A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. They are usually called ministers, but in some jurisdictions are sometimes called secretaries, in some countries, the cabinet is called Council of Ministers or Government Council or lesser known names such as Federal Council, Inner Council or High Council. These countries may differ in the way that the cabinet is used or established, in some countries, particularly those that use a parliamentary system, the Cabinet collectively decides the governments direction, especially in regard to legislation passed by the parliament. In this way, the President gets opinions and advice in upcoming decisions, instead, it is usually the Head of Government who holds all means of power in his hands and the Cabinet reports to him. In most governments, members of the Cabinet are given the title of minister, in a few governments, as in the case of Mexico, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, and United States, the title of secretary is used for some Cabinet members.
In many countries, a Secretary is a member with an inferior rank to a minister. In some countries attorneys general sit in the cabinet, while in others this is strictly prohibited as the attorneys general are considered to be part of the judicial branch of government. The size of cabinets varies, although most contain around ten to twenty ministers, researchers have found an inverse correlation between a countrys level of development and cabinet size, on average, the more developed a country is, the smaller is its cabinet. In the United Kingdom and its colonies, cabinets began as smaller sub-groups of the English Privy Council, the term comes from the name for a relatively small and private room used as a study or retreat. The process has repeated itself in recent times, as leaders have felt the need to have a Kitchen Cabinet or sofa government, under the Westminster system, members of the cabinet are Ministers of the Crown who are collectively responsible for all government policy. All ministers, whether senior and in the cabinet or junior ministers, must publicly support the policy of the government, the cabinet may provide ideas on/if new laws were established, and what they include.
Cabinet deliberations are secret and documents dealt with in cabinet are confidential, in theory the prime minister or premier is first among equals. In some countries, the ministers are referred to as spokespersons. A prime ministerial government is a government where the minister is dominant in terms of the executive. As the prime minister is, by definition, a member of a cabinet – this form of government is often a development from cabinet government, in true cabinet government the prime minister is primus inter pares, where prime ministerial government necessitates the crossing of this boundary. An often cited example of ministerial government is the United Kingdom. Thatcher began using bilateral meetings with ministers to determine policy areas using cabinet to simply announce these decisions. Due to the extent of her success, and her control over cabinet positions, despite John Major moving back towards cabinet government, Tony Blair carried on Thatchers approach
Benazir Bhutto was the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan and the leader of the centre-left Pakistan Peoples Party. She was the first woman to head a Muslim majority nation, born in Karachi, her father, went on to serve as Pakistans prime minister in the 1970s. Benazir was educated at Harvard and at Oxford, serving as the first Asian woman to preside over the Oxford Union, after the 1977 military coup which overthrew her fathers government, Benazir along with her family were repeatedly placed under house arrest. After her father was hanged in 1979 Benazir, along with her mother Nusrat, in 1984 Benazir, along with her family, left for London where she resided until 1988. After her return, Benazir successfully led the Peoples Party through the 1988 election, after winning support from a coalition government in the national assembly, Benazir assumed the Prime Ministers Office in December 1988. Benazir however struggled to control over power, marked by political. Benazirs government was dismissed on August 7,1990 by the President who accused her administration of corruption, Benazir went on to once again lead her party through the 1990 election, however failed to win a parliamentary majority.
Later in 2012, Pakistans Supreme Court would rule that the 1990 election was rigged by Pakistans Inter-Services Intelligence in favour of the conservative Islami Jamhoori Ittehad. Despite electoral fraud, Benazir served as the Leader of the Opposition until the government was dismissed in 1996 over charges of corruption. Bhutto successfully led her party to victory in the 1993 parliamentary elections and her second term was marked with several controversies including the assassination of her brother Murtaza during a police encounter in Karachi. Her husband and cabinet member, Asif Ali Zardari, was indicted for the murder but exonerated and her husband went on to serve eight years in prison while she led her party to an unsuccessful re-election campaign during the 1997 election. In 1998, Benazir went into self-exile to her estate in Emirates Hills in Dubai, in August 2003, a Swiss court convicted Benazir and Zardari of receiving kickbacks from a government contract with two Swiss companies.
She returned to Pakistan on 18 October 2007 after she was granted amnesty on corruption charges as part of a controversial agreement, on 19 October 2007, Benazir returned to Karachi, where her campaign bus came under attack leaving dozens of her supporters dead, while she remained safe. Later that year Benazir was assassinated in an attack while leaving a campaign event in Rawalpindi. She was buried at the Bhutto family mausoleum in rural Sindh, Benazir left a deeply polarising legacy, her career has been celebrated as a triumph for women in the Muslim world and for the global fight against Islamic extremism. At the same time, she is accused of corruption and bad governance and her death was followed by the victory of Peoples Party led by her husband and son Bilawal, with the former becoming Pakistans president in 2008. The Guardian, writing about Benazir, termed her a victim, as well as in part a culprit, writing her obituary, The New York Times referred her as a woman of grand aspirations with a taste for complex political maneuverings.
Several universities and public buildings in Pakistan bear Benazirs name, while her career influenced a number of activists including Malala Yousafzai and she authored two books, named Daughter of the East and Reconciliation, Islam and the West
President of Germany
The President of Germany, officially the President of the Federal Republic of Germany, is the head of state of Germany. Germany has a system of government in which the Chancellor is the nations leading political figure. However, the President has a role which, while not an executive post, is more than ceremonial, Presidents have extensive discretion regarding the way they exercise their official duties. The President gives direction to general political and societal debates and has some important reserve powers in case of political instability. Furthermore, all laws must be signed by the President before they can come into effect. The President, by his or her actions and public appearances, represents the state itself, its existence, its legitimacy, the Presidents office involves an integrative role and the control function of upholding the law and the constitution. In order to exercise power, he/she traditionally acts above party politics. The 12th and current officeholder is Frank-Walter Steinmeier who was elected on 12 February 2017, the convention consists of all Bundestag members as well as an equal number of electors elected by the state legislatures in proportion to their respective population.
However it is not required that state electors themselves be members of a legislature, the body is convened and chaired by the President of the German Bundestag. From 1979 to 2009, all these conventions were held on 23 May, in the first two rounds of the election, the Federal Convention attempts to elect a president by an absolute majority of votes cast. If, after two votes, no candidate has received this level of support, in the third. The result of the election is determined by party politics. Usually, the candidate of the majority party or coalition in the Bundestag is considered to be the likely winner, however, if the opposition has turned in a strong showing in state elections, it can potentially have enough support to defeat the governments candidate. For this reason, presidential elections can indicate the result of a general election. According to a long-standing adage in German politics, if you can create a president, you can form a government. The office of president is open to all Germans who are entitled to vote in Bundestag elections and have reached the age of 40, but no one may serve more than two consecutive five-year terms.
As yet, only four Presidents have been elected for a second term, the president must not be a member of the federal government or of a legislature at either the federal or state level. On taking office the President must take the oath, stipulated by Article 56 of the Basic Law, in a joint session of the Bundestag
Parliament of the United Kingdom
It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and its territories. Its head is the Sovereign of the United Kingdom and its seat is the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the boroughs of the British capital, the parliament is bicameral, consisting of an upper house and a lower house. The Sovereign forms the third component of the legislature, prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords performed a judicial role through the Law Lords. The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections held at least every five years. The two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster in London, most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
The UK parliament and its institutions have set the pattern for many throughout the world. However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it with reference to a rather than a parliament. In theory, the UKs supreme legislative power is vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown normally acts on the advice of the Prime Minister, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created in 1801, by the merger of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union. The principle of responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century—the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice. Members of the House of Commons were elected in an electoral system. Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, many small constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, were controlled by members of the House of Lords, who could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters. During the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, No longer dependent on the Lords for their seats, MPs grew more assertive.
The supremacy of the British House of Commons was established in the early 20th century, in 1909, the Commons passed the so-called Peoples Budget, which made numerous changes to the taxation system which were detrimental to wealthy landowners. The House of Lords, which consisted mostly of powerful landowners, on the basis of the Budgets popularity and the Lords consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament Bill, in the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill. However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, the Government of Ireland Act 1920 created the parliaments of Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland and reduced the representation of both parts at Westminster
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Parliament of Australia
It consists of three elements, the Queen of Australia, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General, through both Houses, there is a fused executive, drawn from the Westminster System. The upper house, the Senate, consists of 76 members, twelve for each state, Senators are elected using the single transferable vote proportional representation system and as a result, the chamber features a multitude of parties vying for power. The governing party or coalition rarely has a majority in the Senate and usually needs to negotiate with other parties and this tends to lead to the chamber being dominated by two major parties, the Liberal/National Coalition and the Labor Party. The government of the day must achieve the confidence of this House in order to gain and remain in power, although elections can be called early, each 3 years the full House of Representatives and half of the Senate is dissolved and goes up for reelection. The two Houses meet in separate chambers of Parliament House on Capital Hill in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, the Commonwealth of Australia came into being on 1 January 1901 with the federation of the six Australian colonies.
The inaugural election took place on 29 and 30 March and the first Australian Parliament was opened on 9 May 1901 in Melbourne by Prince George, Duke of Cornwall and York, King George V. The only building in Melbourne that was enough to accommodate the 14,000 guests was the western annexe of the Royal Exhibition Building. After the official opening, from 1901 to 1927, the Parliament met in Parliament House, Melbourne and it had always been intended that the national Parliament would sit in a new national capital. This was a compromise at Federation due to the rivalry between the two largest Australian cities and Melbourne, which wished to become the new capital. The site of Canberra was selected for the location of the capital city in 1908. A competition was announced on 30 June 1914 to design Parliament House, due to the start of World War I the next month, the competition was cancelled. It was re-announced in August 1916, but again postponed indefinitely on 24 November 1916, in the meantime, John Smith Murdoch, the Commonwealths Chief Architect, worked on the design as part of his official duties.
He had little enthusiasm for the project, as he felt it was a waste of money. Nevertheless, he designed the building by default, the construction of Old Parliament House, as it is called today, was commenced on 28 August 1923 and completed in early 1927. It was built by the Commonwealth Department of Works, using tradesmen, the final cost was about £600,000, which was more than three times the original estimate. It was designed to house the parliament for a maximum of 50 years until a permanent facility could be built, the building was opened on 9 May 1927 by the Duke and Duchess of York. The opening ceremonies were both splendid and incongruous, given the sparsely built nature of Canberra of the time and its small population, the building was extensively decorated with British Empire and Australian flags and bunting
Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma, GCB is the President of South Africa, elected by parliament following his partys victory in the 2009 general election. He was re-elected in the 2014 election, Zuma is the President of the African National Congress, the governing political party, and was Deputy President of South Africa from 1999 to 2005. Zuma is referred to by his initials JZ and his clan name Msholozi, Zuma became the President of the ANC on 18 December 2007 after defeating incumbent Thabo Mbeki at the ANC conference in Polokwane. He was re-elected as ANC leader at the ANC conference in Mangaung on 18 December 2012, Zuma was a member of the South African Communist Party, briefly serving on the partys Politburo until he left the party in 1990. On 20 September 2008, Thabo Mbeki announced his resignation after being recalled by the African National Congresss National Executive Committee, Zuma has faced significant legal challenges. He was charged with rape in 2005, but was acquitted and he fought a long legal battle over allegations of racketeering and corruption, resulting from his financial advisor Schabir Shaiks conviction for corruption and fraud.
Zuma was born in Nkandla, Natal Province and his father was a policeman who died when Zuma was young, and his mother was a domestic worker. As a child, Zuma constantly moved around Natal Province and the suburbs of Durban in the area of Umkhumbane and he has two brothers and Joseph. Zuma began engaging in politics at an age and joined the African National Congress in 1959. He became a member of Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1962. Zuma joined the South African Communist Party in 1963 and that year, he was arrested with a group of 45 recruits near Zeerust in the western Transvaal, currently part of the North West Province. Whilst imprisoned, Zuma served as a referee for prisoners association football games, organised by the prisoners own governing body, after his release from prison, Zuma was instrumental in the re-establishment of ANC underground structures in the Natal province. During this time Zuma joined the African National Congress Department of Intelligence where he became the departments Head of Intelligence.
Zuma first left South Africa in 1975 and met Thabo Mbeki in Swaziland, and proceeded to Mozambique, Zuma became a member of the ANC National Executive Committee in 1977. He served as Deputy Chief Representative of the ANC in Mozambique, after signing the Accord, he was appointed as Chief Representative of the ANC. He served on the ANCs political and military council when it was formed in the mid-1980s, in December 1986, the South African government requested Mozambican authorities expel six senior members of the ANC including Jacob Zuma. As a result of the pressure applied by the government on Mozambique, in January 1987. He moved to the ANC Head Office in Lusaka, following the end of the ban on the ANC in February 1990, Zuma was one of the first ANC leaders to return to South Africa to begin the process of negotiations
Rajiv Ratna Gandhi was the Prime Minister of India, serving from 1984 to 1989. He took office after the 1984 assassination of his mother, Prime Minister Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi, Gandhi was a scion of the politically powerful Nehru–Gandhi family, which had been associated with the Indian National Congress party. For much of his childhood, his maternal grandfather Jawaharlal Nehru was Prime Minister, Gandhi attended college in the United Kingdom. He returned to India in 1966 and became a pilot for the state-owned Indian Airlines. In 1968 he married Sonia Gandhi, the couple settled in Delhi to a life with their children Rahul. For much of the 1970s, his mother was prime minister and his brother Sanjay a MP, despite this, after Sanjays death in an aeroplane crash in 1980, Gandhi reluctantly entered politics at the behest of Indira. The following year he won his brothers Parliamentary seat of Amethi, as part of his political grooming, Rajiv was made a general secretary of the Congress party and given significant responsibility in organising the 1982 Asian Games.
On the morning of 31 October 1984, his mother was assassinated by two of her bodyguards, Gandhi was appointed Prime Minister. His leadership was tested over the few days as organised mobs rioted against the Sikh community. That December, an almost nationwide sympathy vote for the Congress party helped it win its largest-ever Lok Sabha majority–411 seats out of 542, Rajiv Gandhis period in office was mired in controversies, perhaps the greatest crises were the Bhopal disaster and the Shah Bano case. In mid-1987 the Bofors scandal damaged his image and resulted in a major defeat for his party in the 1989 election. Gandhi remained Congress President until the elections in 1991, while campaigning for the elections, he was assassinated by a suicide bomber from the LTE. His widow Sonia became the president of the Congress party in 1998 and his son Rahul is a Member of Parliament and Vice President of the Congress. In 1991 the Indian government posthumously awarded Gandhi the Bharat Ratna, at the India Leadership Conclave in 2009, the Revolutionary Leader of Modern India award was conferred posthumously on Gandhi.
Rajiv Gandhi was born in Bombay on 20 August 1944 to Indira and he was named Rajiv after his maternal grandmother, Kamala Nehru. In 1951, Rajiv and Sanjay were admitted to Shiv Niketan school, where the teachers said Rajiv was shy and introverted, at the age of six, he underwent surgery on his tonsils. He was admitted to the Welham Boys School and Doon School in 1954, Rajiv was sent to London in 1961 to study A-levels. In 1962, he was offered a place at Trinity College, Rajiv stayed at Cambridge until 1965, but did not finish his degree
Head of state
A head of state is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. In some countries, the head of state is a figurehead with limited or no executive power, while in others. Former French president Charles de Gaulle, while developing the current Constitution of France, some academic writers discuss states and governments in terms of models. An independent nation state normally has a head of state, the non-executive model, in which the head of state has either none or very limited executive powers, and mainly has a ceremonial and symbolic role. In parliamentary systems the head of state may be merely the chief executive officer, heading the executive branch of the state. This accountability and legitimacy requires that someone be chosen who has a majority support in the legislature and it gives the legislature the right to vote down the head of government and their cabinet, forcing it either to resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution. In parliamentary constitutional monarchies, the legitimacy of the head of state typically derives from the tacit approval of the people via the elected representatives.
In reality, numerous variants exist to the position of a head of state within a parliamentary system, the king had the power of declaring war without previous consent of the parliament. For example, under the 1848 constitution of the Kingdom of Italy, the Statuto Albertino—the parliamentary approval to the government appointed by the king—was customary, so, Italy had a de facto parliamentarian system, but a de jure presidential system. These officials are excluded completely from the executive, they do not possess even theoretical executive powers or any role, even formal, hence their states governments are not referred to by the traditional parliamentary model head of state styles of His/Her Majestys Government or His/Her Excellencys Government. Within this general category, variants in terms of powers and functions may exist, the constitution explicitly vests all executive power in the Cabinet, who is chaired by the prime minister and responsible to the Diet. The emperor is defined in the constitution as the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people and he is a ceremonial figurehead with no independent discretionary powers related to the governance of Japan.
Today, the Speaker of the Riksdag appoints the prime minister, Cabinet members are appointed and dismissed at the sole discretion of the prime minister. In contrast, the contact the President of Ireland has with the Irish government is through a formal briefing session given by the taoiseach to the president. However, he or she has no access to documentation and all access to ministers goes through the Department of the Taoiseach. The president does, hold limited reserve powers, such as referring a bill to the court to test its constitutionality. The most extreme non-executive republican Head of State is the President of Israel, semi-presidential systems combine features of presidential and parliamentary systems, notably a requirement that the government be answerable to both the president and the legislature. The constitution of the Fifth French Republic provides for a minister who is chosen by the president
Narendra Damodardas Modi is an Indian politician who is the 14th and current Prime Minister of India, in office since May 2014. He was the Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014, Modi, a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party, is a Hindu nationalist and member of the right-wing Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. Born to a Gujarati family in Vadnagar, Modi helped his father sell tea as a child and he was introduced to the RSS at the age of eight, beginning a long association with the organisation. He left home after graduating school, partly because of an arranged marriage which he rejected. Modi traveled around India for two years, and visited a number of religious centres and he returned to Gujarat and moved to Ahmedabad in 1969 or 1970. In 1971 he became a worker for the RSS. During the state of emergency imposed across the country in 1975, the RSS assigned him to the BJP in 1985, and he held several positions within the party hierarchy until 2001, rising to the rank of general secretary. Modi was appointed minister of Gujarat in 2001, due to Keshubhai Patels failing health.
Modi was elected to the assembly soon after. His administration has been considered complicit in the 2002 Gujarat riots, or otherwise criticised for its handling of it and his policies as chief minister, credited with encouraging economic growth, have received praise, and several industrial projects were begun during his tenure. His administration has been criticised for failing to improve health, poverty. Modi led the BJP in the 2014 general election, which gave the party a majority in the Lok Sabha, Modi himself was elected to parliament from Varanasi. Modi has attempted to improve efficiency in the bureaucracy, and centralised power through the abolition of the planning commission and he has begun a high-profile sanitation campaign, and weakened or abolished environmental and labour laws. Narendra Modi was born on 17 September 1950 to a family of grocers in Vadnagar, Mehsana district and he was the third of six children born to Damodardas Mulchand Modi and Hiraben Modi. Modis family belonged to the Modh-Ghanchi-Teli community, which is categorised as an Other Backward Class by the Indian government, as a child, Modi helped his father sell tea at the Vadnagar railway station, and ran a tea stall with his brother near a bus terminus.
Modi completed his secondary education in Vadnagar in 1967, where a teacher described him as an average student. Modi had a gift for rhetoric in debates, and this was noted by his teachers. Modi preferred playing larger-than-life characters in theatrical productions, which has influenced his political image, when eight years old, Modi discovered the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, and began attending its local shakhas
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan, is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the chief executive of the Republic. This position places its holder in leadership of the nation and in control all matters of internal. The incumbent Prime Minister is Nawaz Sharif–a presiding figure of the conservative Pakistan Muslim League, the Prime Minister is elected by the members of the National Assembly and therefore is usually the leader of the majority party in the parliament. Powers of the Prime Minister have significantly grown with a system of the check. The position was absent during years of 1960–73 and 1977-85 due to imposed martial law, in each of these periods, the military junta led by the President had the powers of the Prime Minister. The Constitution envisages a scheme of affairs in which the President of Pakistan is the head of state who represents the unity of the Republic, the system of government in Pakistan is based on codified constitution which sees the Prime Minister as chief executive of the Republic.
As in most of the democracies, a head of states duties are mostly ceremonial. The Prime Minister of Pakistan is the head of government and has the responsibility for executive power, the Prime minister, in common with all other ministers, either has to be a current member of National Assembly, or be elected within six months of being appointed. The official residence and principal workplace of the Prime Minister is the Prime Ministers Secretariat— the cabinet secretariat located in the northeast Islamabad, the Prime Minister is the Chief Executive who heads and exercise authority of the Government of Pakistan. After gaining the vote of confidence, the Prime Minister is invited by the President to take oath, in practice, the Prime Minister nominates to form the Cabinet as in-charge of the important functions and ministries of the Government of Pakistan. In addition, the Prime Minister thoroughly communicates with the President all decisions of the Cabinet relating to the administration of the affairs of the state, some specific ministries/department are not allocated to anyone in the cabinet but the prime minister himself.
The Constitution of Pakistan requires that the Prime Minister be a Muslim member of the National Assembly, in addition to these requirements to be a member of the National Assembly one must be, a citizen of Pakistan. Usually, the leader of the majority party in the parliament retains the office of minister who forms the government either by coalition or by simple majority. The candidate must retain the vote of confidence be the members of the parliament before being invited by the President to form the government, the Prime Minister can be removed before the expiry of the term through the vote of no confidence in the parliament. If the vote of no confidence is passed by the National Assembly by not less than 20%, the prime minister is elected by the National Assembly. The National Assembly meets on the twenty-first day after an election unless the President calls for a vote of no confidence. Whichever member of the National assembly is chosen serves as the Prime Minister until the election or until he fails to maintain the confidence of the National Assembly.
The first Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan, exercised central executive powers until his assassination in 1951, the powers slowly began to reduced as a result of constant intervention by the Governor-General
Sir Arthur William Fadden, GCMG was an Australian politician and the 13th Prime Minister of Australia. He became Prime Minister in 1941, after the resignation of Robert Menzies and he was the first Australian Prime Minister born in Queensland. Fadden was born in Ingham, Queensland, on 13 April 1894 and he was educated at state schools, and studied accountancy while working as a clerk. Once he had qualified he became assistant Town Clerk of Mackay, in 1919 Fadden helped form the North Queensland Rugby League, and served as its founding secretary. In the 1920s he established a successful accountancy firm with offices in Brisbane and he was active in the Country Party from its foundation. In 1932 Fadden was elected for one term to the Legislative Assembly of Queensland as member for Kennedy, the following year, though, he won a by-election in the federal seat of Darling Downs. He was a blunt, effective debater and soon made an impression and he was appointed Minister for Supply and Development, Minister for Air, Treasurer.
In August 1941 Robert Menzies resigned as Prime Minister and leader of the party in the coalition. Although the non-Labor Coalition had been in power for a decade, under normal circumstances, this would have made Hughes Prime Minister for a second time. However, Hughes was a month shy of 78, and was viewed as too old and frail to be anything other than a stopgap leader, especially during wartime. Under the circumstances, on 28 August a joint UAP-Country meeting chose Fadden as Coalition leader even though the Country Party was the smaller of the two non-Labor parties, Fadden was duly sworn in as Prime Minister the next day, and remained Treasurer. He was the member of the Country/National Party to serve as Prime Minister without an expectation of a short tenure. Nevertheless, Faddens term of office was troubled from the start, even parliamentarians in his own party feared the worst. On 3 October, the two independent legislators who had been keeping the Coalition in office for the last year, Arthur Coles and Alexander Wilson and Wilson had been so disgusted with how Menzies had been treated that they refused to support the Coalition any longer.
Due to this loss of supply, Fadden submitted his governments resignation to the Governor-General Lord Gowrie the same day and this was the last occasion to date on which an Australian government was forced to resign after being defeated on the floor of the House of Representatives. Fadden joked that he was like the Flood, he had reigned for 40 days and 40 nights, however, he would have been left with no other option if Labor leader John Curtin did not have enough support to govern. With this in mind, Gowrie summoned Coles and Wilson and obtained their assurances that they would support Curtin as Prime Ministier and Wilson agreed to this, and Curtin was sworn in on 7 October. Following the fall of his ministry, a joint UAP-Country Party meeting endorsed Fadden as Leader of the Opposition, the Coalition sank into near-paralysis in opposition