finland Sweden Romania Denmark 2015 Rugby Europe Sevens Olympic Repechage Tournament
D. I. Y. C. D is an anthology released by power violence pioneers Man Is the Bastard in 1995. "Eunuch" – 0:25 "No Concern for the Inhuman" – 1:01 "The Arena" – 3:33 "Refuse to Thrive" – 0:13 "Existence Decay" – 1:05 "Secret Surgery" – 0:08 "Attempt to Damage" – 0:13 "Smile Trick" – 1:03 "Telegram Death Threat" – 0:28 "Once Upon a..." – 0:21 "Shoes of Cement" – 0:36 "(Tony Williams" Strifeline – 1:06 "H. S. M. P." – 0:47 "Ether Rag" – 0:58 "Stocks" – 0:24 "Blood Gutter" – 1:15 "Heretic's Fork" – 1:23 "Koro Treatment" – 2:35 "Justice Is Swift" – 0:59 "Poacher" – 1:22 "Trapped Within Burning Machinery" – 1:22 "Pain of the Iron" – 0:43 "Steak Eating Boss" – 1:05 "Lobotomize a Cop" – 2:09 "Fine Feathered Friend" – 1:56 "Scavengers World" – 3:57 "Regression to Birth" – 2:26 "Mocha Rebirth" – 0:10 "Semen in the Eyesocket of Thomas Lenz" – 0:18 "Slave to the Bean" – 0:11 "The Iron Room" – 0:35 "Incoming" – 0:36 "Volatile Cocktail" – 1:13 "Tumult Being" – 2:37 "Abundance of Guns" – 0:28 "Suttee" – 1:48 "Grasp the Bug" – 2:41 "Human Condition" – 3:56 "Mary Jane" – 0:29 "Oil Bomb" – 0:33 "S.
O. I. G." – 1:59 "Work to Death" – 0:15 "Instantly Bent" – 0:59 "Screwdriver in the Urethra of Thomas Lenz" – 0:23 "Snake Apartment" – 0:23 "Walkers of the Streets" – 3:43 "Doll" – 1:21 "Media Prophet" – 2:24 "Slay or Slander" – 1:20 "Squaw" – 2:44 "Flying Limbs" – 1:12 "Tomb Ride" – 5:22 "Mr. Wilson" – 0:30 "Lime Doom" – 0:15