Keichū was a Buddhist priest and a scholar of Kokugaku in the mid Edo period. Keichū's grandfather was a personal retainer of Katō Kiyomasa but his father was a rōnin from the Amagasaki fief; when he was 13, Keichū left home to become an acolyte of the Shingon sect, studying at Kaijō in Myōhōji, Osaka. He subsequently attained the post of Ajari at Mount Kōya, became chief priest at Mandara-in in Ikutama, Osaka, it was at this time that he became friends with the poet-scholar Shimonokōbe Chōryū. However, he disliked the worldly duties of his work and, after wandering around the Kinki region for a while, made his way back to Mount Kōya. Influenced by the thinking of Kūkai, he read in the Japanese classics under the patronage of Fuseya Shigeta, a patron of the arts in Izumi Province. After serving as chief priest at Myōhōji, Keichū spent his last years at Enju’an in Kōzu in the Province of Settsu, his prolific works set a new standard in the study of the classics, though building on recent revivals of interest in the subject.
When the daimyō of Mito, Tokugawa Mitsukuni, decided to sponsor an edition of the Man'yōshū, he commissioned Shimonokōbe Chōryū, heir to the learning of the great poet and Man'yō expert Kinoshita Chōshōshi, to undertake the project. However his dilatory approach, combined with illness, death, impeded his work and the task fell to Keichū, a close friend; the result was the latter's Man ` yō Daishōki. In particular, applied methods borrowed from Chinese Kaozheng philology with rigid empiricism, he used this hermeneutic to philologically critique Buddhism and instead located Shinto as the indigenous Japanese religion. His Waji Seiranshō challenged the standard orthographical conventions set by Fujiwara no Teika and reconstructed distinctions in the old Japanese lexicon based on the earliest texts. In addition to these Keichū wrote the Kōganshō (厚顔抄 1691 A Brazen-faced Treatise, the Kokin Yozaishō, the Seigodan, the Genchū Shūi, the Hyakunin Isshu Kaikanshō. Susan Burns. 2003. Before the Nation. Duke University Press, pp. 49–52.
Kaozheng Kokugaku Japanese poetry Kada no Azumamaro Kamo no Mabuchi Motoori Norinaga Hirata Atsutane
Kyoto Kyoto City, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan. It is best known in Japanese history for being the former Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. In Japanese, Kyoto was called Kyō, Miyako, or Kyō no Miyako. In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto, from the Chinese calligraphic, jingdu. After the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo in 1868, the seat of the Emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as Saikyō. Kyoto is sometimes called the thousand-year capital; the National Diet never passed any law designating a capital. Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto and Meaco, utilised by Dutch cartographers. Another term used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi, meaning "urba" or "capital". Ample archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, although not much published material is retained about human activity in the area before the 6th century, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established.
During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara. His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province; the new city, Heian-kyō, a scaled replica of the Tang capital Chang'an, became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto or in other cities such as Kamakura and Edo, Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration; the city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, did not recover until the mid-16th century. During the Ōnin War, the shugo collapsed, power was divided among the military families. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, came to involve the court nobility and religious factions as well.
Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since. In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi built earthwork walls called odoi encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo; the Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city which showed the rebels' dissatisfaction towards the Tokugawa Shogunate. The subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy; the modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city.
The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932. There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population large enough to persuade the emperor to surrender. In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki; the city was spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. As a result, the Imperial City of Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex. Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference.
Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres above sea level; this interior positioning results in cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 square kilometres. The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an; the Imperial Palace faced south. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern. Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a fa
Japanese poetry is poetry of or typical of Japan, or written, spoken, or chanted in the Japanese language, which includes Old Japanese, Early Middle Japanese, Late Middle Japanese, Modern Japanese, some poetry in Japan, written in the Chinese language or ryūka from the Okinawa Islands: it is possible to make a more accurate distinction between Japanese poetry written in Japan or by Japanese people in other languages versus that written in the Japanese language by speaking of Japanese-language poetry. Much of the literary record of Japanese poetry begins when Japanese poets encountered Chinese poetry during the Tang dynasty. Under the influence of the Chinese poets of this era Japanese began to compose poetry in Chinese kanshi), it took several hundred years to digest the foreign impact and make it an integral part of Japanese culture and to merge this kanshi poetry into a Japanese language literary tradition, later to develop the diversity of unique poetic forms of native poetry, such as waka and other more Japanese poetic specialties.
For example, in the Tale of Genji both kanshi and waka are mentioned. The history of Japanese poetry goes from an early semi-historical/mythological phase, through the early Old Japanese literature inclusions, just before the Nara period, the Nara period itself, the Heian period, the Kamakura period, so on, up through the poetically important Edo period and modern times. Since the middle of the 19th century, the major forms of Japanese poetry have been tanka and shi or western-style poetry. Today, the main forms of Japanese poetry include both experimental poetry and poetry that seeks to revive traditional ways. Poets writing in tanka and shi may write poetry other than in their specific chosen form, although some active poets are eager to collaborate with poets in other genres; the history of Japanese poetry involves both the evolution of Japanese as a language, the evolution of Japanese poetic forms, the collection of poetry into anthologies, many by imperial patronage and others by the "schools" or the disciples of famous poets.
The study of Japanese poetry is complicated by the social context within which it occurred, in part because of large scale political and religious factors such as clan politics or Buddhism, but because the collaborative aspect which has typified Japanese poetry. Much of Japanese poetry features short verse forms collaborative, which are compiled into longer collections, or else are interspersed within the prose of longer works. Older forms of Japanese poetry include kanshi, which shows a strong influence from Chinese literature and culture. Kanshi means "Han poetry" and it is the Japanese term for Chinese poetry in general as well as the poetry written in Chinese by Japanese poets. Kanshi from the early Heian period exists in the Kaifūsō anthology, compiled in 751. Waka is a type of poetry in classical Japanese literature. Waka are composed in Japanese, are contrasted with poetry composed by Japanese poets in Classical Chinese, which are known as kanshi. Thus, waka has the general meaning of "poetry in Japanese", as opposed to the kanshi "poetry in Chinese".
The Man'yōshū anthology preserves from the eighth century 265 chōka, 4,207 tanka, one tan-renga, one bussokusekika, four kanshi, 22 Chinese prose passages. However, by the time of the tenth-century Kokinshū anthology, waka had become the standard term used for short poems of the tanka form, until more recent times. Tanka are poems written in Japanese with five lines having a 5–7–5–7–7 metre; the tanka form has shown some modern revival in popularity. As stated, it used to be called waka. Much traditional Japanese poetry was written as the result of a process of two or more poets contributing verses to a larger piece, such as in the case of the renga form; the "honored guest" composing a few beginning lines in the form of the hokku. This initial sally was followed by a stanza composed by the "host." This process could continue, sometimes with many stanzas composed by numerous other "guests", until the final conclusion. Other collaborative forms of Japanese poetry evolved, such as the renku form.
In other cases, the poetry collaborations were more competitive, such as with uta-awase gatherings, in which Heian period poets composed waka poems on set themes, with a judge deciding the winner. Haiku are a short, 3-line verse form, which have achieved significant global popularity, the haiku form has been adapted from Japanese into other languages. Typical of the haiku form is the metrical pattern of 3 lines with a distribution of 5, 7, 5 on within those lines. Other features include the juxtaposition of two images or ideas with a kireji between them, a kigo, or seasonal reference d
Important Cultural Property (Japan)
An Important Cultural Property is an item classified as Tangible Cultural Property by the Agency for Cultural Affairs and judged to be of particular importance to the Japanese people. To protect Japan's cultural heritage the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties was created as a "designation system" under which important items are appropriated as Cultural Properties, thus imposing restrictions to their alteration and export. Besides the "designation system", there exists a "registration system", which guarantees a lower level of protection and support to Registered Cultural Properties. Cultural Properties are classified according to their nature. Items designated as Tangible Cultural Properties, cultural products of high historical or artistic value such as structures, sculptures, calligraphic works, ancient books, historic documents, archeological artifacts and other such items, can if they satisfy certain criteria, be designated either Important Cultural Properties or National Treasures, for valuable items.
The designation can take place at prefectural or national level. In this last case the designating agency is not specified. Varying levels of designation can coexist. For example, Sankei-en, a traditional Japanese-style garden in Naka Ward, Yokohama, is both city and nationally designated as an Important Cultural Properties. List of Important Cultural Properties of Japan List of Important Cultural Properties of Japan List of Important Cultural Properties of Japan List of Important Cultural Properties of Japan List of Important Cultural Properties of Japan List of Important Cultural Properties of Japan Cultural Properties of Japan
Monuments of Japan
Monuments is a collective term used by the Japanese government's Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties to denote Cultural Properties of Japan as historic locations such as shell mounds, ancient tombs, sites of palaces, sites of forts or castles, monumental dwelling houses and other sites of high historical or scientific value. The government designates "significant" items of this kind as Cultural Properties and classifies them in one of three categories: Historic Sites Places of Scenic Beauty, Natural Monuments. Items of high significance may receive a higher classification as: Special Historic Sites Special Places of Scenic Beauty Special Natural Monuments, respectively; as of September 2013, there were 3,089 nationally designated Monuments: 1,710 Historic Sites, 374 Places of Scenic Beauty, 1,005 Natural Monuments. Since a single property can be included within more than one of these classes, the total number of properties is less than the sum of designations: for example Hamarikyu Gardens are both a Special Historic Site and a Special Place of Scenic Beauty.
As of 1 May 2013, there were a further 2,961 Historic Sites, 266 Places of Scenic Beauty, 2,985 Natural Monuments designated at a prefectural level and 12,840 Historic Sites, 845 Places of Scenic Beauty, 11,020 Natural Monuments designated at a municipal level. Alterations to the existing state of a site or activities affecting its preservation require permission from the Commissioner for Cultural Affairs. Financial support for purchasing and conserving designated land and for the utilization of the site is available through local governments; the Agency for Cultural Affairs designates monuments based on a number of criteria. A monument can be designated based on multiple criteria. Shell mounds, settlement ruins, other historic ruins of this type Ruins of fortified towns, government administration offices, old battlefields and other historic ruins related to politics or government Remains of shrines and temples, former compound grounds and other historic ruins related to religion Schools, research institutions, cultural facilities and other historic ruins related to education, learning or culture Medical care and welfare facilities, life related institution, other society and life related historic ruins Transport and communication facilities, forest conservation and flood control facilities, manufacture facilities and other historic sites related to finance or manufacture activities Graves and stone monuments with inscriptions Former residences, gardens and other areas of particular historical significance Ruins related to foreign countries or foreigners Parks and gardens Bridges and embankments Flowering trees, flowering grass, autumn colors, green trees and other places of dense growth Places inhabited by birds and wild animals, fish/insects and others Rocks, caves Ravines, waterfalls, mountain streams, abysses Lakes, wetlands, floating islands, springs Sand dunes, seasides, islands Volcanoes, onsen Mountains, plateaus, rivers Viewpoints Animals Well-known animals peculiar to Japan and their habitat Animals which are not peculiar to Japan, but need to be preserved as well-known characteristic Japanese animals, their habitat Animals or animal groups peculiar to Japan within their natural environment Domestic animals peculiar to Japan Well-known imported animals presently in a wild state, with the exception of domestic animals.
Remarkable occurrence of epiphytic plants on rocks, trees or shrubs Remarkable plant growth on marginal land Remarkable growth in the wild of crop plants Wild habitat of rare or near extinct plants Geological and mineralogical features Rocks and fossil producing sites Conformable and unconformable strata Fold and thrust strata Geological features caused by the work of living creatures Phenomena related to earthquake dislocation and landmass motion Caves, grottoes Examples of rock organization Onsen and their sediments Erosion and weathering related phenomena Fumaroles and other items related to volcanic activity Ice and frost related phenomena Particularly precious rock and fossil specimen Representative territories rich in natural monuments to be protected A separate system of "registration" has been established for modern edifices threatened by urban sprawl or other factors. Monuments from the Meiji period onward which require preservation can be registered as Registered Monuments. Members of this class of Cultural Property receive more limited assistance and protection based on governmental notification and guidance.
As of April 2012, 61 monuments were registered under this system. List of Spec